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Woods Hole Oceapographic Institution 

Data Library 
Reference Coiiection 






MANNED SUBMERSIBLES 

BY 

R. Frank Busby 



OFFICE OF THE OCEANOGRAPHER 
OF THE NAVY 



1976 





ROBERT PALMER BRADLEY 



September 3, 1930— November 28, 1973 



Had I the chance to peel away the years and once again decide which path to follow, it would be 
towards the sea. I would do this for two reasons: Because it is a most intriguing subject and the most 
intriguing people are met on and under its surface. Bob Bradley was, what I can only call, a delight 
and a rare privilege to know. He possessed a sharp, sly sense of humor, a pioneer's sense of adventure 
and displayed a scholar's interest in the oceans. Naval aviator, commercial diver, submersible pilot and 
graduate in marine biology are not credentials one would expect from a son of the prairies. But in a 
quiet, certain, almost casual manner. Bob dealt as easily with the deep oceans as he would have the 
wheatfields of his native Kansas. He was quick to befriend, perhaps too quick, for the waters he felt he 
knew and understood claimed his life at 219 feet in Douglas Channel, British Columbia. I miss him; so 
do the other friends he left. In a very real sense, an earlier pioneer of the deep oceans, William Beebe, 
described our loss. 

"When the last individual of a race of living things breathes no more, another heaven and another 
earth must pass before such a one can be again." 

R. Frank Busby 
Arlington, Virginia 
January, 1975 



II 



FOREWORD 



History records evidence of insatiable human curiosity about our 
world. But it was a more urgent need than curiosity which tempted 
early man to look beneath the surface of the sea and test his limits of 
endurance. He went in search of natural treasure to augment his hard- 
won food supply and for naturally occurring materials that were useful 
in a primitive, comfortless routine of living. Limits were quickly 
reached in his invasion of the ocean depths, and all that lay beyond was 
called mysterious, remaining unapproachable without some form of 
protection against hostilities destructive to the fragile vehicle of hu- 
man life. 

Twentieth century technology has cleared the pathway for safe 
passage through those deep sea hostilities for an invasion of the 
marine environment unparalleled in history. A growing host of varied 
undersea vehicles is entering the ocean's depths in missions of science, 
engineering and exploration for industrial opportunity, as well as for 
the satisfaction of simple curiosity. 

The U.S. Navy is required, by the responsibilities of its mission, to 
operate throughout the entire ocean environment. Those responsibili- 
ties, in turn, impose requirements for knowledge about our operational 
environment and technology that will operate there, effectively. In 
order to gain knowledge of the deep ocean and its influences upon 
naval operations, we have to go there. One way to go there is to send 
tools which function as extensions of man's senses and work capabili- 
ties. But, even though modern technology is helping us to develop 
increasingly refined instrumentation and methods for perceiving the 
nature of the ocean depths, there are observations and conclusions 
which cannot be achieved without the benefit of man's highly devel- 
oped sensory capabilities operating in the immediate vicinity of investi- 
gation and work areas. 

It is the manned submersible which offers us the opportunity to be 
on the scene and perform tasks in a relatively comfortable and secure 
environment at ocean depths or locations which would otherwise be 
destructive to human life. The Navy has developed a small family of 
manned submersibles to investigate the deep ocean and to perform 
various kinds of work included in the Navy's mission. We are also 
interested to know what others have done in the development of 
manned submersibles, because each effort in the field is helpful in 
solving problems of how to work most effectively in the deep ocean 
environment. 

Our Nation . . . indeed, the whole world . . . has demonstrated 
renewed interest in developing the technology and the methods neces- 
sary to begin harvesting natural resources from the sea, in quantity. 
Amateurs as well as professionals are at work to design and build 
vehicles of one kind or another which will permit useful work in the 
ocean. Progress toward those goals is assisted by sharing both suc- 
cesses and failures in development efforts. The problems of reaching 
those goals are based on the difficulties of creating technology that 
works in the deep ocean. But the problems are basically the same no 
matter what kind of work is contemplated so a sharing of them and 
their solutions works to speed progress for all. 



HI 



Because of escalating interest in what is required to accomplish 
useful work in the ocean environment, questions are being asked about 
manned submersibles: How do they work? Are there laws that govern 
their construction and employment? What are they capable of doing? If 
they are involved in an emergency what can be done to assist them? 
What are their limitations and their capabilities? Mr. Busby has 
compiled a comprehensive review of the development and operation of 
manned submersibles, providing the marine scientist, engineer and 
surveyor ... as well as the uninitiated explorer of the ocean depths . . . 
with many answers to questions about these unique vehicles. 

It is the Navy's intent to encourage a wider and more productive 
exchange of information concerning the requirements for performing 
useful work in the deep ocean and information about recorded achieve- 
ments in design and operation of manned submersibles. Mr. Busby's 
efforts in collecting and presenting the information within the follow- 
ing pages have contributed greatly to such exchanges among present 
day and future participants in ocean programs that we all hope will 
some day deliver, to a waiting world, a realization of the age-old 
promise of resources from the sea. 

Rear Admiral J. Edward Snyder, 

USN 

Oceanographer of the INavy 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



My sincerest appreciation is extended to CAPT Edward Clausner, Jr., 
USN (Ret.), formerly of the Navy Material Command, who found the 
time to listen to my pleas for support and, subsequently, provided the 
resources to fund this effort. He reviewed several of its chapters, 
opened many doors to information and, finally, still manages a smile 
after one and one-half years of near-continual pestering. 

Secondly, my thanks and appreciation are tendered to CAPT Jack 
Boiler, USN (Ret.), now Executive Secretary of the Marine Board of 
the National Academy of Engineering. CAPT Boiler's support and 
advice were instrumental in seeing this work reach fruition. 

I am indebted to Rear Admiral J. Edward Snyder, Jr., USN, Oceanog- 
rapher of the Navy. His kindness and hospitality in providing me with 
working space and office facilities, during my tenure with CAPT 
Clausner, was boundless. I am further indebted to Admiral Snyder for 
allowing me to use the name of his office in the many requests to 
private and government institutions for information. 

Although he was not directly involved with the preparation or 
funding of this work, Mr. John Perry, President and founder of Perry 
Submarine Builders, has contributed to its content since 1965. Through 
his gracious hospitality, the Perry staff, their submersibles and shops, 
have been my practical primer for almost a decade. In the course of 
this education, Mr. ,Perry kindly and indulgently stood by while I 
stumbled through the frustrating process of finding out what wouldn't 
work underwater and managed to keep a straight face while I attached 
the latest in undersea navigation devices: A bicycle wheel, to his PC- 
SB. In the course of such neophyte shenanigans, Mr. Perry has 
persevered through some difficult times to place manned submersibles 
in the category of practical and useful "work" boats, rather than 
expensive engineering toys. 

Some 4,000 miles to the northwest of the Perry shops is the firm of 
International Hydrodynamics Ltd. (HYCO), founded by three commer- 
cial divers. Mack Thompson, Al Trice and Don Sorte, of Vancouver, B.C. 
Likewise, these three opened their shops and files to me and provided 
any and all information on their PISCES class submersible. In particu- 
lar, I would like to express my appreciation to Mack Thompson, a 
practical, imaginative, ingenious, submersible designer and manufac- 
turer who responded to every request of mine and made the time 
available for me to participate in dives on the PISCES III. The 
hospitality of the HYCO staff made every visit to Canada a rewarding 
and memorable occasion. 

Now, my reviewers, E. W. Seabrook Hull, as my editor, reviewed this 
manuscript and restructured the narration to the English language 
and the reasoning to that of a relative sanity. Mr. Lloyd Wilson of the 
Naval Oceanographic Office took on the laborious chore of reviewing 
the first proof print. With patience and skill he corrected the hundreds 
of inconsistencies and spelling errors while imposing a sense of disci- 
pline to an exceptionally rambling narration. The following people 
kindly and most thoroughly reviewed individual chapters for technical 
accuracy: CAPT R. K. R. Worthington, USN, (Ret.), the DEEP QUEST 



Submersible System Operations Officer; Mr. Jamie Farriss, Office of 
the Oceanographer of the Navy; Messrs. Larry Shumaker, and William 
0. Rainnie, Jr., WHOI; Mr. William Greenert, Naval Material Com- 
mand; Messrs. Ronald Proventure, William Louis, and Gary North, 
Naval Ship Engineering Center; Mr. John Purcell, Naval Ship Systems 
Command; Dr. R. C. Bornmann, CAPT, USN, Bureau of Medicine and 
Surgery; Mr. Martin Fagot, U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office; Mr. 
Matthew J. Letich, American Bureau of Shipping; LCDR Ian Cruick- 
shank and LT Richard Peyzer, U.S.C.G., and Mr. F. D. "Don" Barnett, 
Perry Submarine Builders. 

I am particularly indebted to John Purcell and Don Barnett. In the 
face of numerous and frequent requests for data, photographs, advice 
and explanations, time and again did Mr. Purcell produce precisely 
•what I needed or led me to individuals w^ho could and did. Dravv^ing on 
Mr. Barnett's wide range of experience with TRIESTE I, the STAR 
vehicles, ALUMINAUT and the Perry vehicles, I received an education 
in the operating and design philosophies of both private and govern- 
ment submersible activities. 

A host of individuals provided information and photographs of their 
submersible design and construction; specifically the following were 
most helpful and patient in dealing with my many requests: Douglas N. 
Privitt, General Oceanographies; Terry Thompson, T. Thompson Ltd.; 
Donald Morcombe, Horton Maritime Exploration, Ltd.; Donald B. 
Bline, Westinghouse Ocean Research Laboratory; Donald Saner, Lock- 
heed Missiles and Space Corp.; Robert McGratten, Electric Boat Div., 
Gen. Dyn. Corp.; A. Pete lanuzzi. Naval Facilities Engineering Com- 
mand; William C. W. Haines, All Ocean Industries Corp.; CAPT Edward 
E. Hennifen, Officer of the Chief of Naval Operations; CDR Robert F. 
Nevin, USN and Joseph R. Vadus, Manned Undersea Technology 
Program, NOAA; Dr. Andres Rechnitzer, Office of the Oceanographer 
of the Navy; Roger Cook, Operations Officer, JOHNSON SEA LINK; 
Paul Dostal, Alvin, Texas; John La Cerda and Mike Witt, Perry 
Submarine Builders; Donald Johnson, Naval Ship Systems Command; 
Thomas Horton, Living Sea Corp.; Robert Watts, Naval Undersea 
Research and Development Center; Burtis L. Dickman, Auburn, Ind.; 
C. Richards Vincent, Houston, Texas and D. W. Murphy, Hawaii Lab., 
Naval Undersea Center. 

The majority of illustrations were reproduced from various transac- 
tions of the Marine Technology Society's annual meetings; in this 
regard I would like to express my appreciation to the Society and Mr. 
Robert Niblock, its former Executive Director, for granting permission 
to reproduce its material. 

Information on non-U. S. submersibles was mainly obtained by writ- 
ing one or several individuals from various countries who found the 
time and patience to answer another of the many "please tell me all 
you can about" letters that owners and operators of submersibles 
receive. My gratitude and appreciation is extended to the Kenneth R. 
Haigh, Admiralty Experimental Diving Unit and G. S. Henson, Vickers 
Ltd. Shipbuilding Group of the United Kingdom; LCDR Rod Smith and 
LT Paul LeGallis of the Canadian Armed Forces; Dr. Alexander Witte 
and J. Haas, Bruker-Physik AG Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of West 
Germany; Dr. Jacques Piccard, Lausanne, Switzerland; LCDR Masa- 
taka, Nozaki, Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force and Dr. Tamio 
Ashino, Japan Ship's Machinery Development Association. 



Finally, we enter the trenches, which, in this case is manned by 
typists, illustrators, and photographers. My appreciation is extended to 
Mr. Dick Moody of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy, who 
waded through the morass of governmental contracting to somehow 
see all the illustrations through to timely and accurate completion. Mr. 
Carl Mueller, also of the Oceanographer's Office, performed all photo- 
graphic reproductions and processing and still exchanges hellos after 
my countless changes of mind, format and requests for processing. Mrs. 
Becky Murray, another OCEANAV employee, had the questionable 
honor of typing the final drafts of this manuscript and did much to 
impose a degree of consistency and order to a most incorrigible subject. 

The photographs which appear with NAVOCEANO (Naval Oceano- 
graphic Office) credits were taken by members of its Deep Vehicles 
Branch which functioned from 1966 through 1970. During this period, 
in which I was the nominal head of the Branch, its members contrib- 
uted not only photographs, but a wide variety of practical expertise 
and critical observations fi'om which I drew heavily to display my 
"expertise." Specifically, I am grateful to Roger Merrifield, Joe Pollio, 
Mike Costin, Larry Hawkins, Pete Bockman, Tim Janaitis, LeRoy 
Freeman and Dick Young for their years of patience and enthusiasm 
while I fumbled through the alleged role of "Leader." 

My final thanks and gratitude are to Miss. Jean Michaud, my 
anchorman. Typing the first hand-written chapter as a favor, her 
involvement grew to providing all subsequent typing and the necessary 
nagging to keep the work going when the task seemed unending. Her 
help, encouragement and loyalty were direct contributors to its timely 
completion. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Dedication 

Foreword 

Acltnowledgements 

1. INTRODUCTION 1 

Manned Submersible Defined 5 

A Field in Flux 5 

Vehicle Status 6 

Terminology and Units 7 

General and Specific Publications of Interest 8 

Soviet Bloc Submersibles 10 

The "Manned" Aspect of Submersibles 10 

2. DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 13 

Environmental Constraints 14 

Vehicle Performance Requirements 16 

Human Considerations 18 

Emergency Procedures 19 

Support Requirements 19 

The DEEP <?t/£Sr Submersible System 20 

3. CONTEMPORARY SUBMERSIBLE DEVELOPMENT 31 

Bathysphere to Bathyscaph 32 

Pre- and PostTHRESHER 42 

Oceanographic Climate of the Mid-Sixties 48 

Vehicles for Any Occasion 51 

A More Conservative Approach— The 1970's 64 

4. MANNER SUBMERSIBLES: 1948-1974 75 

Dimensional/Performance Terms : 76 

Component/Sub-System Terms 76 

Submersibles Described 86-240 

5. PRESSURE HULLS AND EXOSTRUCTURES 241 

Pressure Hulls 241 

Shapes 241 

Materials 247 

Fabrication 250 

Hull Penetrations 255 

External Structures 263 

Exostructures 263 

Fairings 265 

Pressure Testing 266 

Pressure Test Facilities 270 

Pressure Hull Measurements and Tests 271 

Corrosion and Its Control 275 

6. BALLASTING AND TRIM SYSTEMS 279 

Weight and Volume Estimates 279 

Compressed Air and Deballasting 282 

Ballasting Systems 285 

Trim Systems 301 

7. POWER AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 309 

Manual Power 309 

Pnematic Power 310 

Electric Power 310 



ix 



Batteries 319 

Fuel Cells 331 

Nuclear Power 334 

Cable-To-Surface 334 

Diesel-Electric 336 

Power Distribution 338 

Penetrators 1 338 

Connectors 345 

Cables 351 

Junction Boxes 355 

Interference 361 

8. MANEUVERABILITY AND CONTROL 369 

Propulsion 371 

Maneuvering 381 

Motors 388 

Drag Forces 392 

Propulsion Power Requirements 395 

Control Devices 397 

9. LIFE SUPPORT AND HABITABILITY 409 

Life Support 409 

Replenishment 412 

Removal 419 

Control 428 

Monitoring 430 

Philosophical Approach ^ 437 

K-250 438 

BEN FRANKLIN 438 

Habitability 449 

Psychological Aspects 463 

10. OPERATIONAL EQUIPMENT, NAVIGATION, MANIPULATORS 467 

Equipment 467 

Environmental 468 

Depth 481 

Speed 487 

Pitch/Roll 488 

Communications 488 

Navigation 494 

Surface Tracking 496 

Submerged Navigation 503 

Homing 512 

Manipulators 519 

Power 523 

Design/capabilities 525 

Claws 531 

Control 531 

11. SCIENTIFIC AND WORK EQUIPMENT 537 

Constraints on Submersible Instruments 538 

Survey Instruments 544 

Research Instruments 556 

Engineering/Inspection/Salvage 557 

12. SEA AND SHORE SUPPORT 577 

Transportation , ■• 577 



Support Platforms 581 

Launch/Retrieval Methods 592 

In Use 596 

Conceptual 606 

Lift Hooks 615 

Towing 616 

Personnel and Shore Facilities 617 

13. CERTIFICATION. CLASSIFICATION, REQUIREMENTS 623 

Potential Hazards 626 

System Hazards 626 

Material and Sub-System Failures 626 

Instrument Failures 627 

Operator Failures 627 

Launch/Retrieval Failures 628 

Environmental Hazards 630 

Natural 630 

Man-Made 632 

U.S. Navy Certification 636 

Material Adequacy 637 

Operator Competency 642 

Operational Safety 644 

American Bureau of Shipping Classification 644 

U.S. Coast Guard Requirements 646 

Search and Rescue Responsibility 647 

MARSAP 647 

Insurance 648 

14. EMERGENCY DEVICES AND PROCEDURES 651 

Emergency Avoidance Systems 651 

Emergency Corrective Systems (Submerged) 659 

Emergency Systems (Surfaced) 670 

Devices to Assist Undei-water Rescue 675 

15. EMERGENCY INCIDENTS AND THE POTENTIAL FOR RESCUE 685 

Incidents 686 

Rescue Potential — underwater transfer 695 

DEEP SUBMERGENCE RESCUE VEHICLES 695 & 698 

Submarine Rescue Chamber 695 & 699 

Rescue Potential — Retrieval 700 

Ambient Divers 700 

Manned Submersibles 703 

Unmanned Vehicles 703 

Time-Late 706 

PISCES III Incident 707 

APPENDICES: 

I Conversion Factors 713 

II Submersible Vehicle Safety Act 724 

III SEA OTTER Pre- and Post-Dive CheckHst 730 

GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS AND TERMS 733 

CORPORATE INDEX 738 

SUBJECT INDEX _■ 741 

ADDENDUM 763 



XI 




XII 




1 



INTRODUCTION 

Some four centuries before the birth of 
Christ, Aristotle wrote of small "diving bells" 
used by sponge divers who regularly worked 
at depths of 75 to 100 feet. The bells were 
inverted bowls weighted down by stones. The 
divers would stick their heads in them to 
replenish their air without surfacing. The air 
in the bells, in turn, was resupplied by 
weighted skins filled with air and lowered 
from the surface. 

In 1620 A. D. a Dutchman, Cornelius van 
Drebel, is said to have constructed a sub- 
mersible under contract to King James I of 
England. It was operated by 12 rowers, with 
leather sleeves waterproofing the oar-ports. 
Cans containing some "secret substance" 
(soda lime?) were opened periodically to pu- 



rify the air. It is said that the craft navi- 
gated the Thames River at depths of 12 to 15 
feet for several hours. 

In 1707 Dr. Edmund Halley (of Halley's 
Comet fame) built a diving bell with a limited 
"lock-out" capability. It had glass ports 
above to light the inside of the bell, provi- 
sions for replenishing its air and crude, um- 
bilically-supplied diving helmets which per- 
mitted divers to walk around outside — so 
long as they didn't lower their heads below 
the water level in the bell! 

In the late 1770's Connecticut Yankee Dr. 
David Bushnell built and operated a small 
wooden submarine designed to attach mines 
to and blow up British warships. After sev- 
eral abortive attempts, TURTLE, as the ve- 



hide was named, did account for one enemy 
schooner. 

In the early 1800's Robert Fulton (inventor 
of the steamship) built two iron-framed, cop- 
per-skinned submarines, NAUTILUS and 
Mt/r£.The former carried out successful mil- 
itary tests against moored targets for both 
France's Napoleon Bonaparte and the 
British. Neither craft was ever used opera- 
tionally, however. 

The first "modern" submersible — it could 
be argued — was Simon Lake's ARGONAUT 
FIRST, a small clumsy-looking vehicle 
launched shortly before 1890. Made of 
wooden planks and waterproofed with pitch, 
it was powered by a gasoline engine snor- 
keled to the surface through a buoy-sup- 
ported flexible hose, and it boasted blowable 
ballast tanks — the first submarine to do so. 
In addition, it sported powered wheels and a 
bottom hatch that could be opened — after 
the interior was pressurized to ambient — to 
permit the hand recovery of bottom samples, 
including oysters. 

These are just a few examples of the long 
history and the nature of man's early tech- 
nological efforts to function effectively 
within the ocean environment. While Simon 
Lake in the first part of the 20th Century did 
develop a submersible salvage system, in- 
cluding submersible barges, and managed to 
recover a cargo of anthracite coal from the 
bottom of Long Island Sound, the manned 
submersible was not to emerge as a diverse 
and functional means of accomplishing use- 
ful underwater work for over half a century, 
which brings us to where this work com- 
mences. 

In 1965 a delegation from the U.S. Naval 
Oceanographic Office journeyed to Lantana, 
Florida to evaluate John Perry's CUBMA- 
RINE as an undersea surveyor. 

The "evaluation," to say the least, was 
cursory and strongly resembled a used car 
purchase. The team (headed by the author) 
gazed astutely at the tiny, yellow craft from 
various angles, rapped its steel hull for 
toughness, caressed its sides for smoothness 
and sat inside to see if they fit. A few hours 
later the team leader had the opportunity to 
dive in the (now pronounced) "sound" vehicle 
for an operational evaluation. The result was 



predictable: One could see out of it, the seats 
were hard and there wasn't much room. But, 
what else could the amateur do? Had it been 
possible, we probably would have taken a 
bite out of it. 

Since the mid-sixties hundreds of scientific 
and technical articles have appeared describ- 
ing the design and materials of what are now 
called manned submersibles. Several books 
have been published that relate the activi- 
ties of specific vehicles. As a result, the in- 
dustrious student can — with patience and a 
comprehensive library — become quite famil- 
iar with the history, jargon, design and oper- 
ations of submersibles and need not feel like 
a technological ignoramus on his first en- 
counter. 

Unfortunately, as the new student soon 
learns, there is no single point of reference 
from which to begin an education. The infor- 
mation is available, but it is so scattered that 
merely accumulating an adequate bibliog- 
raphy is a chore, and in the course of assem- 
bling this data, the field itself is moving at so 
rapid a pace that most vehicle descriptions 
are in error within a short time of their 
publication. 

Adding to the consternation is the jargon; 
many of the terms used to describe manned 
submersibles, such as "trim," "blow," "vent," 
came directly from military submarines, but 
"viewports," "mechanical arms," "claws" 
and other terms are unique to the submers- 
ibles. Indeed "manned submersible" is not 
used with consistency. "Undersea Vehicles," 
"Deep Research Vehicles," "Deep Submer- 
gence Vehicles," "Mini-Subs," "Submersible 
Vessels," even "Submarinos" are synony- 
mous. So the quest for an introduction, even 
a nodding aquaintance, may be detoured by 
jargon alone. 

On the other hand there are the partici- 
pants of the field; though not blocked by 
jargon, they have no ready access to the 
technological advancements or even the cur- 
rent progress in their own field. There is a 
wide variety of technical and semi-technical 
journals wherein bits and pieces of experi- 
ence in, and advice on, submersible opera- 
tions and the results of tests or evaluation of 
components can be found, but the time it 
takes to review the literature (even if it 
could all be found in one place) is prohibitive. 



Then, there is the student of maritime 
history who will find excellent documenta- 
tion of the early bathyscaphs and two or 
three accounts of the later vehicles but little 
at all on the techniques and design in the 
field at large. Reference is made later in this 
chapter to documentation within the field of 
deep submergence. It is sufficient to note 
that in terms of documentation the full-scale, 
peaceful invasion of the ocean in the last 
score of years was and remains almost invisi- 
ble. 

This is not to infer that the manned sub- 
mersible is merely a historical curiosity. Doc- 
umenting the ways of deep submergence 
benefits not only the historian but potential 
users and designers as well. If one is to use a 
present capability or improve it and at the 
same time avoid reinventing the wheel, it is 
obvious that one must know the stage to 
which it has advanced. In manned submers- 
ibles the "state-of-the-art" is most difficult to 
measure. For every question there are al- 
most as many answers as there are submers- 
ibles. One might ask, "of what are they 
built?" The answer is steel, aluminum, plas- 
tic, glass and wood. "How deep can they 
dive?" From 150 to 36,000 feet. "How long 
can they stay under?" From 6 hours to 6 
weeks. In short, to find the state-of-the-art, 
one must look at the overall field. Where one 
vehicle is lacking, another is not and where 
one cannot perform a particular task as well 
as another, it might very well outperform its 
rival in a different job. Canvassing the entire 
field to define each vehicle's capabilities en- 
tails a world-wide search, which few have the 
time or funds to pursue. 

It is to help solve these problems that this 
book is written. It is an examination, analy- 
sis and synthesis of the last 26 years during 
which over 100 deep- and shallow-diving sub- 
mersibles have been constructed and oper- 
ated in many parts of the world. Within the 
past year (1973-1974) utilization and con- 
struction have literally skyrocketed follow- 
ing a 3-year period during which submers- 
ibles were, in fact, becoming historical curi- 
osities. 

At this point in time it would seem appro- 
priate, therefore, to see where we've been, 
how well we've done and where we are. 

The future of manned submersibles is not 



discussed beyond a description of vehicles 
now under construction or about to be built. 
Not that the future looks dim; on the con- 
trary, it looks fantastic. But it looked fantas- 
tic once before and then fell on its face. 
Predicting or even speculating on the course 
of future events in this area is a difficult 
proposition. For example, while gathering 
data for this book, a visit was made to Perry 
Submarine Builders in March 1973. At that 
time the Perry company had just released a 
good number of its employees and was re- 
trenching owing to lack of business. The 
future, for Perry at least, looked rather 
bleak. On a subsequent visit in April 1974, 
the Perry workshops were a beehive of activ- 
ity, and negotiations were underway to relo- 
cate and construct facilities that could han- 
dle the incredible volume of new business. 

So, predictions on the future will be left to 
the more courageous. Also omitted is any 
effort to predict the application of new mate- 
rials, components, instruments or power sup- 
plies. What has been and is being done in 
manned submersibles constitutes the pri- 
mary subject matter of this work. 

As one could anticipate, there are some 
shades of gray, and they color vehicles whose 
construction was started (e.g., ARGYRO- 
JSETE. DEEPSTAR 20000) but halted before 
completion. Such vehicles are included be- 
cause they are a part of history and repre- 
sent the thoughts of various deep submer- 
gence participants at that time. So, in the 
engineer's jargon, credentials to this book 
are simply that steel has been cut. 

There are other benefits to be gained in 
looking backwards, if we look to the periph- 
ery as well; the periphery being the activi- 
ties or operational methods of others and 
their approach to submersible diving. In this 
respect the subject of safety and emergency 
devices comes to mind. Chapter 14 relates at 
some length the devices and equipment car- 
ried on individual submersibles to avoid and 
to respond to emergencies. This listing is not 
presented with the inferred message that 
the submersible operator "must" have all of 
these provisions if he is to operate safely. It 
is given instead, as something to be consid- 
ered. A requirement for distress rockets, ra- 
dio homing beacons and the like may be 
overreacting for the submersible working in 



4 



1 . Operator/observer 




4 



4. Exostructure 



«i 




7. Fairings/sail 



4. 



2. Pressure hull 




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3. Life support/controls 







■•W:W' 



5. Ballast and trim 



6. Propulsion/batteries 



f\. 





Fig. 1.1 Submersible components 



a dam or Lake Geneva, but if the same 
vehicle moves its operations to the open sea 
they then warrant consideration. __ 

Likewise, there are the different ap- 
proaches to ballasting, maneuvering, life 
support and launch/retrieval. By reviewing 
the many different means to the same ends, 
the operator may find an idea or a different 
arrangement to increase the capabilities 
and/or performance of his vehicle. 

There are, unfortunately, many stumbling 
blocks in trying to categorize and force order 
on such a free-wheeling, dynamic and wide- 
spread activity. In some cases the subject 
refuses to be pigeon-holed, terms must be 
introduced which are arbitrary, modifica- 
tions to the vehicle make near-current de- 
scriptions inaccurate, and many loose ends 
are left. To deal with these problems, this 
chapter is devoted to alerting the reader to 
the nature of such pitfalls, omissions and 
inconsistencies. Other subjects will be dis- 
cussed which, by their rebellious nature, are 
only satisfied with a separate discussion or 
by constant reiteration. 

Manned Submersible Defined 

To limit the scope of this book the following 
defines a manned submersible: A manned, 
non-combatant craft capable of independent 
operation on and under the water's surface 
which has its own propulsion power and a 
means of direct viewing for the occupants 
who are embarked within a dry atmosphere. 

This definition precludes underwater habi- 
tats which have no independent means of 
propulsion, swimmer delivery vehicles which 
are not "dry" and diver support or delivery 
chambers which are tethered to the surface. 
By definition the tethered vehicles KVRO- 
SHIO II, GUPPY and OPSUB should not be 
included, but here is another gray area. KU- 
ROSHIO II and its predecessor kuROSHIO 
I have been a part of submersible history 
since 1960; to omit them would serve no 
particular purpose and would deny their sig- 
nificant role in undersea exploration. Having 
made this exception, GUPPY and OPSUB 
must be included by default. 

Throughout these pages reference is made 
to the "Submersible System;" this system 
includes not only the submersible, but a ship 
or surface craft to support it and an appara- 



tus for putting it in and taking it out of the 
water. Attention is drawn to Figure 1.1 
wherein the submersible system is graphi- 
cally portrayed beginning with its most basic 
component: The human. The importance of 
this "system" concept is dealt with in Chap- 
ters 2 and 12. 



A Field in Flux 

In a certain sense this section should be 
entitled "An Apology" because its message is 
to warn the reader that the vehicle descrip- 
tions in Chapter 4 are, to varying degrees, 
inaccurate. There are two primary reasons 
for these inaccuracies: 1) Many of the vehi- 
cles are no longer in existence and both the 
participants and the records often are un- 
available for authenticating what data is 
available, and 2) the dynamics of the sub- 
mersible industry. The first reason needs 
little else in the way of explanation, but the 
second requires some elaboration. 

Submersibles, like any other capital equip- 
ment, can change owners, and a new owner 
may change not only its design, but its name 
as well. For example, the 1970 Perry-built PC- 
9 (a Perry designation number) was originally 
christened SURVEY SUB I by its owners 
Brown and Root. In 1973, Taylor Diving Serv- 
ices acquired the vehicle and renamed it TS-1. 
Another Perry vehicle PS-2 was built in 1972 
by Perry Submarine Builders for Access of 
Toronto and was later christened TUDLIK. In 
about 1973 the vehicle was transferred back to 
Perry in Florida and reverted back to PS-2. In 
1974 it was purchased by Sub Sea Oil Services 
of Milan; its name has not yet changed, but 
this may soon happen. Arctic Marine's SEA 
OTTER was originally PA t/LO / and belonged 
to Anautics Inc. of San Diego. In 1971 it was 
purchased by Candive of Vancouver, B.C. and 
subsequently leased on a long-term basis to 
Arctic Marine which renamed it SEA OTTER, 
while upgrading its operating depth from 600 
to 1,500 feet. In some instances the same 
owner may retain the vehicle, but it dives 
under a variety of aliases. For example Cous- 
teau's DIVING SAUCER is, to the French 
reader, LA SOUCOUPE PLONGEANTE (this 
name was also used at times in the U.S.), and 
in the course of its history it was occasionally 
called DENICE (after Cousteau's wife), DS-2 
and SP-300. In 1970 the same vehicle was 



upgraded in depth from 300 to 350 meters and 
became SP-350. 

Such name changes have occurred with a 
number of vehicles, and produce a quandary 
concerning which one to use and what it is 
now. Strictly for convenience, the names used 
herein are the ones with which the author is 
most familiar. The other aliases are given 
under "Remarks" in the individual listings in 
Chapter 4. 

A change of owners generally produces a 
change in the vehicle. Mention was made of 
increasing the operating depth of SP-350 and 
SEA OTTER. This is only one source of error 
in any set of "current" descriptions. The origi- 
nal SURVEY SUB 1 or TS-1 had port and 
starboard vertical thrusters mounted amid- 
ships, the "new" TS-1 has shock absorbers 
where the vertical thrusters once were (they 
are now fore and aft). It also has increased life 
support duration, a different lift padeye, and 
an expanded suite of operating and surveying 
equipment. This is only one of many examples 
where the vehicle has changed by virtue of a 
new owner, new tasks or different operating 
philosophies. In regards to changing operat- 
ing philosophies, the first five or six Perry 
vehicles used Baralyme as a carbon dioxide 
scrubbing chemical. Now Perry uses lithium 
hydroxide and has replaced the Baralyme in 
some other earlier vehicles with lithium hy- 
droxide. In some cases almost the only thing 
remaining from the original vehicle is the 
pressure huU. AUGUSTE PICCARD, for exam- 
ple, is described herein as it was when first 
constructed. It is presently undergoing exten- 
sive modification for open-ocean surveying 
and except for the pressure hull and propul- 
sion, will bear little resemblance to the origi- 
nal. 

In other instances inaccuracies are intro- 
duced by virtue of changes occurring from the 
vehicle-as-constructed to the vehicle-as-oper- 
ated; those changes can be substantial. The 
operating and design details of DEEP QUEST 
in Chapter 2 were oi'iginally obtained from a 
1968 description of the vehicle. Mr. R. K. R. 
Worthington, DEEP QUEST's Operations 
Manager, kindly reviewed this chapter and 
made numerous and critical changes to reflect 
DEEP QUEST as it now operates. Where a 
particular submersible has always operated 
for the same organization and under the same 



individual, such changes have been relatively 
easy to identify. But, when it has changed 
hands or the principals involved in its opera- 
tions and readiness have been replaced (as is 
the case with the military submersibles), it is 
a research project in itself to ascertain the 
many modifications which have taken place 
on merely one vehicle. 

In short, the descriptions and operating de- 
tails of the submersibles herein reflect them 
at some time in their life — though every effort 
has been made to be as up-to-date as possible. 
Dimensional characteristics, such as length, 
height and width, weights, operating equip- 
ment, safety devices, propulsion arrange- 
ments and other features are all subject to 
change which, except for those vehicles no 
longer operating, is probably continuous. For 
a first approximation the descriptions are 
valid, but if precise details are desired, one 
should contact either the current operator or 
operating manager. In the course of the U.S. 
Naval Oceanographic Office's submersible 
leasing program, it was quickly revealed 
(sometimes with chagrin) that the marketing 
arms of large corporations were quite often 
ignorant of changes to the vehicle which the 
operators performed. 

Vehicle Status 

It would seem to be a relatively simple task 
to state what a vehicle's status is — i.e., it is 
either operational or not operational. But, in 
reality, a vehicle's status may be quite diffi- 
cult to define accurately. ALUMINAUT is a 
typical example. It is now in storage in Flor- 
ida and has not dived since 1969. This does not 
mean, however, that it cannot or will not dive 
again. If a sufficiently profitable contract 
were to appear for ALUMINAUT, its owners 
probably would take it out of storage and put 
it to work. PC-3B or TECHDIVER is another 
example; it hasn't dived for a number of years, 
but again, under the right financial climate, it 
undoubtedly could be induced to operate. 
Some of the shallow vehicles, such as the 
NAUTILETTE series, only dive in the summer 
months when the weather on the Great Lakes 
is amiable; in the winter they are in storage. 
A few vehicles are on display in museums or 
parks, others have been cannibalized to a 
point where they are now in bits and pieces 
and scattered in backyards. So, in some cases 



it is quite easy to place them in either the 
operating or nOn-operating category. Those 
vehicles not clearly in either category are 
classed as inactive. Specifically, the following 
definitions are used in this work: 
Operational: Submersibles which have been 
reported diving in 1974, includ- 
ing vehicles which are undergo- 
ing test and evaluation and 
those which are undergoing 
modifications preparatory to 
diving. 
Inactive: Submersibles which, within a 2- 

or 3-month period or less, can 
be made operational. ALUMI- 
NAUT, GUPPY, OPSUB, 
TECHDIVER are examples of 
this category. 
Non-Opera- Submersibles that are incapa- 
tional: ble of Operating without major 

refitting. 

Terminology and Units 

A number of the terms herein will probably 
send the traditional submariner into a deep 
depression. With over a half century of tradi- 
tion behind him, the military submariner has 
a ready-made field of jargon which quite ap- 
propriately applies to the military submarine. 
But, there is no traditional submersible and 
the jargon which has grown around this field 
comes from the aeronautical engineer, the 
scuba diver, the machinist, the scientist, the 
hobbyist and from the traditionalist himself. 
This variety is not surprising: With virtually 
all submersibles having been built and now 
being operated by the non-traditionalist, there 
is no uniformity in the terms used. This has 
not been a handicap to anyone in the field and 
is not likely to become one in the future. 
Indeed, as far as tradition is concerned, the 
operation of a manned submersible literally 
violates every tradition of the submarine serv- 
ice. Where bottoming or grounding a fleet 
submarine is to be avoided in all but dire 
emergencies, it is expected of submersibles. 
Where every attempt is made to keep a sub- 
marine's lines hydrodynamically clean, there 
is absolutely no desire or need to do so in 
submersibles where speed is of little impor- 
tance. A "long dive" in submersibles is 12 or so 
hours, to the nuclear submariner this would 
hardly classify as a dive. Then again, launch- 



ing and retrieving a fleet submarine between 
dives is not only unthinkable, it is virtually 
impossible. So while the traditionalist might 
blanch, most of the jargon he will find dis- 
tasteful is that which is in more or less com- 
mon usage. A few examples might be in order. 

In some cases the term "brow" appears, this 
is not a typographical error, some vehicles 
(DEEPSTAR 4000} have a brow which over- 
hangs the forward viewport; it is synonymous 
with bow but with a specific kind of bow. 

"Trim" is the means used by a submersible 
to either transfer weight or rearrange dis- 
placement forward or aft to incline the sub- 
mersible's bow up or down. Trim in a subma- 
rine refers to arranging ballast such that the 
submarine is buoyantly stable at a particular 
depth. Occasionally the term "pitch" is synon- 
ymous with trim in submersibles. 

"Exostructure" herein refers to the struc- 
tural framework external to the hull which 
supports the batteries, propulsion units and 
other components. Surrounding the exo- 
structure may be a "fairing" which smooths 
out the envelope of the exostructure. Some 
manufacturers refer to the exostructure as 
the "framework" and fairings as the "skin." 

The term "operator" refers to the individual 
who controls the movements of the submers- 
ible and it is synonymous with "pilot." Ini- 
tially the term pilot was used and was quite 
descriptive, but in the late sixties the U.S. 
Navy introduced the term operator when it 
invoked certification for the operator(s), i.e., 
pilots, of submersibles. As long as the term 
operator has remained within the military it 
served the purpose, but in the private sector a 
submersible can be and quite frequently is 
owned by one company, operated by another 
and piloted by an employee of the operating 
company. The dilemma, therefore, is apparent 
when one speaks of the operator of the sub- 
mersible, is it the firm or the individual? When 
this confusion looms, the term pilot is used to 
distinguish the individual from the firin. 

Many other terms are used which are gen- 
erally explained within the text, but the best 
appreciation for the diversity from vehicle-to- 
vehicle can be gained by noting the different 
names given to components on the schematics 
in Chapter 4. The names given to various 
submersible components are those used by the 
owners or operators. While it might be taxo- 



nomically satisfying to relabel these compo- 
nents with the same terms, one might find it 
difficult to communicate with the owner 
whose vehicle has been redesignated. 

Finally, we arrive at units of measure or, 
more precisely, the metric system versus the 
English system. Quite evident is the fact that 
nothing has been done herein to advance the 
metric system. Recognizing the practicality of 
it over the English system, the conversion of 
the many values from the latter into the 
former represents a job of considerable magni- 
tude and leads to strange dimensions. A 6- 
foot-diameter pressure hull would become one 
of 1.83 meters and still not be an exact meas- 
urement. So to simplify matters, where the 
original data are in meters, it is so reported, 
and where feet and inches are used, they are 
given. And, as a final apology, a table to 
convert the various units is included in Ap- 
pendix I. 

General and Specific Publications of 
Interest 

Throughout the text reference is made to a 
variety of books, articles and reports dealing 
with specific design aspects or operations of 
submersibles. For the reader who might be 
interested in only one vehicle or particular 
components of submersibles, the following 
books or reports, though referenced later, are 
noted: 

General Listings and Descriptions of Manned 
Submersibles 

Terry, R. D. 1966 The Deep Submersible. 

Western Periodicals Co., North Hollywood, 

Calif., 456 pp. 

Shenton, E. H. 1972 Diving for Science. W. W. 

Norton & Co., New York (describes the major 

components of submersibles in non-technical 

terms) 

Penzias, W. and Goodman, M. W. 1973 Man 

Beneath the Sea. Wiley & Sons, New York (a 

recent listing which contains much technical 

information, but leans toward the technical 

aspects of ambient diving) 

Specific Submersible Diving History and Design 

Beebe, W. 1934 Half Mile Down. Harcourt, 
Brace & Co., New York (construction and div- 
ing history of the bathysphere) 
Piccard, A. 1954 In Balloon and Bathy- 



scaphe. Cassell & Co. Ltd., London (FNRS-2 
and TRIESTE 1 ) 

Houot, G. S. and Wilhm, P. H. 1955 2,000 
Fathoms Down. E. P. Button & Co., New York 
{FISRS-S) 

Cousteau, J. Y. 1956 The Living Sea. Harper & 
Row, New York (early history ofSP-350) 
Piccard, J. and Dietz, R. S. 1960 Seven Miles 
Down. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York (TRI- 
ESTE 1 and the events leading to its record 
dive) 

Shenton, E. H. 1968 Exploring the Ocean 
Depths, W. W. Norton & Co., New York (Scien- 
tific diving of SP-350) 

Piccard, J. 1971 The Sun Beneath the Sea. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (AU- 
GUSTE PICCARD, BEN FRANKLIN, and the 
Gulf Stream Drift Mission) 
Link, M. C. 1973 Windows in the Sea. Smith- 
sonian Institution Press (DEEP DIVER, 
JOHNSON-SEA-LINK, and other undersea ac- 
tivities of Mr. Edwin Link) 

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
beginning in 1960 issued yearly reports on the 
design, construction, operations and modifica- 
tions to ALVIN. The first 2 years deal with 
ALUMINAUT, which at that time was a coop- 
erative venture between the Navy and Rey- 
nolds International, but from 1963 on through 
1970 they deal only with ALVIN. These reports 
are entitled Deep Submergence Research and 
each covers a calendar year during the above 
period. Unfortunately they are not widely dis- 
seminated, but are available at WHOI and 
may be found in university libraries where 
oceanographic courses are offered. Careful 
reading of these is literally a course in deep 
submergence components and the painful 
progress of making a manned submersible a 
useful scientific tool. One of the main deficien- 
cies with most reports describing modifica- 
tions to submersibles is that the author tells 
what has been changed but not why it was 
changed or what was the problem. The WHOI 
reports, on the other hand, provide all such 
details, and they explain each change in de- 
tail: Why each change was made, what the 
component or system was lacking and how the 
new approach is intended to improve the vehi- 
cle, its support platform and its launch/re- 
trieval system. They constitute, in substance, 
a technological stroll through deep submer- 



8 



gence problems and developments of the six- 
ties. 

Another series of reports, also not readily 
available, are the handbooks issued by the 
U.S. Navy's Deep Ocean Technology (DOT) 
Program. Recognizing the severe problems in 
various electrical and mechanical components 
in manned deep submersibles, the Navy began 
this program in the late sixties, and the re- 
sults are profitable reading for both present 
and future submersible operators and design- 
ers. The various components investigated can 
be seen in the list below. Each handbook 
summarizes the problems with available com- 
ponents, solutions to some problems and rec- 
ommendations for surmounting others. The 
reports are limited in distribution to those 
who have a legitimate need for such data, and 
requests should be addressed to: 

Defense Documentation Center 
Cameron Station 
Alexandria, VA. 22314 

As of 1974 the following handbooks have been 
issued which pertain to manned submersibles. 

Handbook of Electric Cable Technology for 
Deep Ocean Applications. NSRDL (A), 6-54/ 
70, Nov. 1970. AD 877-774. 

Rotary Shaft-Seal Selection Handbook for 
Pressure Equalized, Deep Ocean Equipment. 
NSRDC(A), 7-753, Oct. 1971. AD 889-330(L). 
Handbook of Vehicle Electric Penetrators, 
Connectors and Harnesses for Deep Ocean 
Applications. NAVSEC, July 1971. AD 888- 
281. 

Handbook of Fluids and Lubricants for 
Deep Ocean Applications. NSRDC(A) MAT- 
LAB 360, Rev. 1972. AD 893-990. 
Handbook of Fluid Filled, Depth/Pressure 
Compensating Systems for Deep Ocean Ap- 
plications. NSRDV(A) 27-8, April 1972. AD 
894-795. 

Handbook of Electrical and Electronic Cir- 
cuital nterrupting and Protective Devices for 
Deep Ocean Applications. NSRDC(A), 6-67, 
Nov. 1971. AD 889-829. 

Handbook of Underwater Imaging System 
Design. NUC TP 303, July 1972. AD 904- 
472(L). 

Submersible Work and Instruments 

Excluding the DOT handbooks, all of the 
publications listed above contain accounts of 



various work performed by the particular 
submersibles. Additionally, the references in 
Chapter 11 relate specific work accomplish- 
ments by a variety of submersibles. Notewor- 
thy, is reference (1) of Chapter 11, which 
summarized all of the published scientific 
accounts of submersible work through 1970. 
A popularized version of submersibles and 
their accomplishments is contained in: 

Soule, G. 1968 Undersea Frontiers. 

Rand McNally & Company, New York 
The references in Chapter 11 alsd describe, 
to varying degrees, the instruments used to 
perform certain tasks. The best single refer- 
ence for work tools is Winget's report (ref. 6, 
Chap. 11) which not only describes a wide 
array of work tools, but also provides the 
manufacturer's name and address for each 
component used in each device described. 
This report can only be described as a gold- 
mine for the builder or designer of submers- 
ible work equipment. 

Since the seventies most of the literature 
describing submersible work is relatively 
sparse. Perhaps because the work is no 
longer mainly scientific and may be consid- 
ered proprietary information by the user. 
Virtually all recent accounts merely describe 
the job as pipeline inspection, cable burial, or 
the like, with details of the why, how and 
performance of the vehicle and tools omitted. 
Likewise, are accounts of submersible scien- 
tific endeavors sparse regarding perfor- 
mance of vehicles and instruments. Reports 
of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration's Manned Undersea Science 
and Technology Program relate what work 
was done, why and, when possible, its scien- 
tific implications, but nothing regarding the 
performance, problems or solutions is in- 
cluded. Such omissions, though clearly a pre- 
rogative of the user, are unfortunate, be- 
cause identifying and making known the 
problem areas of submersibles is the only 
means of providing direction or goals to the 
designer of future vehicles. 



Soviet Bloc Submersibles 

Conspicuous by its absence is any discus- 
sion of Soviet Bloc submersible design. The 
reason is quite simple: There is no easy way 



to authenticate what information is availa- 
ble. Mr. Lee Boylan of Informatics Inc., 
Rockville, Maryland summarized Soviet-bloc 
submersible development in a 1969 mono- 
graph for the Marine Technology Society 
Journal (v. 3, n. 2) and updated this report in 
1972 in the same Journal (v. 6, n. 5). Mr. 
Boylan's original work was based on 206 
articles and reports from the Soviet Union 
and elsewhere. It is most comprehensive, but 
Boylan himself admits that his 45-year his- 
tory does not comprise the entire Soviet Bloc 
inventory. There are a few other articles 
which serve to reinforce Boylan's tabulation, 
but the picture is still confusing. 

From those details that are available, 
Soviet submersible development and use 
have been primarily aimed at fisheries inves- 
tigations. In 1957 the Soviets converted a 
fleet-type submarine into the fisheries re- 
search vehicle SEVERYAISKA. Seven re- 
search cruises were conducted by this vehi- 
cle during the next few years. Then it ap- 
pears to have been decommissioned in the 
early sixties. 

At present, Russia, according to Boylan, 
has or has had four submersibles which fol- 
lowed SEVERYANKA; these are: The 6,562-ft 
SEVER 2, the 810-ft GVIDON, the 984-ft 
TINRO 1, and the DOREA for which no 
operating depth is stated. International Hy- 
drodynamics of Canada is constructing a 
P/SCES-class submersible (6,500-ft depth) 
and the lock-out vehicle ARIES (1,200-ft 
depth) for the Soviet Union for delivery 
sometime in 1974. 

Admittedly, this is making very short 
shrift of Soviet Bloc undersea efforts. Al- 
though they seem quite active in habitats 
and swimmer delivery (wet) vehicles, there is 
little information available on the actual 
submersible field. A report by V. S. Yastre- 
bov. Head of the Laboratory of Underwater 
Research Technique, Academy of Sciences, 
USSR, tends to confirm that there is really 
very little to report in Soviet submersible 
activities. Yastrebov's report (presented at 
the Brighton Oceanology International Con- 
ference, 1972) compares the efficiency of di- 
vers and underwater devices. He speaks of 
an unmanned Soviet bottom crawler, CRAB, 
and of manipulator experiments at the Acad- 
emy of Sciences, but every example of sub- 



mersible performance he cites is of a U.S. 
vehicle. Furthermore, of 14 references in 
Yastrebov's report, 11 are from U.S. sources. 
In another paper given at the Brighton Con- 
ference, V. G. Azhazha of the Central Re- 
search Institute of Fisheries Information 
and Economics analyzed the efficiency of 
submersibles in fishery investigations. Here 
again, except for a brief mention of SEVER- 
YANKA, all of the submersibles mentioned 
are U.S., English or Canadian. One is left to 
conclude, therefore, that Soviet-bloc at-sea 
submersible experience is quite limited, of a 
confidential nature, or both. 

The "Manned" Aspect of 
Submersibles 

The most significant omission of submers- 
ible components in the following chapters is 
the human component. The Deep Submers- 
ible Pilots Association and the Navy's Sub- 
marine Development Group One have de- 
fined the minimal requirements for an opera- 
tor or pilot. Chapter 12, herein, tabulates the 
number and types of operating and support 
personnel for selected vehicles. Unfortu- 
nately, all of these fall quite short in actually 
defining the nature and qualities of the peo- 
ple who keep the system running efficiently 
and safely. Indeed, if one were to list the 
desirable attributes of a submersible crew- 
man — and the crew includes support as well 
as operating personnel — the final product 
would seem unattainable. 

First, for the most part submersibles work 
far out at sea or in other isolated places 
where public admiration is not the rule. Sec- 
ondly, photographers, press agents and me- 
dia representatives are generally unaware of 
submersible activities until there is an emer- 
gency, and these are quite rare. Thirdly, 
working at sea is arduous, frustrating, con- 
tinuous and, in the submersible business, 
calls for the skills of a seaman, an engineer, 
a diver and a master mariner. The point is 
that the personnel must be highly-skilled, 
dedicated individuals who are willing to 
spend a good portion of their life on a pitch- 
ing, rolling, benevolent prison. The pay is not 
fantastic and residuals for television adver- 
tisements are unknown. One hundred per- 
cent successful missions are rare, and frus- 
trating compromise is generally the rule. 



10 



So one might ask, where do you find such 
people and what do you offer? Quite frankly 
(and somewhat mysteriously), they find you 
and surmounting the challenge seems to be 
reward in itself. Commonality of back- 
grounds, such as education, technical train- 
ing and the like, is not readily apparent. 
Most however, have spent a major portion of 
their adult life working with the sea, either 
in the Navy or with commercial enterprises. 
Many, through various channels, simply 
drift into the submersible area, others specif- 
ically seek out the field. In either case, all 
have a capacity for hard work and seem to 
possess an unusually wide-ranging knowl- 
edge of seamanship, diving, electronics and 
other skills related to submersibles. Admit- 
tedly it would be quite helpful to state the 
desirable background characteristics to look 
for in a submersible operator and the sup- 
port crew, but, in the author's experience, all 
are quite individualistic and, like submers- 
ibles themselves, defy categorization. Yet 
each seems to have a particular skill that 
contributes to a successful operation. 

In this respect, an incident comes to mind 
of a lost current meter array retrieved by 
ALUMINAUT in 1967 off St. Croix, Virgin 
Islands. ALUMINAUT, at that time, was the 
ultimate in deep submefrgence technology, it 
represented the best efforts of the best scien- 
tific and engineering expertise industry and 
academia could offer. In the course of re- 



trieval it dived, made the necessary hookup 
and performed perfectly. The final step, how- 
ever, was to reel the retrieving line onto the 
support ship. To complicate matters, when 
the array line began appearing at the sur- 
face it was a snarled and tangled mass of 
nylon rope, wire and current meters. At this 
point the knot-tying and load-handling tal- 
ents of an ex-navy bosun, Mr. Doug Farrow, 
were required for several hours to success- 
fully bring the spaghetti-like mess aboard. 

The "manned" component, therefore, re- 
quires skills which range from those tracea- 
ble to the Phoenicians to those developed in 
the space age. Man's ancestors, it is said, left 
the ocean in primordial times; since recorded 
history it is evident that he has tried, with 
some success, to return. In earlier days it 
was in wood and leather diving bells and 
suits; now it is in steel and plastic shells. 
Whatever the means, it has always been 
man; never machines, against the sea. The 
instruments, be they submersibles, subma- 
rines, towed devices or whatever, are inani- 
mate, inert and functionless without the in- 
tervention of a human being. Regardless of 
its duration, if the return to the sea is to be 
successful, an arsenal of human talents must 
be drawn from the pages of ancient and 
recent history. The knot tier, the navigator, 
the mariner, the engineer and the theoreti- 
cal scientist all share equal responsibilities 
and all can be found somewhere in the suc- 
cessful submersible system. 



11 




2 



DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL 
CONSIDERATIONS 



To accomplish its passenger-carrying and 
work functions economically, a submersible 
must be transportable, easily maintainable, 
and amenable to launch/retrieval from a roll- 
ing vessel. A review of the submersibles in 
Chapter 4 reveals the varied approaches to 
these requirements. No matter what the ap- 
proach, there are laws of physics and human 
biology which all successful vehicles must 
obey. There are also logistical and operational 
considerations which, because of their impor- 
tance, are an integral part of the submersible 
diving system; these are its support platform, 
and its launch/retrieval apparatus. 

Five categories have been defined and in- 
clude the design and operational factors with 



which the successful submersible operator 
must contend; these categories are: 

Environmental Constraints 

Vehicle Performance 

Human Considerations 

Emergency Procedures 

Support Requirements 
The factors within these categories are drawn 
from the history of submersible operations 
and deal with the submersible system instead 
of the submersible as an independent opera- 
tor. Inclusion of support requirements may 
seem outside the scope of submersible diving 
principles; but submersibles are not military 
submarines, and none routinely operates in 
the open sea without surface support and, in 
the final analysis, shore support. 



13 



ENVIRONMENTAL 
CONSTRAINTS 

Pressure 

A fundamental consideration in the design 
of any vehicle transporting man or equipment 
underwater is pressure. Pressure may be re- 
sisted, as it is by the submersible's pressure 
hull, or it may be compensated, as is the case 
with many battery packs, propulsion motors, 
etc. Once the submersible's operating depth 
has been established, the pressure at that 
depth will determine the dimensional and 
compositional characteristics of the vehicle 
and its components. 

Pressure in the ocean is a function of depth, 
and for routine oceanographic calculations the 
3.3-foot depth is equal to about 1 atmosphere 
(14.7 psi). To moderate depths, say to several 
thousand feet, seawater may be considered 
incompressible and the following expression is 
used: 

P = Pa + wh 
where p is pressure in pounds per square inch 
(psi), Pa is atmospheric pressure (psi), w is a 
1.0-ft head of standard salt water equal to a 
pressure of 0.4447 psi and h is depth in feet; 
then 

p = 14.7 + 0.444h psi 

At greater depths, the compressibility of 
water must be considered and, to obtain a 
more accurate value, the density of seawater 
may be taken as varying linearly from 64 pcf 
at the surface to 66.6 pcf at 30,000 feet 
(Fig. 2.1). Neglecting atmospheric pressure, 
the pressure at depth h then is approximately 



p= 0.444h-l- 0.3 



\1,000/ 



psi (ref. 1) 

Hence, at 6,000 feet, the pressure on the 
surface of a body is 2,674.8 psi acting normal 
to every exposed surface. 

Seawater Conductivity 

Various devices in submersibles, e.g., mo- 
tors, batteries, pumps, are immersed in a pro- 
tective liquid which serves as an ambient 
pressure compensator and an insulator 
against loss of power to seawater. The intrin- 
sic dielectric conductivity of seawater is ap- 
proximately 4 mhos/m (milliohms/meter) or 4,- 
000 times greater than that of fresh water; 



and, it increases with temperature, salinity, 
frequency of the propagating wave and pres- 
sure (1). A common cause of failure in electri- 
cal systems is contamination of the compen- 
sating/insulating fluid by seawater, where as 
little as 0.1 percent contamination reduces the 
resistivity of some fluids below recommended 
limits (3). Various forms of corrosion (pit, crev- 
ice, stress, layer, etc.) attack metals in seawa- 
ter. Protective coatings and/or sacrificial 
anodes should be considered in the initial de- 
sign stage. 

Temperature 

The temperature of seawater (Fig. 2.1) has, 
among others, two important effects on sub- 
mersible diving: 1) The occupants must deal 
with extremes of temperature caused mainly 
by loss or gain of heat through the pressure 
hull; and 2) the pressure hull material must be 
capable of retaining its desirable characteris- 
tics (crack arrest) under cold temperatures 
encountered above and below the surface. 



Light 

Sunlight has been observed to penetrate the 
ocean to depths as great as 2,300 feet (4), but 
usable sunlight for detailed external viewing 
generally terminates at 1,000 feet even under 
the very best of conditions. Consequently, the 
submersible user must rely on artificial light 
sources for external illumination. Because of 
the lateral and vertical variability of light 
transmission properties and the frequent 
blinding effects of backscatter throughout the 
oceans, lighting for each diving mission is 
approached on a case-by-case basis. 



WEIGHT DENSITY, LB/F=T- 



SALINITY, PARTS PER THOUSAND 

.11 -U IS Ifi 17 

Suflac 




TEMPERATURE, ^F 









\c- 




i ,'/ 












; •; 












'•';' 

























TEMPERATURE. C 



Fig. 2,1 Seawater density, salinity, and temperature as function of ocean deptti 
(From Ret (2)] 



14 



Currents 

Currents in the ocean and contiguous 
waters range in horizontal speeds from less 
than 0.05 knot (Pacific deep water) to 15.5 
knots (Skjerstadt Fjord, Norway), and they 
fluctuate rapidly both spatially and tempo- 
rally (5). Where currents are strong, the sub- 
mersible must be able to maintain control and 
headway to conduct its task and maneuver 
safely. 

Density 

Since seawater density varies not only with 
depth (Fig. 2.1), but with temperature and 
salinity as well, vehicle buoyancy calculations 
must be based on the specific diving location. 
In some instances, underwater discharge of 
fresh or brackish water near the bottom has 
caused significant loss of positive buoyancy on 
a submersible working close to the bottom (6). 

Acoustics 

Light and radio waves attenuate rapidly in 
the ocean. Depending on the frequency of the 
signal and oceanographic conditions, sound 
waves may travel for thousands of miles. 
Sound, therefore, is used for communications 
between ship and submersible, for tracking of 
the submersible from the surface and for a 
variety of data collection instruments. The 
velocity of sound in seawater varies from 
about 4,775 to 5,150 feet/second and increases 
with increasing temperature, salinity and 
pressure (5). If sound is traveling vertically 
downward, the effect of refraction (bending) is 
relatively slight; as the beam direction ap- 
proaches the horizontal, refraction may be- 
come quite great. The usual situation (Fig. 2.2) 
is for sound speed to decrease initially with 
depth as the temperature decreases; hence, 
the upper part of the sound beam travels 
faster than the lower part and a shadow zone, 
into which the sound beam does not pene- 
trate, is left near the surface. Such refraction 
may occur at any depth in the ocean; its 
effects can control the ranges from which a 
submersible can be tracked from its surface 
support and still maintain voice contact. 

Sea State 

The operational limits of submersibles' 
launch/retrieval devices are determined by 
wave height (the vertical distance from wave 
trough to crest) and period (the time interval 



between successive crests passing a station- 
ary point); the condition is generally termed 
Sea State, and its boundaries are presented in 
Table 2.1. Sea state, as defined in the accom- 
panying table, is misleading as a measure of 
the ability of a launch/retrieval apparatus, for 
it does not take into account wave period. For 
example, launch/retrieval may be ruled out in 
low sea states if the period is on the order of 8 
to 10 seconds; but, if the period is doubled or 
greater, the frequency of the wave crest's 
passage is less and time may be sufficient to 
complete the hook-up of lift lines between 
successive crests. One must be aware that the 
sea surface is rarely calm and is in a constant 
state of change. If a submersible system is to 



SPEED OF SOUND, 
FT/SEC 



5000 



6000 



8000 




Fig. 2.2 Typical variation of speed of sound with depth in the ocean. 



15 



be economically practicable, the ability to de- 
ploy and recover the vehicle safely under av- 
erage weather conditions is just as important 
as pressure hull integrity. 

Bottom Conditions 

The ocean floor ranges in composition from 
soft, fine muds to hard rock cliffs; a submers- 
ible can be expected to operate within these 
ranges. During operations requiring a vehicle 
to transit near the bottom, search missions for 
example, the pilot generally prefers to "fly" 
just off the bottom, a few pounds negatively 
buoyant. This procedure makes vertical con- 
trol of the submersible much easier. Over a 
rough, hard bottom, rugged skegs or other 
devices (wheels, skids) are used to protect the 
pressure hull and other components. On a soft 
bottom the submersible may accumulate sedi- 
ment, the weight of which can become great 
enough to restrain the vehicle from surfacing. 
ALUMINAUT, for example, accumulated ap- 
proximately 4,000 pounds of sediment in this 
manner during an operation off the coast of 
Spain. 



tude of upward buoyant force: any object 
immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force 
equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. 

Three states of submersible buoyancy are de- 
sired: Positive, negative and neutral. Displace- 
ment volume (D) determines the buoyant 
force, and buoyancy is expressed by the ratio 
W/D, i.e., weight of vehicle (W) to weight of 
displaced water. Buoyancy regulation under 
different vehicle load and water density condi- 
tions requires variable ballast systems which 
may include one or more of the following: 
Water ballast tanks, steel shot, gasoline filled 
tanks, or interconnected hard and soft con- 
tainers. 

Trim 

To correct unequal weight distribution 
along the longitudinal axis which might cause 
the vehicle to have an up or down angle from 
the horizontal, or to intentionally obtain such 
an up or down angle for the dive mission, a 
trim system is required. This system, through 
a variety of methods, acts to transfer weight 
or ballast forward or aft. 



VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 
REQUIREMENTS 

No one submersible is designed to perform 
all the underwater tasks that may arise, but 
there is a commonality of vehicle performance 
requirements which may be found by analyz- 
ing past dives; these requirements are listed 
below. 

Viewing 

Some means for external viewing is re- 
quired. Viewports (windows) provide the easi- 
est and most reliable solution, but their loca- 
tion and quantity are arbitrary and fre- 
quently dictated by other characteristics of 
the hull configuration. Acrylic plastic pressure 
hulls are available which can provide pano- 
ramic viewing. Television cameras are an ad- 
junct to direct viewing and, with low light 
level amplification, may provide greater range 
and resolution. Optical viewing systems, e.g., 
periscope-type, have also been employed. 

Buoyancy 

Archimedes' principle defines the magni- 



Stability 

Stability is that property of a body that 
causes it, when disturbed from a condition of 
equilibrium, to develop forces that tend to 
restore it to its original condition. Equilib- 
rium is a state of balance between opposing 
forces which may exist in three states: Sta- 
ble, neutral, and unstable. For example, if 
when an angle is put on a ship forces are set 
up which act to reduce the angle, the ship is 
stable. Neutral equilibrium exists when a 
body remains in its displaced position after a 
force that displaced it is removed; unstable 
equilibrium exists when a body continues 
movement after a slight displacement. Sta- 
bility in a submersible is intimately related 
to center of buoyancy and center of gravity. 
The center of buoyancy is the geometric cen- 
ter of volume of the displaced water. The 
center of gravity is the effective center of 
mass. These two centers are indicated as B 
and G, respectively, in Figure 2.3a. When a 
floating body is in stable equilibrium, its cen- 
ter of buoyancy and center of gravity are in 
the same vertical line. Another term which 
must be introduced to understand stability 
is metacenter, which is the point of intersec- 



16 




Fig. 2.3 Change of center of buoyancy metacenter during submergence. 

tion of a vertical line through the center of 
buoyancy of a body floating upright and a 
vertical line through the new center of buoy- 
ancy when it is inclined a small amount as 
indicated by the letter M in Figure 2.3b. 

When a surfaced submersible is tipped as 
shown in Figure 2.3b, the center of buoyancy 
moves from B to Bl because the volume of 
displaced water at the left of G has been 
decreased while the volume of displaced 
water to the right is increased. The center of 
buoyancy, being at the center of gravity of 
the displaced water, moves to point Bl and a 
vertical line through this point passes G and 
intersects the original vertical at M. The 
distance GM is known as the metacentric 
height. This illustrates a fundamental law of 
stability. When M is above G, the metacen- 
tric height is positive and the vessel is stable 
because a moment arm, GZ, has been set up 
which tends to return the vessel to its origi- 
nal position. It is obvious that if M is located 
below G, the moment arm would tend to 
increase the inclination. In this case, the 
metacentric height is negative and the ves- 
sel is unstable. 

When on the surface, a submarine presents 
much the same problem in stability as a 
surface ship. However, differences are appar- 
ent as may be seen in the diagrams in Figure 
2.3c, where the three points B, G, and M, 
though in the same relative positions, are 
much closer together than is the case with 
surface ships. 



As noted above, when a ship on the surface 
heels over, there is a shift in the position of 
the buoyancy center because of the volume 
shape change below the waterline. In the 
case of a submerged submarine, no such 
change takes place because all the volume of 
the submarine is below the surface of the 
water. Thus, for submerged stability, the 
center of gravity must be below the center of 
buoyancy. 

During the process of going from the sur- 
faced condition to the submerged condition, 
the center of gravity of the submarine, G, 
remains fixed slightly below the centerline of 
the boat while B and M approach each other. 
At complete submergence, G is below B, and 
M and B are at a common point. These 
changes are shown diagrammatically in Fig- 
ure 2.3c. 

As the ballast tanks fill, the displacement 
becomes less with the consequent rising of B 
and lowering of M. There is a point during 
submergence when B coincides with G. Due 
to the configuration of the upper part of the 
hull, B would only move a short distance 
from G if a list were taken at this point. In 
this condition, the stability is least; and the 
time spent at this low-righting stage must be 
minimal. When the ballast tanks are fully 
flooded, B rises to the normal center of buoy- 
ancy of the pressure hull, and stability is 
attained with G below B. 

To keep the center of gravity low, batteries 
and other heavy items are carried as low as 
possible where they have the greatest effects 
on stability. Submersible transverse meta- 
centric heights (submerged) are quite small 
and range from 3 to 12 inches. 

Power 

Electric power is compatible with all pro- 
pulsion, lighting, hotel, and virtually all in- 
strument requirements and is the exclusive 
ultimate power source in all deep submers- 
ibles. Long duration power can be supplied 
from the surface through a cable, but at the 
expense of maneuverability; conversely, ma- 
neuverability is retained using self-con- 
tained batteries, with a corresponding limi- 
tation in operating time. Two power options 
predominate in shallow (less than 1,000-ft) 
submersibles: Manual and electric. Transfer 
of manual power through the pressure hull 



17 



can be by direct mechanical linkage (limited 
to shallow depths owing to compression on 
the hull with consequent size reduction of 
thru-hull penetrations) or by hydraulics. 

Maneuverability 

The requirements for maneuverability 
vary considerably in speed and degree, but 
generally the vehicle is expected to be capa- 
ble of controlled movement in the vertical 
and horizontal. For many if not all missions, 
the vehicle must be able to "hover" (dynami- 
cally or statically) at a given depth or dis- 
tance above the bottom. 

External Attachments 

For maximum mission adaptability, the ve- 
hicle should have external attachment 
points for installation of various instruments 
or devices to conduct undersea tasks. Since 
few, if any, of these instruments are stand- 
ard in weight, size, shape, or mode of opera- 
tion, a degree of flexibility in such attach- 
ment points is desirable. In the probable 
event that such devices will require electri- 
cal power and/or control, provisions must be 
made to furnish spare electrical connectors 
and thru-hull penetrators. 

Lock-out/Lock-in 

If the submersible is designed for trans- 
porting and supporting divers, provisions 
must be made for ballasting the vehicle 
when they leave (to restrain it from ascend- 
ing) and deballasting when they return. 
Hatches and viewports in the diver's com- 
partment must be double-acting to resist not 
only external pressures, but internal pres- 
sures as well. Communications must be ar- 
ranged between the diving compartment and 
the unpressurized part of the pressure hull; 
and, when surfaced, a means of providing 
food or medical aid must be incorporated in 
the design if decompression is required. 
Whereas the egress/ingress hatch will be on 
the keel of the submersible, and the vehicle 
might be bottomed during diver operations, 
space between the hatch and bottom must be 
sufficient to allow easy access to the hatch. 
Consideration must likewise be given to per- 
sonnel transfer to a decompression chamber. 

Weight and Size 

The submersible's dry-weight (in air) and 



physical dimensions will govern the methods 
of launch and retrieval as well as the size of 
its support ship and the methods available to 
it for land and air transport. 

Payload 

There are no minimum or maximum pay- 
load standards, and they range from less 
than 100 pounds to several tons. The larger 
the payload requirements, the larger the ve- 
hicle size and, correspondingly, the greater 
the necessary support efforts become, with 
resultant lowered mobility. Trade-offs are 
possible whereby a non-essential manipula- 
tor, for example, might be replaced with an- 
other instrument or a lock-out chamber re- 
placed with a different module for a particu- 
lar dive. Distribution of payload weight and 
balance must be considered to assure that 
vehicle trim and control are not jeopardized. 



HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS 

Respiration 

Oxygen must be supplied, and carbon diox- 
ide must be removed for the duration (6-12 
hr) of a normal dive and for an extended 
period in the event of an emergency. Moni- 
toring devices must be included to maintain 
proper levels and to check for the presence of 
contaminants. In the event of diver support, 
storage and supply of air or mixed gas {e.g., 
helium/oxygen) must be accommodated. 

Temperature/Humidity 

In shallow tropical dives, temperatures 
(°F) and relative humidity (%) reach into the 
90's; with depth, or in the high latitudes, the 
temperature can fall into the 40's with a 
corresponding humidity decrease. Both these 
extremes bear heavily on human perfor- 
mance and must be dealt with successfully. 
Deep diving in the tropics can combine both 
extremes and includes condensation on the 
interior walls of the hull with consequent 
drippage; this can be detrimental to equip- 
ment as well as to human occupants. 

Food/Water 

Normal and emergency food and water ra- 
tions must be carried; limited power or the 
possibility of its entire loss restricts the type 
of food and preparation possible. 



18 



Waste Management 

Means must be provided to accommodate 
metabolic wastes and to treat and store such 
wastes for the duration of the dive. 

Fatigue 

The internal arrangements for pilot and 
passenger(s) must be such that the efficiency 
of both is not decreased by uncomfortable or 
awkward layout of instruments and controls. 
Similarly, long periods at the viewports can 
be extremely taxing and detrimental to the 
mission if pilot or observer is forced into 
awkward positions to view or work. 



EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 

Entanglement 

To minimize the fouling potential with for- 
eign objects such as wreckage, cables, or 
ropes, submersibles should have smooth, 
streamlined exterior surfaces and objects ex- 
tending beyond the fairing should be kept to 
a minimum. When possible, objects that offer 
a potential for fouling should be jettisonable. 

Power Loss 

In the event of a complete electrical power 
loss, the vehicle should have mechanical 
means of surfacing either by jettisoning com- 
ponents, dropping extra ballast or blowing 
water ballast. An emergency power supply to 
operate critical emergency components 
should be considered. 

Fire and Noxious Gasses 

Emergency breathing apparatus and fire 
extinguishers within the pressure hull are 
required in the event of fire and release of 
noxious or toxic gasses. Nonflammable wir- 
ing insulation should be used for all power 
cables and control wiring. Only insulation, 
paint, plastics, and other materials free of 
detrimental outgassing should be used inside 
manned spaces. 

Deballasting Loss 

A number of vehicles contain backup de- 
ballasting procedures in the event that the 
normal deballasting does not function or is 
insufficient. These include jettisoning of bat- 
teries, instruments, manipulators, or trim 
liquids (mercury). Where depth allows, many 



vehicles may be flooded by ambient sea- 
water or pressurized by compressed air to 
open the hatch for emergency exit. In a few 
cases, the entire positively buoyant pressure 
hull can be manually released from the re- 
mainder of the vehicle, whence it will free- 
float to the surface. 

Tracking Loss 

Owing to inaccuracies in tracking proce- 
dures or accidental loss of acoustic contact, a 
submersible may surface out of contact with 
its support ship and be completely on its 
own. Emergency signaling devices and ra- 
dios are required. Some vehicles have such 
low freeboard that to open the hatch in any- 
thing higher than sea state 1 could swamp 
the pressure hull. In this case, emergency 
flares might be impossible to employ, and if a 
long period of time must be spent with the 
hatch closed awaiting outside assistance, the 
endurance of the emergency life support sys- 
tem to sustain the passengers could be ex- 
ceeded. The color of the submersible might 
also be critical to visual sighting. A white 
submersible, with only 1 or 2 feet of its 
conning tower or sail protruding above the 
surface and posed against a background of 
whitecaps, is extremely difficult to see. Fur- 
thermore, radar may be ineffective owing to 
the sail being masked by sea return. 



SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS 

Transportation 

Weight and size are the factors controlling 
a submersible's transport and, hence, mobil- 
ity. Land, sea and air transportation are 
possible; but, for some vehicles, this means 
dismantling major components. Deployment 
at the site of embarkation requires lift and 
possible rail facilities not available at many 
ports. 

Support Platform 

There are few, if any, occasions when a 
submersible will not require a support plat- 
form. At the very least, this platform will be 
required to tow the vehicle to the dive site 
and track it while submerged. In open-sea 
operations, the platform will act to maintain 
the vehicle, house its support and scientific 
crew, and perform work tasks in conjunction 



19 



with the submersible. Proper selection of 
such a platform is critical to the effective- 
ness of the submersible system. 

Launch/Retrieval Apparatus 

Unless the submersible is too large for 
launch/retrieval at sea, an apparatus is re- 
quired to deploy and retrieve it after each 
dive. Four basic methods may be utilized. 
One is a device to attach to and lift the 
vehicle out of the water, such as a crane. The 
second involves deballasting a submersible 
platform onto which the submersible is ma- 
neuvered. Third is the mechanical hoisting of 
an elevator platform attached to a surface 
vessel. A fourth approach involves the 
mother submarine concept in which the sub- 
mersible is launched or retrieved and trans- 
ported by a completely submerged platform. 
In the event of external repairs or mainte- 
nance to the submersible, the mother subma- 
rine may be required to surface. 



Tracking and Navigation 

While the submersible is submerged, a 
method of tracking from the support plat- 
form is required to locate it, to clear the area 
for surfacing, and to join with the vehicle 
after the dive. If the mission requires know- 
ing precisely where the submersible was, 
such as surveying, a method of geodetic posi- 
tioning is necessary. This might be served 
through the tracking system if the support 
platform maintains a running log of its own 
and the submersible's relative position, or it 
may be an in situ navigation network by 
which the vehicle itself maintains a real-time 
display and record of its underwater posi- 
tion. 

THE DEEP QUEST 
SUBMERSIBLE SYSTEM 

To demonstrate one manufacturer's ap- 
proach to meeting the constraints and re- 




F,g 2 4 a) The submers.ble system DEEP QUEST (LMSC); b) Schematic ol DEEP QUEST as desighed with potehtial diver lockout compartment and transfer bell (LMSC) 



20 



quirements of submersible diving, Lockheed 
Missiles and Space Corporation's DEEP 
QUEST system will be examined (Fig. 2.4a). 
DEEP QUEST is not necessarily the most 
successful approach, but its 8,000-ft opera- 
tional depth capability and support systems 
confront and offer solutions to the majority 
of problems encountered. (The following data 
was attained from refs. 7 through 11.) 

ENVIRONMENTAL 
CONSTRAINTS 

Pressure 

The manned compartment (pressure hull 
of DEEP QUEST) consists of two intersect- 
ing spheres welded together with a 20-inch- 
diameter opening between the two and a 20- 
inch-diameter opening (hatch) atop the aft 
sphere. The spheres are 7 feet in outside 
diameter (OD), 0.895 inch thick, and are com- 
posed of 18 percent nickel, 200-KSI-grade 



maraging steel. A weldment of four hemi- 
heads and interconnecting "Y" rings form 
the basic structure. A collapse depth of 13,- 
000 feet (5,772 psi) provides a safety factor of 
1.6 at its operating depth of 8,000 feet (3,554 
psi). DEEP QUEST has been designed to 
incorporate a diver lock-out compartment 
and a transfer bell as shown in Figure 2.4b, 
but these are not affixed to the submersible 
at present. 

Seawater (Corrosion Protection) 

To protect the fairings and foundations, 
piping, variable ballast tanks, high pressure 
air tanks, and electrical inverter/controllers, 
a multi-coat polyurethane Laminar X-500 
finish has been applied. The pressure hull is 
isolated from contact with the aluminum 
outer hull by mounting it on rubber pads and 
clamping it down with a phenolic collar. It is 
further protected by a mild steel anode sys- 
tem. Whenever possible, dissimilar metals 
are electrically isolated by non-conductive 



VIEW DOME (RECESSED) 



RUDDER 



ACCESS TRUNK 

SAIL 

NSTRUMENTATION SPHERE 
PILOT'S SPHERE 

VERTICAL THRUSTER 




DIVER LOCK-OUT 
CHAMBER (CON- 
CEPTUAL 



MANIPULATOR 



VIEWPORT 



VIEWPORT 



TRANSFER BELL 
(NOT STANDARD) 



Fig. 2.4 b) Schematic of DEEP QUEST as designed with potential diver lockout compartment and transfer bell. (LMSC) 



21 



mountings. Small zone anodes are utilized 
freely to protect against electrolysis. 

Temperature 

To control the pressure hull's internal tem- 
perature there are two temperature sensors 
in each of the two spheres which activate an 
electrical damping sys^tem to apportion air 
through three heat exchangers. Excess heat 
(from personnel and operation of electrical 
equipment) is conducted through the hull 
wall. Electrically powered heater strips sup- 
ply additional heat if that produced by equip- 
ment operation is insufficient. Toughness 
(crack arrest) of the pressure hull's marag- 
ing steel was improved by careful modifica- 
tion of the chemical composition of the steel. 

Light 

To provide external lighting at depth, 
DEEP QUEST has nine fixed lights ranging 
in power from 500 to 2,500 watts; these may 
be individually controlled. On each of the two 
television pan and tilt mechanisms is a 500- 
watt flood light for trainable illumination. 

Currents 

To counter adverse currents, in addition to 
maneuvering, DEEP QUEST may employ 
two 7.5-hp, stern-mounted axial thrusters 
and one 7.5-hp lateral water-jet bow thrus- 
ter. 

Density 

A steel shot (1,900 lb dry weight) releasable 
ballast system is used to adjust for minor 
seawater density changes. DEEP QUEST 
normally operates submerged in a slightly 
heavy (negative buoyancy) condition, taking 
advantage of her lifting body outer hull con- 
figuration and vertical thrusters. 

Acoustics 

To minimize the effects of sound refrac- 
tion, the submersible's support ship TRANS- 
QUEST attempts to maintain a position 
nearly above DEEP QUEST during the dive. 
Two 27-kHz acoustic pingers are affixed to 
the submersible; one is omnidirectional and 
one is vertically oriented by a parabolic re- 
flector. A directional hydrophone antenna on 
TRANSQUEST provides the relative bearing 
to DEEP QUEST and a modification to the 
submersible's underwater telephone (UQC) 



provides range information on a digital read- 
out. 

Sea State 

TRANSQUESTs launch/retrieval system 
(see Chap. 12), a hydraulically-powered ele- 
vator platform mounted in the open-stern- 
well, is marginally effective at sea state 4 in 
short period waves, optimizing at longer pe- 
riod swells. 

Bottom Conditions 

DEEP QUEST'S outer hull is streamlined 
and rugged. Two skids on the bottom of the 
vehicle protect it against damage and hold it 
high enough off the bottom to inhibit the 
possibility of accidentally taking aboard sedi- 
ment. Object avoidance/search sonar pro- 
vides for full-scale range indications from 15 
to 1,500 yards. 



VEHICLE PERFORMANCE 

Viewing 

For direct viewing, DEEP QUEST incorpo- 
rates two viewports: one in the forward hull 
looks down and forward; one in the aft hull 
looks directly down through a hatch located 
on the bottom of the aft hull. The aft view- 
port is equipped with an optical remote view- 
ing system incorporating an external "fish- 
eye" lens. Augmenting the viewports are two 
(port/starboard) pan- and tilt-mounted TV 
cameras; one bow-mounted TV camera, and 
one sail-mounted, 360-degree-vision, peri- 
scope-scanning, TV camera, and a fifth cam- 
era mounted as desired to observe a particu- 
lar area or equipment for the specific dive. 

Buoyancy 

Four ballasting/buoyancy components are 
incorporated in DEEP QUEST (Fig. 2.5): 1) A 
Main Ballast System, consisting of two for- 
ward and two after tanks (port/starboard), 
provides 12 percent reserve buoyancy on the 
surface and is blown free of water by com- 
pressed air; 2) a Shot Ballast System, con- 
sisting of 1,900 pounds (wet) of steel shot in 
two cylindrical hoppers mounted outboard in 
the longitudinal C.G. plane provides "fail 
safe" ballast which is electromagnetically 
held and dropped in the event of a total 
power loss or metered out as desired; 3) 



22 



34,000 pounds of syntactic foam (36-pcf ave. 
density) neutralizes negative buoyancy of 
fixed structure and equipment; and 4) mova- 
ble lead ballast (26-lb bricks), up to 3,000 
pounds, provides the means of adjusting trim 
and weight as calculated pror to each dive. 

Trim 

The longitudinal moment (trim) of DEEP 
QUEST can be changed 30 degrees up or 
down during the dive by pumping oil from 
one to another of two, 18-inch-diameter, pres- 
sure-compensated, spherical tanks located 
fore and aft; each tank is initially half filled 
with 720 pounds of mercury which are sepa- 
rated from the oil by a rubber diaphragm 
and forced forward or aft by the pumped oil. 
A further refinement on DEEP QUEST is a 
port/starboard list tank system which 



changes the roll or transverse moment (±10 
degrees) of the vehicle in a fashion similar to 
the trim system. 

Stability 

The surfaced metacentric height (GM) of 
DEEP QUEST is 12 inches; the submerged 
metacentric height (BG) is 3 inches. The short 
BG requires that careful consideration 
be given to attachment location and weight 
of additional equipment. 

Power 

Main power is supplied by two, 120-VDC, 
pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries 
supplying a total of 230 kWh which enable 
the vehicle to cruise at a speed of 2 knots for 
18 hours. For scientific or other work instru- 
ments the following is available: 



RUDDER 
(YAW) HORIZONTAL MOVE 
^_^ 'THRUSTERS (1) RIGHT 




I BATTER I E"S~1 ^,.^^VERTICAL 

THRUSTERS (3) 
"-Al^^^t :f MOVE 



REV-FWD THRUSTERS (2) ^EFT 




DIVE 
PLANE 
(PITCH) 



VERTICAL THRUSTER CONTROL 
(UP/DOWN) 



DYNAMIC CONTROL 



PAYLOAD AREA 
MAN-IN-SEA MODULE 

VARIABLE BALLAST TANKS (2) 
PRESSURE SPHERES 




BLOW 
MAIN i 

BALLAST '- 

TANKS 
(4) 




BOW VIEW 



STATIC CONTROL 



Fig. 2.5 DEEP QUEST's dynamic and static maneuvering ability. 



23 



120 VDC (nominal) 

29 VDC ± 2% 
115 VAC rms ± 2.5 V, 60 Hz, single phase 
115 VAC rms ± 2%, 400 Hz, single phase 
Two independent 28-VDC, silver-zinc batter- 
ies within the pressure hull provide 3.6 kWh 
of emergency power. 

Maneuverability 

The axial, vertical, and lateral propulsive 
units, as described in Figure 2.5, in conjunc- 
tion with stern planes and a rudder, provide 
five degrees of freedom (pitch, roll, heave, 
yaw, surge) and a dynamic maneuvering ca- 
pability through the speed range of to 3.5 
knots. Static roll and pitch rotational mo- 
ments are applied by weight transfer in the 
trim and list systems. An automatic pilot 
(course, speed and pitch angle) and an auto- 



matic depth control are additional control 
adjuncts. 

External Attachments 

DEEP QUEST offers several areas for at- 
tachment of instruments, and a jettisonable, 
steel framework or "brow" may be attached 
on the bow to carry a variety of instruments 
including a 700-pound coring device or a 1,- 
500-pound reel of line. Abaft the pressure 
hull is an enclosed area within the fairing of 
approximately 385 cubic feet; this area may 
be used to accommodate instruments or tools 
of widely varying dimensions and weights. In 
the event that these areas are not desirable 
or usable, it is possible to attach instruments 
to the top of the vehicle by bolting down 
"Unistrut" configurations as desired (Fig. 
2.6). Within the after pressure sphere two 19- 




Fig. 2 6 Unislmt inslrument aHachmenl to DEEP QUESTS fairing (NAVOCEANO) 



24 



inch-wide, 59-inch-high, standard electronics 
racks are available for installation of equip- 
ment; within the entire pressure hull ap- 
proximately 20 cubic feet of space are availa- 
ble for additional equipment. Electrical pene- 
trations through the pressure hull are pro- 
vided for additional equipment; these consist 
of twenty-six, 2-wire (No. 18) AWG circuits 
and four, 2-wire (No. 16) AWG circuits. Extra 
leads can be made available by alternate 
substitution means. 

Lock-out/Lock-in 

A 25-inch-diameter door on the after pres- 
sure sphere is configured to join with a "man- 
in-sea" module to provide diver lock-out/lock- 
in facilities for at least two divers. The mod- 
ule, when installed, will occupy the enclosed 
area now available for additional instrumen- 
tation. A transfer bell may be attached to the 
bottom hatch of the after pressure sphere for 
transferring personnel to or from manned un- 
dersea stations at atmospheric pressure or to 
rescue personnel from disabled submarines 
configured to accommodate the transfer bell. 

Payload 

In excess of 2,000 pounds (wet weight) may 
be carried within the diver module area. A 
total of 7,000 pounds may be accommodated by 
relocation of buoyancy (syntactic foam) mate- 
rial. 



HUMAN CONSIDERATIONS 

Respiration 

Oxygen is carried within the pressure hull 
in four bottles (0.37 ft^ each at 2,250 psi), two 
of which are spares. Oxygen is automatically 
bled into the cabin by a solenoid-actuated 
differential pressure control switch maintain- 
ing cabin pressure at 2 inches of water above 
a 1-atmosphere reference chamber. Carbon 
dioxide and other contaminants are removed 
by blowing a portion of the circulated air 
through lithium hydroxide/activated charcoal 
cannisters. An emergency blower is available 
for backup contaminant removal. Cabin pres- 
sure is monitored and displayed on a gage in 
the forward sphere. Oxygen and carbon diox- 
ide partial pressures are detected by sensors 
and displayed; a red light alarm is activated 
when these pressures are beyond allowable 



limits (Oj: 140 to 180 mm Hg; COj: 8 mm Hg 
max.). A Mine Safety Appliance universal kit 
is carried to identify trace contaminants. 

Temperature/Humidity 

With seawater temperature between 28° 
and 55°F, cabin temperature is controlled, as 
explained previously, at 70°F ± 10°F. Relative 
humidity is maintained at 60% ± 20% by 
condensation of moisture in the heat exchan- 
gers. All parts of the pressure hull's interior, 
with exceptions of the heat exchange portion 
and hatches, are covered with 5/8-inch-thick 
polyvinyl chloride (Ensolite) insulation. 

Food/Water 

Normal diving food rations consist of sand- 
wiches and other foods prepared daily prior to 
each dive. Emergency dehydrated food is car- 
ried to sustain four people for 48 hours. Water 
is carried in plastic containers. 

Waste-Management 

Wide-mouth plastic jars enclosing vinyl bags 
are carried for collection and storage of liquid 
and solid wastes. Wescodyne germicide is used 
as a stabilizing agent and activated charcoal 
for odor control. A folding camp-type toilet 
seat with plastic waste bag is carried. 

Fatigue 

Pilot and co-pilot are provided with cush- 
ioned seats in the forward sphere. No perma- 
nent facilities are provided for the two observ- 
ers other than a foam-rubber cushion located 
on the deck between the pilot and co-pilot 
upon which the observer may lie to use the 
forward-looking viewport. The dimensions of 
the pressure hull are sufficient to provide 
headroom for standing and stretching. 

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 

Entanglement 

DEEP QUEST^s streamlined fairings pre- 
sent minimal entanglement potential. Its ma- 
nipulators, pan and tilt mechanisms and for- 
ward instrument brow are jettisonable. All 
propellers are shrouded and screened to pre- 
vent entanglement with rope or wire. 

Power Loss 

An emergency power source is carried in- 
side the pressure hull on each dive. In the 



25 



event of a total power (normal and emer- 
gency) loss the steel shot is automatically 
dumped. Emergency power can be used to 
operate jettisoning circuits, underwater tele- 
phone, radio, and life support equipment. 

Fire and Noxious Gasses 

An emergency breathing system for four 
people is carried which consists of four full- 
face masks coupled to a common rechargeable 
LiOH/charcoal cannister and oxygen supply 
with a breathing bag which acts as an accu- 
mulator. A pressure of 1.5 inches of water 
above cabin ambient pressure is maintained 
in the emergency system to prevent contami- 
nated air from entering. The system provides 
a total of 3 hours for each person. Two 2.5- 
pound CO2 fire extinguishers are carried at all 
times. When a fifth person is carried, an OBA 
(Oxygen Breathing Apparatus) is added. 

Deballasting Loss 

In the event that normal ballasting meth- 
ods and power are lost, the following may be 
dropped to gain positive buoyancy as 'indi- 
cated: 



Not included above are the jettisonable me- 
chanical arms and brow and breakaway pan 
and tilt mechanisms (Fig. 2.7). 

Tracking Loss 

If DEEP QUEST becomes separated from 
TRANSQUEST , it has several options while on 
the surface for communication and location. A 
radio direction finder on the support ship may 
home in on a 2182-kHz voice transmitter, or a 
Coast Guard aircraft may home on a 121.5- 
MHz signal transmitted from a self-powered, 
omnidirectional emergency beacon aboard the 
submersible. A transducer affixed to the bot- 
tom of the submersible allows for UQC com- 
munication when surfaced. A floodable sail 
over DEEP QUESTs top hatch allows for 
opening of the hatch in inclement weather to 
flush out cabin air if required. Surface view- 
ing capability without opening the hatch is 
attained through use of the sail-mounted tele- 
vision periscope. DEEP QVEST's interna- 
tional orange sail and rudder provide excel- 
lent contrast against all spectrums of water 
color. A pressure-switch actuated, sail- 
mounted, flashing xenon light is provided for 
nighttime visual location. 




BOW RACK 



MANIPULATORS 



TRIM HG 
1,250LB 



STEEL 
SHOT 

1 700-LB LISTHG FWD BATTERY 
800- LB CELLS 

3,500-LB 



PAN & 
TILT 



Fig. 2.7 DEEP QUEST's jettisonable components. 



26 



SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS 

Transportation 

As it is one of the larger deep submersibles, 
DEEP QUEST is normally considered only sea 
transportable. However, with the sail and 
stern planes removed, DEEP QUEST could be 
air (C-141) and land (tractor, trailer, rail) 
transportable. At its home port, San Diego, a 
marine railway is available to transport it in 
and out of its shop. 

Support Platform 

The Motor Vessel TRANSQUEST (see Table 
12.2 for specifications) was specifically de- 
signed to support DEEP QUEST in extended 
open-sea operations, but it is somewhat lim- 
ited by its size (108 ft) and speed (6.2 knots 
max.). 



Launch/Retrieval Apparatus 

(See sea state above.) 

Tracking and Navigation 

Tracking of DEEP QUEST was outlined 
under Acoustics above and is utilized to vector 
DEEP QUEST to desired locations as well as 
to track her movements. Three systems are 
available aboard DEEP QUEST for naviga- 
tion independent of the surface (Fig. 2.8). The 
first system consists of a gyrocompass (provid- 
ing heading azimuth which is further cor- 
rected to true heading by a vertical reference 
gyro and the navigation computer), a Doppler 
sonar log (provides vehicle speed relative to 
the bottom), and an analog computer which 
processes the direction and speed information 
and plots the vehicle's course on an x-y plot- 
ter, as well as presenting the information to a 



UNDERSIDE 
VIEW 



TRACKING PINGER 



VELOCIMETER 




X Y PLOTTER 




DOPPLER 

SONAR 

TRANSDUCERS 

GYROCOMPASS 



VERTICAL GYRO 



PRESSURE 
TRANSDUCER 



CTFM SONAR 

CRT DISPLAY SCOPE 



■•^.^> 



'^A^, 






1 


^ TRANSPONDER 


\^ 


\ 


> 


\ 
\ 


•2 

.CI 

' m 


1 '*' 


\^ 




^ vJ 




\ 




\ 




\ 




\ 


D 


\ 

\ 


TRANSPONDER 


\ 



Fig. 2.8 DEEP QUEST's navigational components. 






TRANSPONDER 



27 



data recorder. The second system uses gyro- 
compass or remote reading magnetic compass 
(Magnesyn) heading and flowmeter speed (or 
odometer distance) through the water to ob- 
tain a manual navigational track. A third 
system utilizes the laterally-trainable Straza 
Model 500 CTFM sonar mounted on the sail 
which transmits and receives sonar signals 
and generates both audio and visual outputs 
in the pressure hull and, in addition, provides 
a cathode ray tube with digital readout of 
range to a target. Using fixed bottom objects 
as landmarks or range and bearing of 
transponders placed on the sea floor, DEEP 
QVEST can employ the CTFM to obtain a plot 
of its progress relative to them. By using a 
down-looking depth sounder/strip chart re- 
corder and upward-looking depth sounder in 
conjunction with the CTFM and transponders, 
accurate post-dive navigational charts may be 
constructed. 

The DEEP QVEST submersible system is 
one of the most sophisticated in existence and 
was designed to accomplish such diverse tasks 
as research, surveying, engineering, search 
and retrieval, diver support and rescue. Rela- 
tive to the shallower diving submersibles, it 
may appear unduly complex. Undoubtedly, 
one can do without a great number of DEEP 
quest's capabilities if the operational tasks 
are merely for viewing and simple work func- 
tions. The trade-offs are obvious: The simpler 
the submersible, the simpler the tasks it may 
perform. Nonetheless, the basic design and 
operational aspects outlined above must be 
confronted and solved by all submersibles to 
varying degrees; where one or several of these 
functions have been slighted — and no sub- 
mersible is without fault — the weakness is 
apparent. 

A common weakness, undoubtedly the most 
crucial obstacle to wide-scale submersible em- 
ployment, resides in the operational concepts. 
Possibly influenced by independently-operat- 
ing, self-sufficient military submarines, sub- 
mersible architects have tended to overlook or 
underestimate the critical role played by sur- 
face craft in supporting extended open-sea 
operations. In the formative years, the many 
technical problems of deep submergence over- 
shadowed this surface dependency, but, once 
they were solved and submersibles routinely 
dived without crippling malfunctions, inade- 



quacies of surface support came into proper 
perspective and still plague vehicle owners. 
Future submersible designers must, if they 
hope to achieve more effective diving records, 
be cognizant of the fact that small, maneuver- 
able, battery-powered vehicles are inextrica- 
bly bound to their surface support platform 
for safety, sustenance and operational effi- 
ciency. 



REFERENCES 

1. King, D. A. 1969 Basic hydrodynamics, in 
Handbook of Ocean and Underwater 
Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 
York, p. 2-1 thru 2-32. 

2. Warren, W. F. 1961 Seawater Density in 
the Ocean as a Function of Depth and a 
Method of Utilizing This Information in 
the Design of Pressure Vessels Which 
Will Remain in a Constant Depth Range 
Between the Surface and Bottom. Naval 
Ord. Lab. NOLTR 61-179, AD 273634. 

3. McQuaid, R. W. and Brown, C. L. 1972 
Handbook of Fluids and Lubricants for 
Deep Ocean Applications. Naval Ship Re- 
search and Development Lab., Annapolis, 
Md., Rept. MATLAB 360, 249 pp. 

4. Busby, R. F. 1967 Undersea penetration 
by ambient light and visibility. Science, 
v. 158, n. 3805, p. 1178-1180. 

5. Encyclopedia of Oceanography 1966 Ency- 
clopedia of Earth Science Series, v. 1, 
edited by R. W. Fairbridge, Reinhold Pub. 
Corp., New York. 

6. Personal Communication with A. Markel, 
Reynolds Submarine Services, Inc., 
Miami, Florida. 

7. Lockheed Missiles and Space Corp. 1967 
DEEP QUEST Summary Description. 
LMSC No. 5-13-67-3, Sunnyvale, Califor- 
nia. 

8. , 1968 Lockheed DEEP QUEST 

Submersible System. LMSC/DO80197, Re- 
vision B, Sunnyvale, California. 

9. , DEEP QUEST Research Subma^ 

rine. LMSC/D015168 (unpub. manuscript). 

10. , DEEP QUEST-The Versatile 

Submarine. Ocean System Marketing 
(Sales Brochure), Sunnyvale, California. 

11. Shumaker, L. A. 1972 New Developments 
in Deep Submersible Operations (unpub. 
manuscript). 



28 



TABLE 2.1 SEA STATE CHART 



Wind and Sea Scale For Fully Arisen 


Sea 








Sea-General 




Wind 






Sea 


Sea 
State Description 


(Beaufort) 
Wind Force 


Description 


Range 
(Knots) 


Wave 

Height Feet 

Average 


Significant Range 
of Periods 
(Seconds) 





Sea like a mirror. 





Calm 







- 


Ripples with the appearance of scales are formed, but without 
foam crests. 


1 


Light 
Airs 


1-3 


0.05 


up to 
1.2 sec. 


1 


Small wavelets, still short but more pronounced. Crests have a 
glassy appearance and do not break. 


2 


Light 
Breeze 


4-6 


0.18 


0.4-2.8 


Large wavelets. Crests begin to break. Foam of glassy ap- 
pearance. Perhaps scattered white caps. 


3 


Gentle 
Breeze 


710 


0.6 
0.88 


0.8-5.0 
1.0 6.0 


2 


Small waves becoming longer; fairly frequent white caps. 


4 


Moderate 
Breeze 


11-16 


1.4 
1.8 
2.0 
2.9 


1.0-7.0 
1.4-7.6 
1.5-7.8 
2.0-8.8 


3 


4 


Moderate waves, taking a more pronounced long form; many 
white caps are formed. (Chance of some spray.) 


5 


Fresh 
Breeze 


17-21 


3.8 
4.3 
5.0 


2.5-10.0 
2.810.6 
3.0 11.0 


5 


Large waves begin to form; the white foam crests are more 
extensive everywhere. (Probably some spray.) 


6 


Strong 
Breeze 


22-27 


6.4 
7.9 
8.2 

9.6 


3.4-12.2 
3.7-13.5 
3.8-13.6 
4.0-14.5 


6 


Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves begins to 
be blown in streaks along the direction of wind. (Spindrift 
begins to be seen.) 


7 


Moderate 
Gale 


28-33 


11 
14 
14 
16 


4.5-15.5 
4.716.7 
4.8-17.0 
5.0 17.0 


7 


Moderately high waves of greater length; edges of crests 
begin to break into the spindrift. The foam is blown m 
well-marked streaks along the direction of the wind. 
Spray affects visibility. 


8 


Fresh 
Gale 


34-40 


19 
21 
23 
25 
28 


5.5-18.5 
5.8-19.7 
6.0-20.5 
6.2-20.8 
6.5-21.8 


8 


High waves. Dense streaks of foam along the direction of 
the wind. Sea begins to "roll". Spray may affect visibility. 


9 


Strong 
Gale 


41-47 


31 
36 
40 


723 

7-24.2 

7-25 


9 


Very high waves with long overhanging crests. The resultmg 
foam, in great patches, is blown in dense white streaks 
along the direction of the wind. On the whole, the surface 
of the sea takes a white appearance. The rolling of the sea 
becomes heavy and shock-like. Visibility affected. 


10 


Whole 
Gale 


48-55 


44 
49 
52 
54 
59 


7.5-26 
7.5-27 
8-28.2 
828.5 
829.5 


Exceptionally high waves (small and medium-sized ships might 
be for a time lost to view behind waves). The sea is completely 
covered with long white patches of foam lying along the direction 
of the wind. Everywhere the edges of the waves are blown into 
froth. Visibility affected. 


11 


Storm 


56-63 


64 
73 


8.5-31 
10-32 


Air filled with foam and spray. Sea completely white with driving 
spray; visibility very seriously affected. 


12 


Hurricane 


64-71 


>80 


10(35) 



29 




3 



CONTEMPORARY 
DEVELOPMENT 

As surface craft progressed century-by- 
century from muscle, through sail, steam, 
diesel-electric and nuclear power, peaceful 
undersea explorers merely dabbled beneath 
the surface from cable-suspended spheres 
and open-bottomed diving bells. Then, in less 
than a score of years, mankind virtually 
leap-frogged to the greatest known ocean 
depths and produced an astounding array of 
undersea vehicles for science, industry and 
recreation. 

One interested in undersea history cannot 
help but wonder: Why the 1960's? What pres- 
sures or inducements were then active to 
encourage investment of millions of dollars 
in undersea exploration that were not pres- 
ent earlier in the twentieth century, or, for 



SUBMERSIBLE 



that matter, in any earlier period? Undoubt- 
edly, economic gain was the major underly- 
ing motive, but what made several giant 
American corporations and numerous small 
companies and individuals believe there was 
a market or need for such capabilities? There 
is no single factor that prompted this surge 
of activity; instead, the influences of several 
separate and concurrent events were at 
work; for example: 

— A demonstrated technological ability 
to reach the greatest known ocean 
depth in 1960, 
— A space program amounting eventu- 
ally to $35 billion, 
— Loss of the U.S. Navy nuclear subma- 
rine THRESHER resulting in a pro- 



31 



gram recommending large sums for 
deep submergence, 
— Increasing Federal funding for oceano- 

graphic programs, 
— An oil industry moving farther out and 

deeper into the sea, 
— Scientific reports detailing the many 
results and advantages of ocean study 
from manned submersibles, 
— Serious scientific desire to study the 

deep sea in situ, 
— A burgeoning market in recreational 

undersea diving, 
— A military interest in materials and 
techniques for deep submergence vehi- 
cles, 
— Increased recognition of mineral re- 
sources and ever dwindling terrestrial 
resources, 
— Forecasts by military and government 
officials and private industry of the 
promising aspects for deep submers- 
ibles, and 
— Individual awareness of the grandeur 
and beauty of the deep sea through 
tasteful and exciting cinematic and tel- 
evision productions. 
To varying degrees, these events and pres- 
sures worked to produce a 1970 worldwide 
fleet of over 100 shallow and deep submers- 
ibles — up from less than a handful a decade 
earlier. Another factor, impossible to meas- 
ure, is the pure desire of man to challenge 
and overcome the hostility of the deep ocean. 
When he replied "Because it's there!" to one 
inquiring why climb a mountain, Mallory 
also offered an explanation for many who 
challenge the abyss. 

BATHYSPHERE TO BATHYSCAPH 
(1934-1960) 

"When once it (the deep ocean) has been 
seen, it will remain forever the most vivid 
memory in life, solely because of its cosmic 
chill and isolation, the external and ftbso- 
lute darkness and the indescribable beauty 
of its inhabitants." 

So wrote naturalist William Beebe (1) in 
describing the events leading to his record- 
breaking, .3,028-ft dive in 1934. 

Before Beebe and his engineer associate, 
Otis Barton, descended to this unprece- 
dented depth, man's involvement with the 



deep ocean reached a maximum of 600 feet 
(2); this was with the aid of heavy metal 
diving suits which reportedly seized or con- 
tracted arthritis at the joints within a few 
hundred feet of depth. 

Barton's BATHYSPHERE (a word coined 
by Beebe meaning deep sphere) was a single 
spherical steel casting 54 inches in inside 
diameter and IV2 inches thick. The 2V2-ton 
sphere was supported on deck by a set of 
wooden skids (Fig. 3.1). A 14-inch-diameter 
entrance hatch was sealed by a 400-pound 
steel door bolted to the sphere. Watertight 
integrity between door and sphere was ac- 
complished by a circular metal gasket fitting 
into a shallow groove and packed with white 
lead to prohibit leaking at shallow depths. 
Three viewports were available, although 
only two were used; these were composed of 
fused quartz glass 3 inches thick and 8 
inches in diameter. The third viewport was 
sealed with a metal plug when spare win- 
dows were subsequently exhausted. Oxygen 
was carried in the sphere in two 80-gallon- 
capacity tanks at 1,800 psi and automatically 
bled into the cabin. Carbon dioxide was re- 
moved by circulating air through soda lime 
and calcium chloride was carried to control 
humidity. 

The BATHYSPHERE was lowered from the 
surface on the end of a non-twisting steel- 
core cable of 29-ton breaking strength. A 
second cable served as a conductor for a 
telephone and two lights, which were aimed 
through a viewport for external illumination. 
The power cable was tied by rope to the lift 
cable at intervals and passed into the pres- 
sure sphere through a stuffing box. Power 
for the lights was provided by a surface 
generator and a battery supplied the tele- 
phone power. In the event of telephone fail- 
ure, an arrangement was made whereby a 
light in the sphere could be keyed from above 
to signal; a further arrangement made it 
possible to key a light on deck from within 
the pressure sphere. 

Built in 1929 by Barton, and donated by 
him to the New York Zoological Museum in 
1940, the BATHYSPHERE progressively 
made record dives over a 4-year period off 
Bermuda. Beebe's purpose in these dives 
was to pursue his studies of deep-sea orga- 
nisms which he began several years earlier 



32 




Fig. 3.1 Internal arrangement of the bathysphere of 1934. From left to right-Chemical apparatus with its blower; 
four trays and pan; oxygen tank and valve; telephone coil and battery box— the telephones are plugged into this box 
and it is connected by the wire shown on the two hooks above the oxygen valve, with the telephone wires in the 
communication hose; thermometer-humidity recorder, and below it the left hand sealed window; barometer; 
switch-box at top of sphere; central observation window, immediately below switch-box; oxygen tank and valve; 
searchlight. The communication hose is shown as it enters the bathysphere through the stuffing-box. [From Ref. (1)] 



33 



from a laboratory on Nonsuch Island. Finan- 
cial support came from both the Zoological 
Museum, where he was Director of the De- 
partment of Tropical Research, and later 
from the National Geographic Society. 

Beebe's accounts of BATHYSPHERE'S 
dives in Htilf Mile Down are exciting, in- 
formative and extremely readable. Indeed, 
his voyages aroused public interest to the 
point where his narrative during the 1,500- 
to 2,200-foot portion of a dive on 23 Septem- 
ber 1932 was transmitted live to the United 
States and Europe by the National Broad- 
casting Corporation. Professor Beebe in the 
1930's and 40's was as familiar an undersea 
figure as Jacques Cousteau would be a score 
of years later. 

In spite of Beebe's successes the BATHY- 
SPHERE and its mode of operation has sev- 
eral deficiencies for the undersea biologist; 
some were minor, others were potentially 
serious. 

— With a weight displacement ratio of 
1.49, the BATHYSPHERE would sink 
like a rock if the cable broke. 
— External pressures squeezed, from 
several inches to several feet, the elec- 
trical cable into the cabin on each dive. 
Packing the cable in ice to contract it 
before tightening down on the stuffing 
box alleviated this problem somewhat. 
— A voltage drop from 110 V to 75 V 
caused by the resistance in 3,600 feet 
of cable reduced the lights' candle 
power (2,628 to 732) and required 
switching to a more powerful genera- 
tor for photography. The lights, shin- 
ing through the glass viewport, heated 
it to a dangerous level. 
^The cramped quarters in the 4V2-foot 
sphere made a dive of 3V2 hours almost 
the limit of endurance. 
— Every up-down motion of the surface 
ship was transmitted to the sphere and 
only a flat calm allowed a specified 
depth to be maintained. 
— Although corrected to an acceptable 
degree — by packing with white lead lu- 
bricant — leakage around viewports 
and hatch cover occurred frequently. 
The lack of horizontal maneuverability 
prompted Beebe to take, what must be con- 
sidered, daring measures on shallow reef- 
exploring dives. Towed along by the surface 



ship, and with fixed wooden rudders at- 
tached to stabilize the sphere, Beebe ob- 
served the bottom at close range and relied 
solely on voice command to the ship to raise 
the BATHYSPHERE when a vertical obsta- 
cle appeared in his path. On one such voyage, 
he relates an encounter with a towering 
coral head which came perilously close to 
colliding with the dangling sphere. One must 
stand in awe of these early pioneers, for in 
the thirties a parting of the cable, even at 
shallow depths, virtually guaranteed a death 
warrant. 

To one early undersea adventurer, Menotti 
Nani, the technical and environmental perils 
of deep submergence were apparently inci- 
dental. Mr. C. R. Vincent, an early 1930's 
metal alloys fabricator of Newark, New Jer- 
sey, was approached by Mr. Nani to con- 
struct a 300-ft, 1-man submersible of his de- 
sign. Mr. Vincent, now of Houston, Texas, 
recently related this experiment in a Febru- 
ary 1974 issue of "The Ensign" and called 
the little boat another "Novelty of the 
Depression Era." Constructed almost en- 
tirely of Krupp stainless steel, the submers- 
ible (Fig. 3.2) had four tiny glass viewports 
aft and relied upon the ejection of com- 
pressed air for propulsion. Mr. Nani's origi- 
nal intention was to demonstrate the feasi- 
bility of this type of submersible for observa- 
tion and, with modifications, submarine res- 
cue. But, except for a few test dives in the 
Passaic and Hudson Rivers, the prototype 
never realized its potential and slipped qui- 
etly into obscurity. Its demise, however, 
could not be attributed to lack of daring on 
Mr. Nani's part, for at one point his plans 
envisioned riding in the submersible as it 
was dropped from the George Washington 
Bridge. The New York City police, however, 
considered the plan to be without scientific 
merit and refused permission. 

In spite of the high public interest and 
many scientific revelations of the BATHY- 
SPHERE, a period of deep-sea inactivity fol- 
lowed its successful dives. To the clairvoy- 
ant, a hint of where the next activity might 
arise could have come from the many refer- 
ences by Beebe to the stratospheric balloon- 
ing accomplishments of a Swiss physicist, Au- 
guste Piccard, who displayed a keen interest 
in Beebe's dives. 



34 




Fig 3 2 Inventor Menotti Nam waves a grim goodbye as he prepares for a plunge into the Hudson River (Mr C Richards Vincent, Houston. Tex ) 



Piccard, a towering, innovative research 
scientist, was interested in the study of 
cosmic rays, and, because of the earth's pro- 
tective atmosphere, designed a stratospheric 
balloon to carry him and his instruments 
above the atmosphere for unhindered meas- 
urements. On August 18, 1932, the Professor 
ascended from Zurich to a world record 72,- 
177 feet. Financed by the Belgium National 
Fund for Scientific Research or Ponds Na- 
tional de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), 
the balloon was named FNRS, and in 1933 its 
gondola hung prophetically over the BATHY- 
SPHERE in the Hall of Science of the Cen- 
tury of Progress Exposition at Chicago. 

Beebe was a biologist whose major interest 
in the BATHYSPHERE was its ability to 



provide him with a better means to conduct 
his studies; he was a user of technology, not 
a developer. Piccard, on the other hand, be- 
came a developer of technology and a user of 
the laws of physics. His initial interest was 
cosmic ray study which forced him to modify 
and apply the stratospheric balloon in the 
same manner that Beebe applied the BATH- 
YSPHERE. Subsequently, he developed a ve- 
hicle the marine scientist could use to pene- 
trate the oceans as he did the atmosphere 
(3). The seed of this undersea vehicle germi- 
nated for some time in the Professor's mind, 
and in 1939 the FNRS granted him some $25 
thousand to construct a bathyscaph or deep 
boat, christened FNRS-2. But before he pro- 
gressed into the actual construction stage, 



35 



World War II intervened and halted all 
thoughts of peaceful research. 

At the commencement of WWII the follow- 
ing state-of-the-art existed in military and 
other undersea circles: Diesel-electric sur- 
face-powered military submarines were oper- 
ating at a maximum depth of 312 feet and, 
under normal conditions, stayed underwater 
some 20 hours using what air was in the boat 
when the hatches were closed. Lithium hy- 
droxide was scattered throughout the sub- 
marine for carbon dioxide absorption if the 
situation warranted. Ambient-pressure div- 
ing, i.e., where the diver is exposed to sea 
pressure and not inside a pressure-resistant 
suit or capsule, had progressed to the stage 
where 243-foot dives, breathing helium-oxy- 
gen, were a practicality (4). Earlier subma- 
rine disasters in 1925 (USS S-51) and 1927 
(USS S-4) demonstrated the need for devel- 
opment of better diving techniques and res- 
cue devices. In conjunction with the Bureau 
of Mines, the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Con- 
struction and Repair began investigations 
into all aspects of prolonged deep-diving at 
ambient pressure. This work progressed to a 
point where an Experimental Diving Unit 
was established in Washington, D.C., in 1927, 
which went on to develop chambers for res- 
cuing trapped submariners, as well as de- 
compi'ession tables and gas mixture for di- 
-vers. The benefits of this research paid off in 
1939 when the USS SQVALVS went down in 
243 feet of water off the Isle of Shoals in the 
North Atlantic. Forty of the trapped crew 
were rescued by the newly developed rescue 
chamber and with the assistance of divers 
breathing helium-oxygen. 

Ambient pressure diving up to 1943 was, 
BATHYSPHERE-Wke, tethered to the sur- 
face for support in the form of air and verti- 
cal movement. Devices did exist for the diver 
to carry his own oxygen or air supplies, but 
oxygen is toxic at depths greater than about 
35 feet, and the compressed air device, in- 
vented by a French Naval officer. Com- 
mander Le Prier, in 1925, released a diver- 
regulated, continuous fiow of air into a face 
mask which, by design, imposed very short 
diving limits. 

In 1943 another French Naval officer, 
Jacques Cousteau, teamed with engineer 
Emil Gagnan and produced the demand reg- 



ulator to provide air from tanks only when 
the diver inhaled and automatically in- 
creased the air pressure to equalize pres- 
sures inside the body with water pressure 
outside. The demand regulator and the imag- 
inative artistry of Cousteau later produced a 
revolution in the field of recreational and 
commercial diving. 

With the close of hostilities, Piccard once 
again asked for, and received, the pre-war 
funds allocated for FNRS-2. Fl\RS-2 served 
as the prototype for all future bathyscaphs. 
Its purpose was to dive deep (10,000 ft origi- 
nally), allow the passengers to view outside, 
range about the bottom and to do so with no 
cable to the surface and with a wide margin 
of safety. 

In many respects, FNRS-2 was a reversal 
of the principles which made FNRS soar. The 
pressure sphere, with a W/D ratio greater 
than 1, would sink unless restrained; the 
Professor constructed an oval-shaped, thin, 
metal-walled float wherein six compartments 
held 6,600 gallons of gasoline which, being 
lighter than water, would float and hold the 
cabin (Fig. 3.3) at the surface.* Gasoline was 
valved off by the pilot to begin the descent, 
and water immediately replaced the gasoline 
to maintain a pressure within the tanks 
equal to that without. FNRS-2 carried sev- 
eral tons of iron shot in steel tanks which 
were restrained from dropping by doors held 
closed with electromagnets. In the event of a 
complete power failure, the doors opened and 
dumped all shot. Similarly, other tanks held 
scrap iron and gravel for additional ballast 
which also jettisoned in the "fail-safe" man- 
ner. The iron shot could be dumped incre- 
mentally to slow down descent or increase 
ascent. A 7-foot-long cable attached to the 
sphere held a 100-kilogram (wet weight) flat- 
iron-shaped concrete clump which served to 
hold FNRS-2 in stable equilibrium just off 
the bottom. 

Instead of a cable to the surface, FNRS-2 
carried its own power in the form of two lead- 
acid storage batteries which ran two 1-horse- 
power motors (mounted port and starboard 
at the base of the float). External lights were 
provided for viewing and a carbon dioxide 
removal system and oxygen were carried 
within the pressure sphere. The motors 
served to provide a measure of horizontal 
maneuverability for bottom exploration. 



36 




Fig 3,3 Bottom view of FNRS-2 showing pressure sptiere and float (Jacques Placard) 



The pressure sphere was larger than the 
BATHYSPHERE (6-ft 7-in. diam.) and was of 
two cast-steel (Ni-Cr-Mo) hemispheres bolted 
together at an equatorial flange. Entry 
through the hatch was made while FNRS-2 
was on deck; once the passengers were in- 
side, there was no way for them to get out 
unless the bathyscaph was lifted clear of the 
water. 

Of the many innovations produced by Pic- 
card, the viewports of FNRS-2 stand out as 
truly significant. Having witnessed the 
BATHYSPHERE'S problem with cracking 
and chipped glass, Piccard, as early as 1939, 
teamed with countryman Professor Guiltisen 
and produced a conically-shaped window of 
acrylic plastic 5.91 inches thick, 15.75-inch 
outside diameter and 3.94-inch inside diame- 
ter. The conical shape offered wide-angle 
viewing (Fig. 3.4) and plastic, unlike glass, 
does not fail catastrophically; instead, it de- 
forms elastically and passes on excess stress 
to its adjacent parts. This configuration and 
plastic are the bases of all submersible view- 




Fig 3 4 Professor Auguste Piccard inspecting an acrylic plastic viewport, one ot his 
many contributions to deep submergence (Jacques Piccard) 



37 



ports today except for the Japanese submers- 
ible KIROSHIO II. 

Other technological areas where the 
FNRS-2 pioneered was in the pressure com- 
pensation of its batteries and the design of 
thru-hull electrical penetrations; both are 
discussed more fully in Chapter 6. As he 
explained in In Balloon and Bathyscaphe 
(3), Piccard did not consider deep diving a 
particularly dangerous undertaking as long 
as one complied with the applicable laws of 
physics and added a margin for safety. Con- 
sider, for example, the pressure sphere 
which had an operating depth of 2.5 miles 
and a collapse depth of 10 miles, and the 
plastic viewports which would only deform 
permanently at a computed ocean depth of 
18^/5 miles. There are so many areas in which 
the innovative Swiss physicist laid the 
groundwork for future deep submergence ve- 
hicles that a mere listing would not do jus- 
tice to his accomplishments. Not only did he 
solve a great many technical problems, but 
he also identified those areas where addi- 
tional research was required. More impor- 
tantly, his efforts and subsequent narratives 
served to galvanize the marine engineering 
community into thinking of the problems of 
deep submergence and the oceanographer 
into thinking of its benefits. For this, con- 
temporary participants of deep submergence 
are indebted. 

On the 26th of October 1948, FNRS-2 made 
its first test dive to 84 feet off Cape Verde 
with Piccard and French biologist Dr. Theo- 
dore Monod aboard. The program called for 
an unmanned dive, which was subsequently 
conducted to 4,544 feet on the 3rd of Novem- 
ber, and, when FNRS-2 surfaced, Piccard 
met with a problem neither he nor his suc- 
cessors have solved successfully: Heavy 
weather. With seas too high for its support 
ship SCALDIS to retrieve it, the float was 
emptied of gasoline after a few hours of 
ponderous towing and replaced with carbon 
dioxide, but even so, the float, not designed 
for towing, was so damaged that further 
diving was precluded. A few weeks earlier, 
Otis Barton took an improved bathysphere 
called BENTHOSCOPE down to 4,488 feet off 
Santa Cruz Island, California. 

The French Navy, who lent a great deal of 
assistance to Piccard in 1948, was presented 



the FNRS-2 in 1950 as an apparent result of 
disenchantment with bathyscaphs on the 
part of the Fonds National. At Toulon, the 
French made several modifications to the 
newly-designed F^i?S-3; the most important 
being a new float designed for towing and a 
chute-like affair leading down to the original 
pressure sphere within which the occupants 
could enter or leave the cabin with the vehi- 
cle in the water. FNRS-3 began diving under 
the command of Captain George Houot (5) in 
June 1953 and by February 1954 reached the 
unprecedented depth of 13,700 feet in the 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Still undaunted. Professor Piccard, now 
joined full-time by his son Jacques, pressed 
on with his concept. With financial aid from 
the Swiss government and technical assist- 
ance and grants from Italian industry in the 
city of Trieste, they once more began their 
quest for depth in the form of the new bathy- 
scaph TRIESTE in the spring of 1952. On the 
first of August 1953 the bathyscaph was 
launched. 

The diving principles for TRIESTE were 
identical to those of FNRS-2; the major mod- 
ifications were in dimensions, capabilities 
and, particularly, in the float, now designed 
for surface towing. Specifically, the following 
modifications took place: 

— The pressure sphere was the same di- 
mension as that of FNRS-2 but was of 
forged steel — stronger and more malle- 
able than cast steel. 
— Electrical power was from silver-zinc 
batteries carried in the pressure 
sphere. 
— The viewport in the hatch, now on 
hinges, could be used to view exter- 
nally owing to installation of a plastic 
window in the access trunk. (FNRS-2''s 
hatch viewport was blocked by the ap- 
paratus holding the hatch in place.) 
— The float held almost four times as 
much gasoline (22,600 gal) as FNRS-2, 
was stronger and was cylindrically 
shaped with a keel for better towing 
characteristics. A floodable vertical ac- 
cess trunk ran through the float to the 
sphere for ingress/egress to the cabin 
when TRIESTE was afloat. Tanks fore 
and aft in the float could be filled with 
air on the surface to attain greater 
free-board. 



38 



These and many other improvements carried 
TRIESTE to 10,392 feet by September 1954 
off Ponza, Italy. 

In 1957 the U.S. Navy's Office of Naval 
Research provided funds for a series of 26 
dives by its civilian oceanographers and na- 
val officers out of TRIESTE^s home port of 
Castellemare (6). Encouraged by this new 
approach to deep-sea studies, the Navy pur- 
chased TRIESTE in 1958 from Auguste Pic- 
card for $250,000 (7) and transported it to 
San Diego, California where it came under 
control of the Navy Electronics Laboratory 
(now the Naval Undersea Center). At NEL, 
TRIESTE received a facelifting in the form 
of a new pressure sphere, built by the Ger- 
man firm of Krupp, which allowed it to oper- 
ate to a depth of 36,000 feet (the Terni sphere 
was limited to 20,000 feet) and an increase in 
the float of 6,200 gallons to accommodate the 
new 28,665-pound sphere (8). 

By mid-October 1959 TRIESTE (Fig. 3.5) 
was fully assembled and made ready for its 
first deep-sea dives off Guam under the aegis 
of Project NEKTON. The French-held record 
by FNRS-3 fell on 15 November 1959 with a 
dive to 18,105 feet with Jacques Piccard and 
NEL biologist. Dr. Andres Rechnitzer, 
aboard TRIESTE. Eight dives later, on 8 
January 1960, a 22,560-foot dive by Piccard 
and Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh saw this 
record fall, and on the next dive, Piccard and 
Walsh reached the very bottom of the Chal- 
lenger Deep: 35,800 feet on 23 January 
I960— the contest was over. TRIESTE dem- 
onstrated that any ocean depth could be 
safely reached. The drama of these early 
years is presented in detail by Auguste Pic- 
card (3), Captain Houot (5) and Jacques Pic- 
card (9) in their books which chronicle the 
pioneering events leading up to the 1960 
dive; for this reason the many technical 
problems and discouragements along the 
way are left out of the preceding account. 

Just north of TRIESTE'S earlier port at 
Castellemare was a little noticed effort to 
build a deep-diving vehicle, but in this case 
the Italian builder, Pietro Vassena, intended 
to build a submersible for the recovery of 
wrecked ships (10). The submersible (Fig. 3.6) 
was constructed from a "torpedo snorkel" 
submarine built during the war. As early as 
13 March 1948, Mr. Vassena and a companion 




Fig 3.5 TRIESTE just prior to its Deep Dive (Larry Stiurrtaker) 




Fig. 3-6 Pietro Vassena in ttie conning tower of his submersibte for the recovery of 
wrecked ships (Gianfranco Vassena) 



39 



reached a depth of 1,234 feet in Lake Como, 
but later, on an unmanned test dive, a lift 
cable broke and it was lost. 

Elsewhere throughout the world, submers- 
ible activity in the 1950's was minimal. Not 
surprising, Japan, a country dependent upon 
the sea for 64 percent of its protein needs (2 
percent in the U.S.), was an early user of 
submersibles. While Beebe dived to provide 
biological information of an academic nature. 
Dr. Naoichi Inoue, Head of the Faculty of 
Fisheries at Hokkaido University, initiated 
design and construction of the BATHY- 
SPHERE-Uke KUROSHIO (Fig. 3.7) to inves- 
tigate a major factor in his country's nu- 
trient resources. By 1960 the 650-ft, 3-man 
KUROSHIO conducted 380 dives for benthic 
(bottom dwelling) and nektonic (free-swim- 
ming) fisheries studies off the coast of Japan. 
Retired in 1960, KUROSHIO was replaced in 
the same year by KUROSHIO II, a larger, 
maneuverable, more capable successor to its 
earlier namesake. 

In the United States two submersibles ap- 
peared in the fifties: SUBMANAUT and 
GOLDFISH. Built by Martine's Diving Bells, 
Inc., of San Diego, California, SUBMANAUT 
(Fig. 3.8) used diesel/electric power on the 
surface and batteries while submerged. Orig- 
inally designed for an operating depth of 
2,500 feet, installation of a 3-inch-thick, 13- 
foot-long, plastic wrap-around window for 
photography decreased its capability to 600 
feet. Launched in 1956, SUBMANAUT shot 
underwater films for various movie compa- 
nies before it was shipped to Miami, Florida 
in 1958 from where it traveled to the Baha- 
mas, Cuba, Italy and Bermuda to shoot other 
movie and television footage. In military 
submarine fashion, SUBMANAUT made sev- 
eral journeys, e.g., Miami to the Bahamas, 
on the surface under its own diesel/electric 
propulsion. In its most notable assignment, 
SUBMANAUT was featured in the MGM 
movie Around the World Under the Sea (11). 

The shallow diving (100-ft) GOLDFISH was 
the 1958 creation of an ex-Navy submariner, 
Mr. Burt Dickman of Auburn, Indiana. 
GOLDFISH was a prototype submersible for 
investigating and photographing insurance 
claims on sunken vessels, but it never real- 
ized this potential although it carried sev- 




Fig 3 8 Edmund Marlines SUBMANAUT used diesel engines for surface power 
and battenes when submerged. (Edmund Martine) 

eral hundred people into various Indiana 
lakes over the next 10 years. 

Displaying remarkable foresight in the re- 
quirements for manned submersibles, 
Jacques Cousteau, as early as 1953, began 
design on the 1,000-foot, small, maneuvera- 
ble DIVING SAUCER (Fig. 3.9) which was 
launched in 1959. Cousteau's desire was to 
build a submersible from which scientists 
could observe and photograph oceanographic 
phenomena in comfort and with a degree of 
access to undersea valleys and narrow can- 
yons not attainable by the large, cumber- 
some bathyscaphs. Cousteau dived several 
times in FNRS-3 and saw the weak and 
strong points of the underwater elevator. 
Several bathyscaph features, such as conical, 




Fig, 3,9 Cousteau's DIVING SAUCER The forerunner of Bathyscaph progeny. 
(Westinghouse) 



40 



POWER & TELEPHONE 
CABLE-CANVAS COVERED 
SEARCHLIGHT GUARD 
STROBE LIGHT 
500 W SEARCH LIGHT 
SEARCH LIGHT TURNING & 
ELEVATING CONTROL HANDLES 
CLOCK 
TELEPHONE 
BOURDON-TYPE DEPTH GAGES 
HYDROPHONE RECEIVER 
ADJUSTABLE MIRROR 
SIX INCH 
OBSERVATION WINDOW 
FREE GYRO (ELECTRIC 
OBSERVER 
SEARCHLIGHT 
POWER CONTROL 
CAMERA PEDESTAL 
FISH CATCHER 
REVOLVING CHAIR 
FLOOR 
MOTOR-GENERATOR FOR GYRO 

PROPULSION MOTOR 

SONAR TRANSDUCER 

TURNING GEAR 

STROBE LIGHT & SPOT LIGHT 

FOUR INCH 

OBSERVATION WINDOWS 




SWIVEL 

ADJUSTABLE SLINGS 
HATCH COVER COUNTER WEIGHT 
SUBMARINE-TYPE HATCH 
INFRARED LIGHT 

FOUR INCH OBSERVATION WINDOW 
ASSISTANT 

MAIN SWITCHBOARD 
TELEPHONE 
OXYGEN BOTTLE 
FOUR INCH OBSERVATION 
WINDOW 
STROBE-LIGHT CONTROLLER 
SONAR (ECHOSOUNDER) 
MUD SAMPLING CONTROL 
FIN 



BALLAST 
MUD SAMPLING DEVICE 

EMERGENCY RELEASING DEVICE 



DUCT AS FISH 
RESERVOIR 
ELEVATING 

RUDDER 
BUOY ROPE 
EMERGENCY 
LIFTING WIRE) 
SCREW PROPELLER 
WITH NOZZLE 
PROPULSION 
MOTOR STARTER 

TRANSFORMER 
BALLAST 
VENTILATING FAN 
AIR RECONDITIONING UNIT 
ROLLER BEARING 
WOODEN SKIDS 



BUOY 




BUOY ROPE 
(EMERGENCY 
LIFTING WIRE 



MAIN CABLE & 
TELEPHONE WIRE 



KUROSHIO' 



Fig. 3.7 KUROSHIO I. (Courtesy of N. Inoue) 



plastic viewports and pressure-compensated 
batteries went into the DIVING SAUCER, 

but the high degree of transportabiHty, com- 
fort, better viewing, and maneuverabiHty 
were new to the submersible scene. The first 



pressure hull, a disc-shaped, 6-foot 7- 
inch-diameter, 5-foot-high, positively-buoy- 
ant, steel structure was lost in 3,000 feet of 
water off Cassis in 1967, during an un- 
manned test dive, when the lowering cable 



41 



snapped. A cable-suspended weight carried 
the hull to 3,300 feet. Six years hence, Cous- 
teau reports seeing the hull on an echo soun- 
der "floating at anchor" 30 feet above the 
bottom. A second hull was completed, and 
DIVING SAUCER (SP-350) commenced div- 
ing in 1959 in the Caribbean from its support 
ship CALYPSO which carried a stern- 
mounted, 10-ton, articulated, hydraulic 
"Yumbo" crane. This was the first open-sea 
"submersible system." With DIVING SAU- 
CER in the hold oi CALYPSO, the submers- 
ible could be transported safely for long dis- 
tances at 12 knots, deployed and retrieved at 
the diving site with the Yumbo crane and 
repaired or maintained at sea in the support 
ship's hold. At the sacrifice of great depth 
capability, Cousteau brought flexibility and 
wide-ranging to submersible operations. 
Cousteau believed speed to be the enemy of 
observation; he described the slow-moving 
(0.6-knot cruising speed) DIVING SAUCER as 
"... a scrutinizer, a loiterer, a deliberator, a 
taster of little scenes as well as big. She gave 
us six-hour periods in which to study accu- 
rately the things below" (13). 

In one case DIVING SAUCER pushed tech- 
nology beyond its limits; the case being its 
original nickel-cadmium batteries which 
short-circuited and burned early in the test 
dives. The reason lay in the batteries' pres- 
sure-compensated fiberglass boxes which 
were poor heat conductors and allowed the 
compensating oil to reach boiling point from 
battery-generated heat. Brass battery boxes 
with gas exhausts replaced the fiberglass 
boxes, but gasses generated in the new boxes 
and they too exploded. Conventional lead- 
acid batteries replaced the nickel-cadmium 
cells, and DIVING SAUCER proceeded to 
dive with little further trouble from this 
source. 

So far as can be determined, D/F/iVG SAU- 
CER was also the first to use the positively- 
buoyant pressure hull itself as a "fail safe" 
mechanism. At submerged trim, the sub- 
mersible was neutrally buoyant; to surface, a 
55-pound iron weight was mechanically 
dropped and DIVING SAUCER rose bubble- 
like to the surface. 

The submersible scene, when TRIESTE 
ushered in the decade of the 60's with its 
record dive, may be described as "simmer- 



ing." The achievement of record depth by 
TRIESTE was duly noted in the press and 
trade journals, but the space program in the 
United States completely dominated re- 
search development programs. The Federal 
financial climate, however, was friendly to- 
wards other exploration-technologic endeav- 
ors. 



PRE- AND POST-THRESHER 

(1960-1965) 

In the years 1960 through 1963 eleven new 
submersibles appeared; their intended pur- 
poses varied, but they were all relatively 
small (2-man) and shallow diving (less than 
600-foot operating depth); the exception 
being the French Navy's bathyscaph AR- 
CHIMEDE, a 1961 replacement for the aging 
FNRS-3. Capitalizing on the lessons learned 
from FNRS-3, ARCHIMEDE could dive to 
any known ocean depth; its power supply 
was increased for greater maneuvering; the 
pressure sphere was enlarged to accommo- 
date more research instrumentation; and its 
float was designed for towing at speeds up to 
8 knots. 

In these early sixties, private industry's 
incentive to build a submersible is not en- 
tirely clear. In the case of government- 
owned vehicles (KUROSHIO II, AR- 
CHIMEDE) the incentive is clearer: KURO- 
SHIO II was built to specifically investigate 
a national food resource; ARCHIMEDE'' s 
purpose was to pursue deep-water scientific 
studies and to conduct recovery tasks of mili- 
tary significance. From the limited depth 
and specific tasks, such as recreation, instru- 
ment test platform and insurance claims, the 
impetus for construction seems almost per- 
sonal. In some instances, however, it appears 
that a few larger corporations sensed a new 
market in the offing. One must remember 
that the time it takes for the idea to become 
reality in the submersible business can be 
considerable. So when a large, complex vehi- 
cle, such as ALUMINAUT, is launched in 
1964, the influencing forces and decision to 
build predate launch by several years. 

Fifteen years had passed since the end of 
WWII, and the written (14) and photographic 
accounts by Cousteau and his associates on 
the beauty of the sea and religious-like ambi- 



42 



ence of scuba diving, plus the commercial 
availability of relatively inexpensive diving 
gear, produced an annual invasion of the sea 
by newly-trained recreational divers at an 
ever-increasing rate. 

Beginning in 1961 with the first SPORTS- 
MAN 300 and in 1963 with SPORTSMAN 
600, both sometimes referred to as AMER- 
SUB''s (15), the American Submarine Co. of 
Lorain, Ohio constructed shallow one- and 
two-man submersibles aimed at the recrea- 
tional market (as their name implies) as well 
as government and other commercial activi- 
ties. Various reports allude to 20 or more of 
this class having been constructed (16), but 
documentation is lacking. 

A diving enthusiast himself, Florida news- 
paper publisher, John H. Perry, Jr., believed 
that a need existed for recreational submers- 
ibles to provide protection from sharks and 
other predators. In 1962 Periy manufactured 
his first successful "recreational" submers- 
ible (the third one built), the 150-ft, 1-man 
Perry CUBMARINE (at one point called SUB 
ROSA), later designated PC3-X (Fig. 3.10). 
But he soon abandoned the recreational goal 
and felt the market showed a need for indus- 
trial and scientific undersea "workboats;" to 
this end he produced the 600-ft, 2-man PC- 
SB in 1963. Perry advanced from a "backyard 
builder" hobbyist in 1950-1960 to a profes- 
sional submarine builder — today the full- 
time producer of 12 submersibles of varying 
depths and capabilities and numerous diving 
capsules and several undersea habitats. In 
the process Perry Submarine Builders of Ri- 
viera Beach has become the largest single 
producer of manned submersibles in the 
world. But the impetus towards this produc- 
tion began with the assumed need for a 
recreational vehicle. 

At Long Beach, California, the first "gen- 
eral utility" submersible {IDSUBMARAY ap- 
peared in 1962. The 2-man, 300-ft-depth vehi- 
cle laid claim to a wide range of capabilities: 
"Sea floor surveys, search and recovery, ma- 
rine life studies, underwater photography, 
undersea research/development, inspection 
of pipeline, cables, etc." Mart Toggweiler was 
the first private owner to pursue the indus- 
trial and scientific undersea market and, at a 
lease cost of $500 daily, his corporation, Hy- 
drotech, subsequently reported 180 SUB- 
MARAY dives by the spring of 1964. 




Fig 3-10 PC3-X, the firsi ot thineen submersibles built by John Perry ol Riviera 
Beach, Fla (Perry Submarine Builders) 



More modest capabilities went into the de- 
sign of the first, and only, modern wooden- 
hulled submersible, SUBMANAUT, built in 
1963 by oceanographer James R. Helle of San 
Diego. Unlike its earlier steel-hulled name- 
sake, this SUBMANAUT was built of 3/4-inch- 
thick, laminated plywood "Doughnuts" and 
had a design depth capability of 1,000 feet. 
The 2-man vehicle was to serve as a test 
platform for various electronic devices, e.g., 
pingers, communications systems, developed 
by Oceanic Enterprises, a division of Helle 
Engineering, Inc. 

The same year saw the first, timid-like 
entry of large industry into the submersible 
field, for up to this point the participants 
were either federal governments or private 
individuals. 

The nation's largest military submarine 
builder. General Dynamic's Electric Boat Di- 
vision at Groton, Connecticut, put forth the 
first of its STAR (Submarine Test and Re- 
search Vehicle)-class vehicles, the 1-man, 
200-ft-depth STAR I. 

At this point it is interesting to note that a 
number of reports from NEL scientists had 
been published detailing the oceanographic 
discoveries and advantages of man in situ. 
The enthusiasm of the NEL oceanographers 
and their Naval officer associates was infec- 
tious and generated an optimistic future for 
manned underwater research and surveys. 
Significant, unique applications of manned 
submersibles were coming from a respected 
and highly qualified group of oceanogra- 
phers and Naval officers (18); their influence 
was permeating the "new markets" forecasts 
of large American industry. 

Indeed, just a year earlier (July 1962) 
Westinghouse Electric Corporation an- 



43 



nounced plans to build a 12,000-ft DEEP- 
STAR as a laboratory facility for its own 
undersea studies, and, if enough interest was 
shown, they would build further DEEP- 
STARS for lease or sale (19). For further 
reassurance Electric Boat had only to look in 
its own shops where the 51-ft-long, 12,000-ft- 
depth, 20-year dream-child of J. Louis Rey- 
nolds (20) was under construction. ALUMI- 
NAUT, an all aluminum submersible, was 
being built to conduct deep-ocean explora- 
tion into minerals and food resources and the 
salvage of sunken cargo vessels (21). As early 
as 1956 design studies at the Southwest Re- 
search Institute (22) had begun on ALUMI- 
NAUT and the idea was now becoming real- 
ity. 

Meanwhile, oceanographers at Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution on Cape Cod were 
closely following the construction of the 6,- 
000-ft, 3-man submersible 4LV/A', being built 
at General Mills in Minneapolis. ALVIN 
(named after WHOI oceanographer Alyn 
Vine) was funded by the U.S. Navy's Office of 
Naval Research and, when completed, would 
come under the technical control and opera- 
tion of WHOI. The Navy's interest in deep 
submergence was twofold: To demonstrate 
the feasibility of new construction tech- 
niques, materials and subsystems for possi- 
ble application to future military subma- 
rines; and to provide civilian and military 
oceanographers with a vehicle from which 
they, like their NEL counterparts, could con- 
duct oceanographic studies applicable to 
both military and civil requirements. At an 
estimated $1 million, ALV/iV would be a rela- 
tively inexpensive test platform considering 
the $180 million plus cost of the then mod- 
ern-day nuclear attack submarines. In addi- 
tion, while the materials/components testing 
was in progress, an equally important set of 
environmental data would be obtained. 

To add further promise of a burgeoning 
undersea market, in April 1963 the U.S. De- 
partment of the Interior asked Congress for 
funds to perform a feasibility study on a 
nuclear-powered research submarine or 
mesoscaph to conduct a wide range of biologi- 
cal and geological studies (23). Explaining the 
need for such funds, the then Secretary of the 
Interior, Stewart Udall, stated: 

"We need better eyes in the sea; eyes 




Fig 3 1 1 General Dynamics' STAR I simulates rescue of personnel at 192 feet ah 
Bermuda (Gen. Dyn Corp.) 



comparable in power to those with 
which scientists are probing outer 
space. We need to apply our techno- 
logical abilities to more intensive 
probing of inner space, the world 
ocean.'''' 

With such promising indications did Elec- 
tric Boat launch its STAR I (Fig. 3.11) for the 
expressed purpose of more clearly defining 
the problems inherent in underwater engi- 
neering: Materials, structural and hydrody- 
namic design, instrumentation, buoyancy, 
navigation, control communications and life 
support. 

For related purposes, the Data and Con- 
trols Division of Lear Siegler, Inc., launched 
their 600-ft, 2-man BENTHOS F as a test 
vehicle for subsystems, particularly in the 
area of propulsion. 

Into this atmosphere of cautious and hope- 
ful anticipation, a tragedy arrived which 
brought the field of deep submergence to a 
fever pitch. On 10 April 1963 the nuclear 



44 



attack submarine THRESHER (SSN-593) 
(Fig. 3.12) disappeared in 8,400 feet of water 
off the coast of New England and carried 129 
men to their death. A Navy task force was 
immediately fielded to locate the wreckage 
and attempt to determine the cause of the 
sinking. In addition to a variety of devices to 
search the general area — such as towed cam- 
eras and magnetic sensors — the searchers 
also desired to place men on the scene. At 
this time TRIESTE constituted the only U.S. 
capability for reaching 8,400 feet. 

TRIESTE'S performance in 1963 and a year 
later was less than admirable: Too slow tow- 
ing (2-3 knots); too slow submerged (0.9 
knot); awkward to maneuver; surface pre- 
and post-dive preparations could not be per- 
formed when seas greater than 3 to 4 feet 
high prevailed; in short, the bathyscaph was 
simply not able to put the time on the bottom 
required for searching (24). Even with an 
interim overhaul, from which a newly desig- 
nated TRIESTE II emerged with a new float 
designed for faster towing (Fig. 3.13) and 
greater propulsive power and a manipulator, 
it wasn't much better than an elevator, and 
an unreliable one at that. 

Two weeks after THRESHER met its 
doom, the Secretary of the Navy set up a 
Deep Submergence Systems Review Group 
which conducted a year-long study on deep- 
oceans operations, not only for THRESHER- 
type search missions, but for recovery of 
missile and space components as well. In 
June 1964 the DSSRG released its report. 
Four main categories were addressed: 1) Re- 
covery (rescue of personnel); 2) man-in-the- 




Fig 3 12 The USS THRESHER which sank in 1962 and earned 129 men lo Iheir 
deaths, (US, Navy) 



sea; 3) investigation of the ocean bottom and 
recovery of small objects, and 4) recovery of 
large objects. The total amount recom- 
mended for a 5-year program to meet the 
group's stated objectives was $333 million. 
Specifically, the recommendations of interest 
to submersible builders called for the follow- 
ing: 

Recovery of Personnel: Six reSCUe UnitS with 

two submersibles in each unit capable of 
rescuing personnel from the collapse depth 
of current submarines (at a later date a 
depth of 5,000 ft was established). 

Recovery of Small Objects and Ocean Floor Investi- 
gation: Two search units of two small sub- 
mersibles each with an ultimate depth ca- 
pability of 20,000 feet. 

Recovery of Large Objects: An Unspecified num- 
ber of small submersibles capable of sup- 
porting recovery of intact submarines 
down to collapse depth. 

The recommendations were accepted in 
June 1964 and a Deep Submergence System 
Project was established to execute them. The 
following November a meeting was held in 
Washington, D.C., where the DSSP was de- 
scribed and areas of technological concern 
delineated. Eight hundred industry repre- 
sentatives attended; 1,000 were unable to 
attend owing to lack of space (25). The abso- 
lute finality of sudden, violent death, the 
lack of knowledge as to why and the possibil- 
ity of nuclear contamination, of which no 
evidence could be found (24), produced a re- 
action never before witnessed in the wake of 
a submarine tragedy. 

With increasing attention focusing on the 
deep sea, new submersibles joined the fledg- 
ling 1964 community. The 100-ft NAUTI- 
LETTE continued to pursue the recreational 
field, but John Perry's PC-3A1, a 300-ft, 2- 
man submersible, went to the U.S. Army for 
a new type mission: Recovery of missile com- 
ponents in the down-range islands of the 
South Pacific. Its sister-sub, PC-3A2, went 
to the Air Force for similar tasks. 

At the Naval Ordnance Test Station, China 
Lake, California, the 2,000-ft, 2-man DEEP 
JEEP was launched. DEEP JEEP, under 
construction since 1961, was built primarily 
to evaluate various design systems and oper- 
ational techniques anticipated for a general- 
purpose oceanographic and work submers- 



45 




Fig 3.13 The evolution of TRIESTE 1958 (date approximate). (US Navy) 




Fig 3 13 Tfl/ESrE— 1964 (US Navy) 

46 




Fig. 3.13 TRIESTE 1958 (U.S. Navy) 



ible in underwater test ranges (26). Several 
subsequent U.S. Navy submersibles {HI- 
KINO, NEMO, MAKAKAI, DEEP VIEW) 

were built for purposes similar to DEEP 
JEEP, i.e., to test and evaluate systems and 
materials rather than serve in an opera- 
tional capacity. 

In Woods Hole, ALVIN was launched and 
began testing for a career that would be 



exceeded by none for contributions to under- 
sea technology and science. The 15,000-ft AI^ 
UMINAUT (Fig. 3.14) rolled off the ways at 
Groton to play: 

". . .a key role in man's efforts to farm 
the sea, mine it and harness its ener- 
gies." 

— J. Louis Reynolds (27) 



47 



Two other submersibles appeared in 1964 
for reasons different than any so far. ASH- 
ERAH, a 2-man, 600-ft vehicle (Fig. 3.15), was 
built by General Dynamics for the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania Museum with grants 
from the National Geographic Society and 
the National Science Foundation. Named 
after the Phoenician sea goddess, ASHERAH 
would play a major part in mapping ancient 
Mediterranean shipwreck sites under the di- 
rection of archeologist George Bass. AV- 
GUSTE PICCARD (Fig. 3.16), named after 
the now deceased father of deep submer- 
gence, was designed by Jacques Piccard and 
constructed by Giovanola of Switzerland. 
The 93-ft-long, 2,500-ft-depth submersible 
was stationed on Lake Geneva (Leman) and 
conducted daily dives wherein 40 passengers, 
each with his own viewport, cruised the bot- 
tom of the 1,000-ft-deep lake. AUGUSTE PIC- 
CARD was financed by the Swiss National 
Exposition as a tourist attraction; from 16 
July 1964 to 17 October 1965 it conducted 
1,112 dives and introduced over 32,000 pas- 
sengers to the field of limnology. 

That a market for submersibles did, in fact, 
exist was demonstrated in 1964 and early 
1965. Under an arrangement with Cous- 
teau's OFRS, Westinghouse Corporation's 
world-wide charter facility brought the DIV- 
ING SAUCER to California where it carried 



scientists and engineers from government 
and academia on a total of 132 dives during 
January-March 1964 and November 1964- 
April 1965. Working primarily in the canyons 
off Southern California, the DIVING SAU- 
CER produced an impressive array of in situ 
oceanographic data and photographic docu- 
mentation. The uniqueness of deep diving 
and its inherent drama received a great deal 
of attention from the media and trade jour- 
nals and served as a further catalyst draw- 
ing attention to hydrospace. The DIVING 
SAUCER operations were the first long-term, 
open-ocean series of dives where industry 
provided the submersible system as a facility 
for diving scientists. 

OCEANOGRAPHIC CLIMATE OF 
THE MID-SIXTIES 

Based on the accelerated development of 
submersibles from 1965 to the present (1975), 
one must conclude that somewhere between 
1963 and 1966 the undersea climate brought 
many companies to the decision to build. Let 
us examine, from the decision-maker's point 
of view, the atmosphere which influenced his 
thoughts in 1965. 

TRIESTE'S record dive to the greatest 
known ocean depth and the twenty or so 
follow-on second generation submersibles 
were obvious proof that no major break- 





Fig 3 14 Reynolds ALUMINAUT underway lo sea Inals oil Connecticut in 1964 (Gen. Dyn Corp.) 



48 




Fig. 3.15 ASHEPAH is christened to begin its lile as an undenwater archeologist tor the Univ d Pennsylvania (Gen Dyn Corp ) 



throughs in technology were required to 
build a safe and satisfactory submersible. 

The Navy's interest in submersibles was 
more than casual: It now owned three (TRI- 
ESTE, ALVIN, DEEP JEEP) and was 
launched into the multi-million dollar DSSP. 
The DSSP was not the only likely candidate 
for submersible services and sales. Proposals 
were circulating amongst various govern- 
ment activities outlining the need for at 
least one and, in several cases, two submers- 
ibles in Navy test ranges as workboats for 
repair, salvage and other duties. In fact, 
specifications were being prepared in 1965 
for construction of two ALVIN-Mke submers- 
ibles called AUTEC I and // for the Atlantic 
Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, in the 
Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. One of the 
best recommendations one can forward in 
replying to a government Request For Pro- 
posals is a demonstrated capability. When 
such RFP's began appearing it would, so the 
thinking went, be a strong selling point to 



offer a submersible with a successful track 
record as a demonstrated capability. 

Would the funds be forthcoming? By 1965 
the Federal government had already in- 
vested $26 billion in a dramatic, daring and 
exciting space program; why not the sea? It 
was equally dramatic, mysterious and excit- 




Rg. 3.16 Now a Canadian survey submersible, AUGUSTE PICCARD began its 

career carrying 32.000 people to the bottom of Lake Geneva in 1964 and 1965. 

(Swiss Expo ) 



49 



ing. Besides, strong arguments could be ad- 
vanced for pushing back the frontiers of hy- 
drospace with its inherent food and mineral 
resources. That the Federal government was 
paying more than lip service to the ocean 
could be seen in the funds allocated for sup- 
port of oceanography. One conservative esti- 
mate (28) shows Federal funds of $21.3 mil- 
lion devoted to oceanography in the year 
1958. In 1963 the annual amount was six 
times that, or $123.6 million. These figures 
reflect funding concerned only with describ- 
ing and understanding the oceans. If funds 
are included which reflect development of 
fisheries, technology, coastal zone develop- 
ment, mapping, charting, ocean engineering 
and other ocean-related activities, these an- 
nual figures are almost doubled. For exam- 
ple, reference (29) shows $227.6 million in 
1968; reference (30), which includes all ocean- 
related activities, shows $431 million for the 
same year. From 1958 to 1965 the funding 
growth of oceanography was, no matter how 
calculated, phenomenal. 

The Federal government was not the only 
prospective customer. Just off the shoreline 
and expanding outward and deeper was the 
oil industry. For years the diver had been a 
full-time employee of the marine petroleum 
community providing repairs, inspection and 
installation of various devices and hardware 
associated with exploration, development 
and production of offshore oil. Submersibles 
could go deeper, stay down longer, and the 
passengers need do no more than look out 
the viewport. Certainly a market could be 
found in this multi-billion dollar industry. 

Adding further enchantment was the tre- 
mendous surge in recreational diving. With 
interest running high, there must be a mar- 
ket somewhere for small, inexpensive recrea- 
tional submersibles; the tourist concept of 
the AUGUSTS PICCARD was given more 
than a passing glance. If 32,000 people were 
willing to pay for a trip to the relatively 
uninteresting bottom of Lake Geneva, it is 
not unlikely that a continuing and even 
larger number would pay for shallower, but 
far more interesting cruises through the in- 
credibly beautiful coral reefs of the Bahamas 
or Florida. 

When one inspected the existing submers- 
ibles in 1965 they all were employed to a 



greater or lesser degree. Those that were 
not, were hurriedly going through testing 
phases and acceptance trials. DIVING SAU- 
CER just finished a lease on the West Coast; 
ASHERAH was conducting biological surveys 
in Uavfah; AUGUSTS PICCARD was making 
an average of nine dives a day at the Swiss 
Exposition; the government-owned vehicles 
were either diving or testing; and the 
smaller vehicles (PC-3B, SUBMARAY) were 
being kept busy. Another new customer was 
introduced in June 1965 when the U.S. Naval 
Oceanographic Office chartered the PC-3B 
for a series of cable route surveys off the 
coast of Andros Island, Bahamas. This was 
not the Oceanographic Office's only involve- 
ment in submersibles. In the same year it 
received its first funds for a research and 
development program aimed at evolving de- 
sign specifications, instrumentation and op- 
erational techniques for a 20,000-ft Deep 
Ocean Survey Vehicle. In the process, its 
announced intention was to lease existing 
vehicles and use them in actual surveys to 
get a feeling for the problems involved in 
undersea surveying; over $1 million a year 
for the next 5 years was scheduled for sub- 
mersible leases. 

If the potential submersible builder needed 
further encouragement he could find it from 
government officials, the press and his own 
associates; for example: 

"TAie President (Johnson) announced 
today that the Department of the Navy 
and the Atomic Energy Commission are 
jointly developing a nuclear-powered 
deep submergence research and engi- 
neering vehicle." 

— White House Press Release 
April 1965 

". . . the field (deep submergence) is a 
new one and the future rewards for any 
company which can successfully build a 
vehicle capable of working safely, effec- 
tively and for a proper length of time on 
the bottom of the ocean will be great J'^ 

— VADM I. J. Galatin 
Chief of Naval Material 
May 1965 (26) 

". . . in response to the growing demand 
for both government and industry the 



50 



nation's naval architects are producing 
a fleet of small, odd-looking submarines, 
most of these aimed at great depths." 

—TIME 

5 June 1965 

"ITe'rc about where the space industry- 
was ten years ago. My guess is that this 
new industry will be larger than aero- 
space." 

— G. T. Scharffenberger 
Senior V. Pres., Litton Ind. 
NEWSWEEK 

27 September 1965 

"Despite the recent appearance of more 
non-military submersibles the shortage 
still exists." 



-R. Loughman, 

General Dynamics Corp. 
-G. Butenkoff, 

Allis Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

September 1965 (29) 



There was yet another factor impossible to 
assess: the magnetic attraction of man to the 
deep ocean. The opportunity to be on the 
very frontiers of abyssal exploration is pow- 
erful tonic. The attraction of things beneath 
the sea is apparent considering the televi- 
sion and cinematic successes of Cousteau 
and others. The foundations of this attrac- 
tion lay in the unknown, the beauty, the 
eternity, the serenity and the brutality of 
life beneath the waves. To the layman, it is a 
spectator's world; to the average oceanogra- 
pher and marine engineer of the pre-1960's it 
was a world of inference. Before Beebe, all 
knowledge of the ocean below 100 or so feet 
was derived from instruments hung over the 
side of ships. From such discrete bits of data 
did oceanographers infer the condition of the 
deep. When scientists and engineers, who 
spent years on rolling, pitching ships trying 
to piece together what lay beneath their 
decks, sense the opportunity to see this 
realm with their very eyes, decisions can be 
made which transcend profit-and-loss state- 
ments. Whether large or small, corporations 
are groups of individuals, and the attraction 
of the deep ocean is no less to the engineers 
or vice presidents of General Motors or 



North American Rockwell than it is to a 
Piccard or a Perry. To an immeasurable, but 
significant degree, this magnetic attraction 
drew the decision-makers of the mid-sixties. 



VEHICLES FOR ANY OCCASION 
(1965-1970) 

Succumbing to the prevailing atmosphere, 
submersible builders in the last 5 years of 
the 1960's produced the greatest variety of 
deep-sea participants and activities in his- 
tory and, almost overnight, saw the sharpest 
decline. From 19 operational vehicles in 1964, 
the number grew to 60 by the end of 1970. 
Federal support of oceanography, increasing 
by leaps and bounds in the early sixties, 
leveled off in the latter part of the decade, 
and with it the submersibles of large indus- 
try either went into storage or were sold. 
The largest user of submersibles in the U.S., 
the Navy, acquired its own vehicles and dis- 
continued leasing. Trends in vehicle design 
developed which resulted in greater viewing 
capability, diver support and transport, 
greater manipulative capacity and a lessen- 
ing emphasis on great depth capability. 

Indeed, developments and shifting trends 
in undersea technology occurred with such 
rapidity in this period that it must be fol- 
lowed on a year-to-year basis to comprehend. 



1965 

Under an agreement with Cousteau's 
OFRS, Westinghouse Corp. anticipated the 
delivery of a 12,000-ft DEEPSTAR vehicle in 
1964, but welding problems developed in the 
Vasco Jet-90 steel hemispheres. The attend- 
ant delay and possibility of Navy certifica- 
tion problems was unacceptable to Westing- 
house. Instead, they constructed a sphere of 
HY-80 steel, used by the U.S. Navy in nu- 
clear submarines, and, accepting a depth de- 
crease of 8,000 feet, fitted it to the already 
designed DEEPSTAR. The Vasco Jet hull 
remained in France and would later (1970) 
constitute the pressure sphere of SP-3000 
(31). The new DEEPSTAR 4000 began its 
test dives at San Diego in early 1966. 

In Vancouver, British Columbia three com- 
mercial divers completed the first of their 



51 




Fig 3.17 PISCES I. II and III (L to R) Workhorses of the Arctic and North Sea (Inlernalional Hydrodynamics) 



PISCES-class vehicles. PISCES I (Fig. 3.17), 
a 1,200-ft, 3-man submersible, was con- 
structed by International Hydrodynamics 
Ltd. (HYCO) ". . . to provide a quantum 
jump in man's ability to work undersea." 
Reasoning that a submersible offered 
greater depth, duration and exploration 
ranges, the partners of HYCO also saw the 
opportunity to allow the non-diving special- 
ist of any discipline to visit subsurface work- 
sites under "shirt sleeve" conditions. A total 
of seven submersibles and hundreds of dives 
would come out of this small, vigorous Cana- 
dian firm in the next 8 years. 

1966 

The role of manned submersibles in under- 
sea search efforts was given a strong boost 
in February 1966 when an American bomber 



collided with its tanker during mid-air re- 
fueling off the southern coast of Spain. Four 
of the aircraft's H-bombs fell harmlessly on 
land and were recovered; one fell into the sea 
and initiated another Tf/iJESWEi? -type oper- 
ation to find and retrieve the errant, 1.1- 
megaton bomb. The bottom of the ocean at 
2,200 to 3,000 feet off Spain is characterized 
by deep gullies running downslope at a steep 
gradient; shoreward of 2,250 feet it is more 
level and gentle. The precise location of the 
bomb was unknown, and it could be any- 
where from a few feet deep adjacent to the 
coast, to several thousand feet some miles off 
the coast. Virtually every applicable search/ 
identification device the Navy owned or in- 
dustry could offer was brought into play: 
Mine hunting sonar, side scan sonar, under- 
water television, divers and manned sub- 



52 



jfA- v%«*.V.V.-.v.-.yAVA', 




Explosive experts examine the parachute-fouled H-Bomb recovered from 
2,850 feet oH the Southern Coast ol Spain in 1966 (US Navy) 



mersibles. The sonar devices worked well in 
flat, nearshore areas, but they could only tell 
that "something" was on the bottom, not 
what it was. Ambient pressure divers did 
most of the shallow identification along with 
the Perry PC-3B. In the rugged, offshore 
bottom the bomb was concealed from sonar 
contact by ridges between the gullies. The 
offshore search was left to ALVIN, ALUMI- 
ISAUT and DEEP JEEP. The latter ran into 
operational difficulties and withdrew early 
in the search. ALVIN located the parachute- 
shrouded bomb at 2,250 feet and attached a 
lift line which parted during retrieval and 
started the search anew. When the bomb was 
relocated it was now at 2,850 feet, and a self- 
propelled, TV-equipped, cable-powered de- 
vice, CURV (Controlled Underwater Re- 
search Vehicle), was employed to attach a lift 
line for retrieval. In the process of hooking 
up, CURV became entangled in the bomb's 
parachute and fortuitously both CURV and 
the bomb were retrieved (Fig. 3.18) after 
some 80 days of search/recovery efforts. 



While the performance of all system partic- 
ipants was less than perfect, the bomb was 
found and recovered, an almost impossible 
feat at the time of THRESHER 3 years ear- 
lier. The bomb hunt highlighted the problem 
of undersea navigation, reliability of sub- 
mersibles and the still primitive stage of our 
ability to recover objects from the deep sea 
(32). The bomb hunt, with its attendant pub- 
licity, provided more encouragement to the 
submersible builders. ALUMINAUTs $304,- 
000 bill for its participation did not go unno- 
ticed either. 

In June 1966 Westinghouse Corporation's 
DEEPSTAR 4000 (Fig. 3.19) began a diving 
program for NEL that continued into the 
spring of 1968 and covered not only the east 
and west coasts of the U.S., but Central 
America as well. Including a Westinghouse- 
financed series of 11 dives in project 
GULFVIEW in the Gulf of Mexico (33), 
DEEPSTAR 4000 conducted some 500 dives 
from June 1966 through June 1968. It is 
significant that this contract would be the 
longest Navy lease given to any privately- 
owned submersible to the date of this publi- 
cation; the total contract amounted to $2,- 
142,155 (34). 

Another aspect of submersible diving 
which entered the 1966 scene was that of 







Rg 3 19 Onginally slated lor 12,000 feel, DEEPSTAR 4000 represented the first 

Westinghouse candidate for deep diving In its 4-year career the versatile craft would 

conduct over 500 dives and add significantly to our knowledge of the deep sea, 

(NAVOCEANO) 



53 




Fig 3.20 General Dynamic s 1966 entries into Deep Submergence: STAR II and III. (Gen Dyn. Corp.) 



certification. Prior to 1966 Naval military 
and civilian employees could officially dive in 
privately-owned vehicles v^^ith no more than 
the permission of their superiors. In 1966 the 
Navy instituted procedures for certifying 
submersibles to assure that they were mate- 
rially safe to dive. Instructions were later 
issued to certify the operators and the na- 
ture of the mission as well. DEEPSTAR 4000 
was the first commercial vehicle to become 
Navy-certified. To July 1969 all other com- 
mercial submersibles were granted certifica- 
tion waivers. Other government non-Naval 
activities, academia and industry had no 
such requirements until some adopted the 
American Bureau of Shipping's standards in 
1968. 

ABS does not certify, instead it classifies 
submersibles to conduct a specific task, such 
as transportation or research. The Navy's 
certification, on the other hand, is for certain 
depths and stated time periods and is only 
concerned with safety of the passengers. 
ABS classification is completely voluntary 
and need not be undergone if the lessee does 
not make it a requirement. Indeed, the only 
Federal regulations governing submersible 
operations then and now are the Coast 
Guard's regulations applying to small craft. 
Certification and regulations are dealt with 
in more detail in a later chapter. It is suffi- 
cient to note here that many small-submers- 



ible operators feared that the Navy's certifi- 
cation procedures, which require a great deal 
of expensive testing and documentation, 
would be adopted by the government gener- 
ally. Of nine bills introduced to Congress 
regarding submersible safety since 1968, 
none have become law. 

Further entries to the 1966 submersible 
fleet came from General Dynamics Corpora- 
tion in the form of the 1,200-ft STAR II and 
the 2,000-ft STAR III (Fig. 3.20). 

1967 

^'Unless more small subm.ersibles are 
built in the near future, the demand for 
these craft may exceed the supply.'^ 

— National Council on Marine 
Research & Engineering 
February 1967 Development Report 

To fill this demand, Lockheed Missiles and 
Space Division launched its sophisticated, 
8,000-ft, 4-man DEEP QUEST. Lockheed was 
the first submersible builder to construct a 
support ship/launch-retrieval system specifi- 
cally designed for its submersible, and DEEP 
QUEST included virtually every type of con- 
trol and maneuvering capability one could 
envision for submersible missions. In addi- 
tion to research, engineering or survey 
tasks, the 40-ft-long vehicle could be fitted 
with a transfer skirt on the bottom of its aft 



54 




Fig 3,21 Allhough its early career was short-lived, PAULO I began dmng in earnest 
in 1973 as ttie renovated SEA OTTER (Anautics Inc) 



pressure sphere to effect rescue of trapped 
submariners; in essence, it was the first in- 
dustry DSRV and clearly demonstrated 
Lockheed's expertise in deep submergence. 

Down the coastline from Lockheed's Sun- 
nyvale plant, another submersible, P4t^LO /, 
was launched (Fig. 3.21). Built by Anautics 
Inc. of San Diego, the 600-ft, 2-man submers- 
ible was designed for inspection, survey and 
recovery on the continental shelf. 

Beginning in 1967, Captain G. W. Kit- 
tredge, USN (Ret.), constructed the first of 
several 1-man, 250-ft submersibles known as 
the VAST or K-250 series (15). The submers- 
ible was advertised for application to a wide 
variety of tasks, and an acrylic plastic dome 
on the conning tower and a 16-inch-diameter 
forward viewport provided versatility of 
viewing from the 10.5-ft-long submersible. 

Acrylic plastic was tested for the first time 
as a candidate for pressure hulls. Built in the 
latter part of 1966, plastic-hulled HIKING 
(Fig. 3.22) underwent tests by the Naval 
Weapons Center at Shaver Lake, California 
in early 1967. Several new concepts were 
embodied in HIKINO: An acrylic plastic 
pressure sphere to provide panoramic view- 
ing; cycloidal propellers for maximum ma- 
neuverability with a minimum amount of 
propulsion units; and a catamaran-type 
chassis or exostructure for maximum surface 
seaworthiness and unhindered visibility (35). 
HIKINO was purely a test vehicle, but it was 
a harbinger of things to come. One para- 
mount criticism of submersibles was the re- 



striction on viewing. No matter how many 
viewports a vehicle may have, from the 
standpoint of safety and operational effec- 
tiveness, more seemed desirable. The concept 
of an acrylic plastic pressure sphere had 
been advanced as early as 1963 (36), but this 
was the first instance of its application. The 
wider range of viewing through transparent 
hulls and large diameter bow domes, pi- 
oneered by HIKINO, would see increased 
application in shallow submersibles of the 
70's. 

1968 

If there was, in fact, a shortage of sub- 
mersibles in 1967, it vanished in 1968 with 
the advent of 12 new vehicles. 

NEKTON ALPHA, a 1,000-ft, 2-man sub- 
mersible built by General Oceanographies of 
Newport Beach, California, originally began 
its career as an in-house capability of this 
company to conduct contract jobs of its own. 
Another 1,000-ft, 2-man vehicle SEA-RAY 
iSRD-lOl) was built in this year by Subma- 
rine Research and Development Corp., in 
Lynnwood, Washington for inspection and 
salvage tasks at $1,200 per day. 

International Hydrodynamics Ltd., enjoy- 
ing an extended torpedo-retrieval contract 
for the U.S. Navy in a test range off Na- 
naimo, British Columbia, extended its depth 
capability with the 2,600-ft PISCES II. 

Perry Submarine Builders produced three 
submersibles; the first, the 3-man, 1,200-ft 
PCS went to Pacific Submersibles, Inc., of 
Honolulu; the second two were unique. The 




^^.y^l i 




Fig, 3.22 The plastic-hulled HIKINO set an early precedent for submersibles of the 
seventies (US Navy) 



55 



1,350-ft DEEP DIVER (Fig. 3.23) and the 800- 
ft SHELF DIVER were a new breed called 
"lock-out" submersibles. In both vehicles the 
after portion of the pressure hull was a 
sphere in which the pressure could be 
brought to ambient and a hatch in the bot- 
tom opened to allow egress of divers. While 
not a new concept, it was the first such 
design of this period and was addressed pri- 
marily toward support of divers in the petro- 
leum industry. Demonstrating the versatil- 
ity of this concept to support not only divers, 
but also to effect "dry" transfer of materials 
and non-divers to an atmospheric-pressure 
undersea habitat, SHELF DIVER locked 
onto Perry's HYDROLAB at the 50-ft depth 
in 1968 and transferred crewmen into the 
habitat without them getting wet. 



On the west coast of the United States, 
North American Rockwell Corp. introduced 
their BEAVER MK IV, another "lock-out" 
submersible of 2,000-ft-depth capacity. BEA- 
VER's sophisticated instruments and sub- 
systems provided a wide array of capabilities 
in all aspects of undersea tasks. Particularly 
innovative were its two mechanical arms and 
accessories which advanced the state-of-the- 
art in manipulative capability by a wide mar- 
gin. 

Also on the west coast, General Motors 
Corporation's Defense Research Laborato- 
ries at Goleta, California, launched the 6,500- 
ft, 3-man DOWB (Deep Ocean Work Boat). 
Instead of viewports, DOWB (Fig. 3.24) relied 
upon optical systems for viewing; two 180- 
degree-coverage optical domes were in- 




Fig 3 23 TTie Perry-Unk DEEP DIVER was (he lirst modern submersible to incorporate a diver lock-out feature (Ocean Systems Inc.) 



56 




Fig 3 24 Now a sludent training aid, DOWB was the only submersible to relinquish 
viewports in favor of fiber-optics. (Gen. Motors Inc ) 



stalled; one looked forward and one down- 
ward. Separate images for two observers 
were provided inside through a central opti- 
cal assembly. 

In December, the U.S. Navy added to its 
Fleet the 6,500-ft, 3-man sister submersibles 
SEA CLIFF and TURTLE (originally 4 t/T£C 
/ & //) built by General Dynamics (Fig. 3.25); 
TURTLE was slated for assignment to the 
Navy's AUTEC in the Bahamas, and SEA 
CLIFF was to be assigned to Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution (37), though 
WHOI later declined the offer. 

Under contract to the Grumman Corpora- 
tion of Bethpage, New York, Jacques Piccard 
designed and Giovanola Brothers built the 
48-ft-long, 2,000-ftP.Y-J5 in Monthey, Switz- 
erland (Fig. 3.26). Capable of 4- to 6-week 
duration dives, PX-15 (later christened BEN 
FRANKLIN) was foreseen by Grumman to fill 
a needed gap for extended missions which 
submersibles at that date could not perform 
(38). For its first mission BEN FRANKLIN 
would perform a 30-day drift in the Gulf 
Stream relying on the current for propulsion 




Fig 3 25 Earmarked for work boats in the U S Navy s Bahamian Test Range. AUTEC t and // were redesignated SEA CUFF and TURTLE and ultimately came under Submarine 

Development Group-One in San Diego- (US Navy) 



57 



and a liquid oxygen-passive carbon dioxide 
removal system for life support. BE1\ 
FRANKLIN was transported to West Palm 
Beach, Florida in 1968 for sea trials prepara- 
tory to the Gulf Stream Drift Mission. 

In the midst of the increasing undersea 
tempo prospects for the future were taking a 
disquieting turn. At an April 1968 Annual 
Conference of the American Society of 
Oceanography in Los Angeles, California, 
Mr. Thomas Horton, former Marketing Di- 
rector of Westinghouse's DEEPSTAR 4000, 
presented some chilling news to potential 
submersible lessors (39). Alluding to the de- 
pendence of the Navy submersibles now op- 
erating on Navy Research and Development 
programs, Horton foresaw a dire future in 
light of the R&D funding cutbacks of the 
past few years. He pointed out that indus- 



try's investment in submersibles was far out 
of proportion to the market, and what mar- 
ket was left would experience energetic com- 
petition, with the weaker companies falling 
by the wayside. 

Furthermore, Horton revealed, it was 
doubtful if any leasing programs to date 
were profitable. He stated that Westing- 
house's 6-month lease of the DIVING SAU- 
CER was not profitable, and surmised that 
International Hydrodynamics, Perry, and 
Electric Boat, among others, had the same 
experience: Profit on sales and loss on leas- 
ing operations. Horton projected that this 
may be due to a lack of capabilities and 
pointed out ". . . sophisticated as they (sub- 
mersibles) may seem, their ability to do eco- 
nomically justifiable tasks in the sea is very 
unsophisticated." 




F,g 3 26 On 14 July 1969 BEN FRANKUN began a 30-day drift ofl West Palm Beach. Fla that earned Us crew ot six 1,500 miles before they left Itie 49-fl-long submersible. 

(NAVOCEANO) 



58 



With some experience behind them, sub- 
mersible owners were now in a better posi- 
tion to assess their potential profits; the 
outlook was not encouraging. To maintain a 
submersible and its support ship on standby 
is expensive. A small vehicle such as SEA 
OTTER requires some $80,000 to $100,000 of 
business annually to make a reasonable 
profit (40). A mid-depth submersible of the 
ALVIN-class requires between $700,000 to 
$800,000, and ALVIN operates for a non- 
profit institution. It was becoming clear: 
Submersibles were expensive, and the long- 
term contracts required to operate in the 
black were less and less a prospect. 

In August 1968 a near-tragic event oc- 
curred a few hundred miles off Cape Cod. In 
the process of launching, a lift cable on AL- 
V/yV's cradle snapped, and the submersible 
fell into the sea. Miraculously, the crew 
scrambled out before the vehicle sank in 
5,500 feet of water (Fig. 3.27). The following 
summer, ALUMINAUT was able to put a lift 
hook into ALVIN^s open hatch and USNS 
MIZAR pulled it back to the surface; ALVIN 
was diving again in the summer of 1970. 

"/ will be honest with you. This Adminis- 
tration cannot rush full speed ahead into 
marine development programs. The real- 
ities of national priorities and continu- 
ing inflation demand Executive disci- 
pline. All Federal expenditures have 
undergone sharp review. In many cases, 
we were forced to make painful reduc- 
tions." 

— Address by Vice President Spiro Ag- 
new 

Fifth Annual Conference of the 
Marine Technology Society 
16 June 1969, Miami Beach, Fla. 

What was suspect earlier was now reality: 
There would be no "wet" NASA, and if sub- 
mersibles were going to "make it," they 
would do so because there was a unique and 
necessary role they could perform. As far as 
national priorities were concerned, Viet 
Nam, domestic issues and established pro- 
grams, such as outer space, took precedence 
over an expanding deep-ocean exploration 
program. While there was no cut in Federal 
ocean funds, the level of funding increased at 



a rate to take care of inflation. Research and 
Development funds for Navy submersible 
leasing were increasingly more difficult tc 
attain and justify in the face of other, more 
pressing, military requirements. Still, the 
impetus of the mid-sixties continued to pro- 
duce additional submersibles. 

A second Westinghouse vehicle DEEP- 
STAR 2000 and its support catamarar 
SEARCHSTAR (initially called MIDWIFE 
became available as a submersible system 
Although small (45-ft LOA), SEARCHSTAR 
was a unique part of the 3-man, 2,000-ft 
submersible system, its design was hydro- 
dynamically matched to the surface motion 
and mobility attributes of DEEPSTAR 2000 
(41), and it could be dismantled for rail or air 
transport. Originally assigned to Westing- 




Fig, 3,27 ALVIN ai 5.025 leet as phologfaphed from the U,S, Navy Research 
Laboratory s towed fish, (US, Navy) 



59 



house's San Diego facility as a part of its 
research inventory, the system was moved to 
Annapolis in 1971 and made available for 
leasing. 

Another addition to the grov^^ing California 
Fleet was SNOOPER, a 2-man, 1,000-ft sub- 
mersible built by Sea Graphics Inc. of Tor- 
rance for underwater photography. Farther 
north, International Hydrodynamics Ltd. 
added the 3,600-ft PISCES III to its inven- 
tory and put it to work on its U.S. Navy 
torpedo retrieval contract. 

Across the Pacific, the first of the follow-on 
vehicles stemming out oi HI KINO appeared, 
the 2-man, 300-ft KUMUKAHI. Built and op- 
erated at the Makapuu Oceanic Center by 
the Oceanic Institute at Waimanalo, Hawaii, 
KUMUKAHI (meaning "first of a series" in 
Hawaiian) had a IVs-inch-thick, 53-inch-di- 
ameter pressure hull made in four parts of 
plexiglass. 

KUMUKAHI was to serve as a test vehicle 
for the far more ambitious DEEP VOYAGER 
Program. Though only a design, the sub- 
mersible DEEP VOYAGER would conduct a 
transit from Hawaii to the U.S. by nothing 
more than taking on ballast and descending 
at a controlled glide and then attaining posi- 
tive buoyancy at 20,000 feet by generating 
hydrazine gas and ascending at another 
specified glide ratio. A total of 48 ascents/ 
descents was calculated to take the 3-man 
vehicle 2,400 miles across the Pacific in 16 
days. The DEEP VOYAGER Project, esti- 
mated at $2.25 million, never saw fruition 
and, after a few dives, KUMUKAHI itself was 
retired and put on display at Sea Life Park 
in Waimanalo. 

The year 1969 also saw the advent of the 
Jules Verne-like NR-1. Though the majority 
of its construction and operational details 
are classified, the U.S. Navy's NR-1 broke 
away from the constrictions of lead-acid bat- 
teries and incorporated a nuclear reactor 
into its 130-ft long hull. With a life support of 
45 days and virtually unlimited power, the 
General Dynamics-built NR-1 seems capable 
of research and surveying on a scale unap- 
proachable by its contemporaries, and at an 
estimated cost of $100 million (15) it is un- 
likely to be rivaled for some time to come. 

Minute by comparison were the two 1-man, 
1,600-ft SP-500's (PUCE DE MER or Sea 



Fleas) launched by Cousteau's Office Fran- 
cais de Recherches Sous-Marine (later be- 
coming Centre D'Etudes Marine Avancees- 
CEMA) in Marseilles. Primarily for underwa- 
ter photography, the 10-ft long SP-SOO^s 
would be used to film much of the later 
television footage in which the Cousteau 
group so excels. 

Other "firsts" were appearing in the sub- 
mersible field. The Piccard-designed BEN 
FRANKLIN inauspiciously submerged in the 
Gulf Stream off Palm Beach, Florida on 14 
July and surfaced 30 days later south of the 
Grand Banks. Only once during the 1,500- 
mile drift did the vehicle experience diffi- 
culty, and that occurred in the second week 
when an eddy carried it out of the Stream 
and required its support ship PRIVATEER to 
tow it back to the central core. For 30 days 
BEN franklin's hatches remained sealed 
and the unique, life support system sup- 
ported the 6-man crew. An account of this 
trip is in Piccard's The Sun Beneath the Sea 
(42), and the flawless performance of BEN 
FRANKLIN is a tribute to his thoroughness 
and infinite capacity for paying attention to 
the minute details which can accumulate to 
ungovernable proportions if left unattended. 

As BEN FRANKLIN silently drifted below 
the ocean's surface, the U.S. Space Program 
reached its culmination with the first moon 
landing. While the two events may appear 
unrelated, a NASA engineer aboard BEN 
FRANKLIN collected data on "man in isola- 
tion" which would be applied to the Skylab 
Project, an "orbital drift" of the seventies. 

Throughout the U.S. submersible activity 
in private industry began to experience the 
worst of Mr. Horton's earlier forecast. An 
article in BUSINESS WEEK, "Research Subs 
on the Beach" (27 Dec 1969), saw an even 
gloomier 1970 season, and listed several sub- 
mersibles (STAR II and ///, DEEPSTAR 
4000, DOWB, BEAVER, DEEP QUEST) as 
either laid up or idle. From the vantage point 
of large American industry, it was becoming 
painfully clear: The high water mark in long- 
term profitable submersible lease programs 
had been reached; the Federal government 
was not the only group making painful deci- 
sions. 



60 



1970 

In spite of such omens, U.S. submersibles 
continued to appear, but, responding to the 
inordinate cost of the deep-diving large vehi- 
cles, shallower and less expensive vehicles 
entered the scene. 

NEKTON BETA and GAMMA joined Gen- 
eral Oceanographies' NEKTON ALPHA and 
leased out at the low cost of $l,000/day, a 
rate far more accessible to money-short sci- 
entists than the $6,000 to $14,000/day cost of 
the larger, deep-diving vehicles. Later in the 
year, on 21 September, NEKTON BETA expe- 
rienced a bizarre accident that took the life 
of passenger Larry A. Headlee and marked 
the first death in the field of deep submer- 
gence (see Chapter 15). 

Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. of 
Chester, Pennsylvania launched its candi- 




Fig 3 28 The US Navy's NEMO Now retired from Navy services. NEMO served to 
investigate the feasibility of acrylic plastic for deep submergence (US Navy) 



date for low-cost, long-endurance missions, 
the tethered GUPPY. The 1,000-ft, 2-man 
GUPPY relied on a cable from the surface for 
power. The $95,000 vehicle resembled the 
earlier BATHYSPHERE only in appearance 
and surface reliance on electrical power; oth- 
erwise it had the operating capabilities of an 
untethered vehicle. 

Furthering the concept of acrylic plastic 
pressure hulls, the U.S. Naval Civil Engi- 
neering Laboratory (NCEL) at Port Hue- 
neme, California, constructed NEMO (Fig. 
3.28), a 600-ft, 2-man vehicle with a pressure 
hull of twelve, 2.5-inch-thick, spherical plas- 
tic pentagons bonded together with adhe- 
sive. Capable of limited lateral maneuvering, 
NEMO was basically an underwater yo-yo. 
Attached to a wire cable beneath the vehicle 
was a 380-pound anchor on a pilot-controlled 
hydraulic winch. Anchoring itself to the bot- 
tom and attaining positive buoyancy, NEMO 
could ascend to a selected depth and hover 
"at anchor." While the panoramic and hover- 
ing stability offered advantages to the un- 
derwater worker, NEMO was another Navy- 
built vehicle to assess the feasibility of var- 
ious components and materials — in this case 
acrylic plastic as a candidate for fleet subma- 
rines and other military devices. 

Perry Submarine Builders delivered the 
first submersible to a petroleum-oriented 
customer. The 1,350-ft, 4-man SURVEY 
SUB 1 (PC-9) was built for Brown and Root 
Corp., in Houston, Texas, for use in the oil 
fields as a surveying platform and for inspec- 
tion of pipelines and other production/trans- 
portation hardware. 

With the originally-intended DEEPSTAR 
12000 hull, CEMA completed the SP-3000 
for Centre National pour I'Exploitation des 
Oceans (CNEXO) at Marseilles. The French 
SP-3000 (recently designated CYANA) was 
to fill in the 0-io,000-ft depth range not 
amenable to the bathyscaph. 

CEMA was also active at this period in 
construction of the Cousteau-proposed AR- 
GYRONETE for France's CNEXO and IFP 
(Institut Francais du Petrole). ARGYRO- 
NETE would be a 1,970-ft, submersible com- 
posed of a large cylindrical pressure hull 
where passengers would live at atmospheric 
pressure and a smaller pressure hull where 
divers would live or lock-out at ambient pres- 



61 



sure (Fig. 3.29). Diesel-electric motors would 
provide it with surface propulsion and auton- 
omy of operations. Lead-acid batteries would 
supply submerged power, and in combination 
with its life support system, a submerged 
dive of 8 days would be possible for the 10- 
uan crew. However, when the pressure hulls 
were constructed and joined, further work on 
ARGYRONETE was halted to reconsider the 
project from a financial viewpoint and to 
study future uses of the vehicle (43). No 
further work has been reported since Octo- 
ber 1971. 

In 1970, Westinghouse Corp. also halted 
construction on the DEEPSTAR 20000. Pos- 
sibly anticipating a Federal customer, design 
work on the 20,000-ft vehicle began in the 
optimistic atmosphere of 1966, but by 1970 
Westinghouse, like others, could read the tea 
leaves and no customer for the $5 to $10 
million submersible was foreseen. With the 
pressure hull and many other components 
completed, the never-assembled DEEPSTAR 
20000 went into storage. 

With little need for a second BEAVER, 
North American Rockwell sold a spare set of 
BEAVER pressure hulls to International Hy- 



drodynamics who configured the hulls into 
the lock-out vehicle SDL-1 for Canadian 
Forces. Externally similar to the PISCES- 
class submersible, the 2,000-ft, 6-man SDL-1 
is capable of lock-out to 1,000 feet and would 
augment Canadian Forces' capability for mil- 
itary and scientific tasks. 

Like their Canadian counterpart, the U.S. 
Navy also took delivery on a submersible in 
1970, the first Deep Submergence Rescue 
Vehicle (DSRV-1). Capable of rescuing 24 
men at a time from 3,500 feet (to be uprated 
to 5,000 ft), DSRV-1 (Fig. 3.30) was, and 
remains, the most complex, sophisticated un- 
dersea vehicle today, but the price tag was 
far beyond 1964 expectations. Originally esti- 
mated at $3 million apiece, based on ALV/TV's 
cost, DSRV-1 cost an estimated $43 million 
(44). The original DSSRG recommendation 
for 12 such vehicles for a total of $55 million 
was, to say the least, embarrassingly shy of 
the mark. Indeed, embarassment was a com- 
mon attribute among the earlier prognosti- 
cators of the nation's future in the sea. By 
the end of 1970, the deep submersible leas- 
ing/building curve was plummeting down- 
ward in the U.S. and the largest customer, 




Fig. 3 29 The pressure hulls of ARGYFtONETE Oftering, in concept, capabilities tor undenwater work tar beyond ttiat o( present submersibles. ARGYRONEJE tias yet to proceed 

trom ttiis point ot construction shown in 1971, (Thomas Horlon) 



62 



the Navy, now had a broad-spectrum sub- 
mersible capability of its own. 

The DSSP was finding considerable diffi- 
culty in funding not 12, but merely 2 DSRV^s. 
A second 5,000-ft DSRV-2 would be launched 
in 1971, but no further vehicles were 
planned. The fleet of submersibles for assist- 
ance in large and small object recovery was 
reduced to one Deep Submergence Search 
Vehicle (DSSV), and this never progressed 
beyond a preliminary design contract con- 
ducted by Lockheed. At an estimated $60 to 
$100 million apiece (15), the DSSV is not a 
likely candidate for construction. With 8 
years separating THRESf/EK and the DSSP, 
the sense of urgency and the emotions of 
1963 were absent from R&D funding circles. 
So much so, in fact, that the 1968 sinking of 




Ftg 3 30 The first of two US Navy rescue submersibles {DSRV-1) is launched m 
1970 at San Diego, Calif (US Navy) 



another U.S. Navy submarine, SCORPION, 
in 10,000 feet of water passed with barely 
more than a ripple of concern relative to 
THRESHER. In the hard light of 1970 the 
need for even one DSRV was under close 
scrutiny. Submarine accidents, where the 
crew could be rescued, occurred at depths 
where the McCann Diving Bell or escape 
devices were more operationally practical 
than a DSRV. In cases such as THRESHER 
and SCORPION crush depth was exceeded, 
and any hope of rescue vanished. And fur- 
thermore, the practicality of a DSSV was 
questionable when unmanned devices — suc- 
cessors of CVRV — had reached a level of 
competence where the advantages of man on 
the scene were outweighed by long-duration, 
less costly, unmanned remote search sys- 
tems. 

As Vice President Agnew projected, pain- 
ful cuts were being made, and deep-ocean 
technology was feeling the surgeon's scalpel. 

To exemplify the shortage of funds for 
deep submersible exploration, the Navy con- 
tracted its last- and only-charter of DEEP 
QUEST in April-May 1970 with the Naval 
Oceanographic Office. This organization also 
terminated its leasing of submersibles and 
foreclosed on the prospects for a Deep Ocean 
Survey Vehicle. Similarly, NEL and the Un- 
derwater Sound Laboratory terminated leas- 
ing for lack of funds. 

The cost of maintaining a submersible 
made itself felt on the projected plans for 
work submersibles in Navy ranges. Origi- 
nally slated for the AUTEC range, SEA 
CLIFF and TURTLE were beyond the operat- 
ing budget of AUTEC and were transferred 
instead to the Navy's Submarine Develop- 
ment Group One (SUBDEVGRU-1), who also 
had TRIESTE II and DSRV-1 under their 
aegis. With the acquisition of these vehicles, 
there was little further need of industry 
vehicles to perform Navy tasks. 

Though the fact was yet to be recognized 
by all industry, it was not long coming: Leas- 
ing deep submersibles in the early 70's of- 
fered no potential for profit. During 1970-71 
the fleet of privately-owned U.S. submers- 
ibles diminished: DEEPSTAR 4000 was al- 
ready in mothballs when joined by DEEP- 
STAR 20000; ALIMINAUT retired in 1971; 
STAR I went on display in the Philadelphia 



63 



Maritime Museum; DOWB was given to 
Santa Barbara City College as a training aid 
for engineering students; BEN FRANKLIN 
was sold to Horton Maritime Explorations 
Ltd. in Vancouver, B.C.; BEAVER, after ex- 
periencing fire at 1,545 feet, was repaired 
and sold to International Underwater Con- 
tractors of New York. The promising aspect 
of the sixties was only that, as a ". . . new 
industry larger than aerospace" deep sub- 
mergence would have to mark time. But as a 
capability which improved with age, the 
manned submersible capabilities of the 
1970's profited by the experience of their 
predecessors. 

A MORE CONSERVATIVE 
APPROACH— THE 1970's 

Submersible builders of the seventies, rec- 
ognizing that great depth equaled great cost, 
pursued a more modest and inexpensive ap- 
proach. Twenty submersibles were built from 
1971 through 1973: Sixteen of these were less 
than 2,000-ft depth, 13 of which were 1,200-ft 
or less. The deep submersibles were the 6,- 
500-ft PISCES IV and V and the 5,000-ft 
DSRV.2. 

In another vein, the majority of submers- 
ibles — 13 — were built outside of the U.S. or 
for non-U.S. customers. Twelve were built 
under contract for a buyer or were assured 
of operational funding by a government or 
research foundation. Those built on lease 
speculation offered a particular capability to 
an identified customer: The offshore oil 
patch. A trend toward large-diameter view- 
ing domes, or acrylic plastic hulls, was evi- 
dent, as was lock-out capability. Absent were 
dashing crew uniforms and talk of large 
scale undersea exploration. The field of deep 
submergence was maturing. If the manned 
submersible was to survive, it would do so 
because it could compete with the diver, sur- 
face ship or other engineering, surveying 
and research devices. 

Increased viewing capability utilizing 
large, acrylic plastic bow domes was seen in 
Perry Submarine Builders' 600-ft PC-8, the 
1,025-ft TUDLIK {PS-2} and the 1,200-ft 
VOL-Ll (PC-15). TVDLIK was constructed 
by a Canadian branch of Perry for leasing in 
that country, while VOL-Ll , a lock-out sub- 
mersible, was constructed on order for Vick- 



ers Oceanics Ltd. in England. Departing 
from the standard PISCES configuration. In- 
ternational Hydrodynamics constructed the 
1,200-ft AQUARIUS I (Fig. 3.31) with a 36- 
inch-diameter bow dome and Perry-like, bat- 
tery-carrying skids. 

A few blocks away from the energetic In- 
ternational Hydrodynamics group another 
submersible reappeared which once resided 
in California. PAULO I was sold in 1971 to 
Candive Ltd. of Vancouver and its pressure 
hull was contracted for long-term lease by 
Arctic Marine Ltd., also Vancouver-based. 
This new firm retained the general PAULO I 
outline, but configured and uprated the vehi- 
cle's depth into the 1,500-ft SEA OTTER (Fig. 
3.32). Adding a new propulsion system, lights 
and cameras, and acquiring one of BEA- 
VER's versatile mechanical arms, Arctic Ma- 
rine greatly improved the capacity of the 
original vehicle to perform a wider range of 
surveying and engineering tasks. 

Mr. Edwin Link, an innovative and emi- 
nently successful pioneer in the American 
aircraft industry, turned his many talents 
toward the sea in the early sixties designing 
DEEP DIVER and a variety of ambient div- 
ing habitats and devices. In 1971 Mr. Link 




Fig. 3 31 AQUARIUS I typifies the new breed of submersibles, sfiallow depth, 
simple construction and operation and panoramic viewing (HYCO) 



64 



saw the launching of another of his designs: 
The 1,000-ft, diver lock-out JOHNSON SEA 
LINK. Donated by Link to the Smithsonian 
Institution and operated by the Marine Sci- 
ences Center at Ft. Pierce, Florida, SEA 
LINK incorporated a forward pressure 
sphere of plastic and an aft diver lock-out 
sphere of aluminum. Philanthropist Seward 
Johnson's sincere and abiding interest in the 
marine environment was, and remains, a 
chief factor in SEA LINK's birth and contin- 
ued operation. 

In addition to securing its 5,000-ft DSRF-2 , 
the U.S. Navy continued efforts toward ma- 
terial and component testing. In 1971 the 
1,500-ft DEEP VIEW and 600-ft MAKAKAI 
were launched and placed, along with A'E MO, 
under operational control of the Navy Un- 
dersea Center at San Diego. An early pioneer 
in submersible design and innovation (DEEP 
JEEP, KUMUKAHI, DEEP VOYAGER), na- 
val engineer Willis Foreman designed the 
glass hemi-head DEEP VIEW to assess the 
problems encountered with joining glass and 
steel under high pressure-low temperature 
conditions. Borosilicate glass constitutes 
DEEP VIEW'S forward hemi-head and HY- 
100 steel its cylinder and after endcap. The 



W/D ratio of glass is one of the lowest of all 
materials and its strength actually increases 
under pressure; hence, if some of its fabrica- 
tion and jointing problems can be overcome, 
glass offers tremendous potential to under- 
sea pressure capsules. 

The acrylic plastic-hulled MAKAKAI was 
fabricated to assess various means (includ- 
ing use of fiber optics and photometers) of 
telemetering data through a plastic sphere 
in lieu of thru-hull penetrations and to eval- 
uate and gain experience with cycloidal pro- 
pulsion systems instead of conventional pro- 
peller-rudder type maneuvering. 

The seventies saw the entrance of other 
European countries into the submersible 
field. Anticipating business from the newly- 
discovered and mushrooming North Sea oil 
fields, the Dutch company Nereid nv. of 
Schiedam constructed the 330-ft, 3-man 
NEREID 330. In addition to a wide range of 
viewing, NEREID 330 is fitted with a 15-ft- 
long, 2,500-pound lift-capacity, mechanical 
arm with a gripping force of 6 tons. A second 
vehicle, NEREID 700, a 4-man, 700-ft sub- 
mersible with diver lock-out capability, was 
delivered to Dutch Submarine Services of 
Amsterdam in the summer of 1973. 




Fig 3 32 Although! non-political by design, the Canadian submersible SEA OTTER is called to come to the aid of a party (Arctic Marine Ltd) 



65 



The West German firm Bruker-Physik A.G. 
launched the 984-ft, 2-man MERMAID I in 
1972 to fulfill a wide variety of tasks. The 
Karlsruhe-based firm is constructing a sec- 
ond craft, MERMAID III, to be launched in 
1975; similar to its sister-vehicle, the later 
version includes diver lock-out and transfer 
capabilities. 

A second West German firm, Maschinen- 
bau Gabler GmbH of Lubeck, produced the 
984-ft, 2-man TOURS 64 and TOURS 66 in 
1971 and 1972, respectively. Differing in di- 
mensions, the 66-boat being slightly larger, 
both have surface diesel-electric propulsion 
and a cruising range of 400 nautical miles. 
Both submersibles were built specifically for 
the unique role of "coral cracking" or gather- 
ing gem-quality red and pink deep-sea corals. 
The harvesting of this valuable coral — which 
lives beyond routine, compressed-air, am- 
bient diving depths — was an early prognosti- 



cation of the role submersibles might play. 
TOURS 64 was delivered to the Taiwan- 
based firm of Kuofeng Ocean Development 
Corp. in Taipei; TOURS 66 went to the Ital- 
ian firm of SELMAR at Cagliari, Sardinia. 

Adding to its country's small, but viable, 
submersible fleet, the Japanese firm of Ka- 
wasaki Heavy Industries built the 984-ft, 4- 
man HAKUYO, for continental shelf work by 
Ocean Systems Japan, Ltd. Launched in 
1971, the versatile HAKUYO would be a pri- 
vate-industry vehicle for engineering and 
surveying work by other offshore interests. 

At this writing the Perry company and 
International Hydrodynamics are each in 
the design and construction stage of several 
more submersibles. There is talk of a 20,000- 
ft Japanese submersible, but actual con- 
struction has not been reported. 

Several— perhaps 10 or 20— small, shallow- 
diving submersibles were built during the 




Fig 3.33 A variety ol one- and two-man shallow diving submersibles (Douglas Pnvitt, Gen Oceanographies) 



66 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^■■IKCir > H^HSi^^^^ 




1^ --^-^l 


1/ 


^n 


' ^w \ 


mm^ 




■^mk 


in... ■•#s^ 


^r , ■^ 




^^^^^■KT"^^" *^ir'^ -""^ 





67 




■m-'Tn* I 








-' I / J.- 




-^hV^ 



J'-* 'jLr -^»^^^^^».^^ 'i * 




>'11^^^J!^^-^^^^ 



-4 






^ 














68 








•| 







> 



luPiOfav "^^ 



r 




years covered above (Fig. 3.33), but their 
details are not available. From what can be 
gleaned, they incorporate the same general 
design and operational features as the NEK- 
TON, PC-3A, NAUTILETTE and SPORTS- 
iWAiV-class submersibles. The reasons for 
their construction can probably be found in 
individual motivation, and detailing their de- 
sign would likely reveal nothing more than 
what can be attained from those listed in 
Chapter 4. 

Large American industry has all but 
stopped construction of submersibles; even 
to lease those built and now inactive would 
require guarantees of long-term leases which 
no present user can provide. Government 
leasing of submersibles in the U.S. has not 
completely stopped, but the scale is modest, 
and the user is purely scientific. In 1972 the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency's 
MUST (Manned Undersea Science and Tech- 
nology) Program commenced leasing of sub- 
mersibles for programs dealing with environ- 
mental research and monitoring and fisher- 



ies research. Several hundred dives have 
been completed to date with NEKTON, PC-8, 
SEA LINK and DEEPSTAR 2000. The larger 
submersibles DEEP QUEST and ALVIN have 
also been chartered, but on a very modest 
scale. MUST's (now Manned Undersea Activ- 
ities or MUA) less than $1 million annual 
program is aimed at using the state-of-the- 
art capabilities of submersibles and not at 
investing funds to enhance their instrument 
or performance capabilities (45). 

Emphasis in the submersible field has 
shifted from the Federal government to the 
offshore oil industry. Although the count 
varies, at least five vehicles are presently 
operating in the North Sea; the most ambi- 
tious operation being Vickers Oceanics Ltd., 
which owns PISCES I, II and ///, VOL-Ll 
and in 1973 leased DEEP DTVER and SUR- 
VEY SUB 1 . 

Large-scale international exploration of 
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge commenced in the 
summer of 1973 and will continue through 
1974. This program, FAMOUS, will use AL- 



69 



VIN, SP-3000 and ARCHIMEDE and is 

jointly funded by the French and American 
governments to survey and conduct research 
into the genesis and characteristics of this 
most impressive undersea mountain range. 

It should be evident that the field of deep 
submergence is quixotic and, as Mr. Horton 
forecast some 6 years past, ". . . ivhat mar- 
ket there was would experience energetic 
competition with the weaker companies 
falling by the wayside.'''' In 1968 it v^^ould 
have taken the foresight of Cassandra to 
prophesize Westinghouse, North American 
Rockwell, General Dynamics, Grumman Aer- 
ospace, Reynolds and General Motors as 
"weaker" companies. But if participation in 
submersible activities is the yardstick, then 
that is precisely the case, for each of these 
giant corporations has retired from active 
participation. Albeit, Westinghouse main- 
tains token representation with DS-2000. 

Interestingly, the stronger companies 
turned out to be "backyard" builders who 
offered simple, relatively inexpensive sub- 
mersibles instead of the deep, sophisticated 
and expensive variety. Two submersible 
builders dominate today: Perry Submarine 
Builders and International Hydrodynamics 
Ltd. (HYCO). The Perry organization has 
built 13 vehicles {PC3-X, PC-3A (1 & 2), PC- 
SB, PLC-4, PLC-4B, PC5-C, PC-8, PC-9, 
PC-15, PS-2, OPSUB, PC-14) and is in the 
process of constructing 4 more. The majority 
of Perry's business, however, resides in the 
construction of diver delivery and support 
systems, not submersibles. On the other 
hand, HYCO remains strictly a submersible 
builder and has completed seven to date 
(PISCES I, II, III, IV, V, SDL-1 , AQUARIUS 
I) with orders for six more (PISCES VI, VII, 
VIII, AQUARIUS II, ARIES I & II) on the 
ledger. 

Determining the number of operating sub- 
mersibles is quite difficult owing to the spo- 
radic nature of their use; some dive full time; 
others, perhaps 1 or 2 months out of the 
year. In any event, some 58 out of the more 
than 100 submersibles built since FNRS-2 
are operating. The status of individual vehi- 
cles is given in Chapter 4; it is of interest to 
note that most of the operational submers- 
ibles are shallow ones, and dive to less than 
2,000 feet. The deeper vehicles are largely 



government-supported vehicles of the United 
States and France. 

Scientific diving is now a small part of 
submersible activities; instead, engineering 
tasks, such as pipeline and cable inspection, 
are the dominant activities. And, at the mo- 
ment, the submersible industry has focused 
on the North Sea. 

Since discovery and development of the 
North Sea oil in the late sixties and early 
seventies, Vickers Oceanics Ltd. of Barrow- 
in-Furness has been and is the major sup- 
plier of submersible services in this area. In 
a 1972 report, Goudge (46) shows a 1969 total 
of 40 operating days for PISCES II growing 
to a total of 500 operating days for three 
submersibles (PISCES I & II and an uniden- 
tified diver lock-out vehicle) in 1972. 

Two of the most obvious questions concern- 
ing this resurgence in submersible activity is 
why now and why the North Sea? Mr. G. S. 
Henson of Vickers presented his answers in a 
report at a Heriot-Watt University Seminar 
in early December 1973. The North Sea can 
be one of the most inhospitable areas in the 
world and, according to Henson, its condi- 
tions are characterized by: 

— Average sea states and extremes of 
weather conditions significantly worse 
than previously encountered in routine off- 
shore operations. 

— Strong tidal currents and turbidity. 

— Greater water depths than previous oil 
extracting workings; 650 feet at present 
with oil-bearing potential extending to 
depths of 975 feet to 2,000 feet for future 
development. 

— Low water temperature. 

Within these conditions a diver quickly runs 
out of breathing gas and strength and is 
frequently cold and frightened. Additionally, 
the diver stirs up a cloud of bottom sedi- 
ments and is unable to wait for it to clear 
because of his limited gas supply. From a 
mechanical point of view, divers offer little 
or no power at their elbows. 

Acknowledging the technical limitations of 
remote submersible work tools, Henson lists 
their advantages over the diver as being a 
"shirt sleeve" environment, a reasonable 
power supply and the ability to bottom for 
several hours to wait until conditions clear. 



70 



Working in concert with the diver, who can 
provide specialized functions, the lock-out 
submersible will improve his performance by 
conserving life support, removing the fear of 
loneliness, providing additional power for 
tooling and improving work time by using 
the submersible's freedom for search and 
approach to the work site. Henson predicts 
that by 1980 the submersible and the satu- 
rated ambient diver will be equals in annual 
earnings (utilization). One might take issue 
with such predictions, but the orders of mag- 
nitude of submersible utilization shown by 
Goudge are irrefutable evidence of an in- 
creasingly significant role for such vehicles 
in the North Sea. 

Predictably, Vickers' activities have not 
gone unnoticed by other submersible owners. 




Fig 3 34 This 55-ton hyperbaric section ot PHOENIX 66 will be encapsulated into a 

70-ft-lQng submersible tor oil field work to 1 .200 feet with a crew ot seven (Sub Sea 

Oil Services. Milan) 



HYCO's P/SCES V and one ARIES are slated 
for North Sea leasing under their new par- 
ent organization. Peninsular and Orient 
Steamship Lines. Sub Sea Oil Services of 
Milan, Italy has acquired the PS-2 and the 
PC5C and is building an immense, mobile 
working habitat designated PHOENIX 66 
(Fig. 3.34) for North Sea application by 1974. 
Taylor Divers' TS-1 is now working on a 
long-term charter in the North Sea and 
other European firms stand ready with their 
entries. 

The "new" future of submersibles is prom- 
ising indeed, but the former participants 
might correctly advise the newcomer to pro- 
ceed with caution. Whether they will heed 
such advice is speculative, for once again the 
manned submersible finds itself a most 
newsworthy item: 

"The energy crisis has created demand 
for little submarines to lay underwater 
pipelines and explore along the ocean 
floor for oil. Suddenly the demand (for 
submersibles) far outstrips supply as oil 
exploration actitnty picks up.'''' 

—THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MOM- 
TOR 

22 January 1974 



REFERENCES 

1. Beebe, W. 1934 Half Mile Down. Har- 
court. Brace & Co., New York. 

2. Mark, R. F. 1967 They Dared The Deep. 
The World Pub Co., New York. 

3. Piccard, A. 1954 In Balloon and Bathy- 
scaphe. Cassell & Co. Ltd., London. 

4. U.S. Navy Diving Manual. 1970 NAV- 
SHIPS 0994-001-9010, Navy Dept., Wash- 
ington, D.C., 687 pp. 

5. Houot, G. S. and Wilhm, P. H. 1955 2,000 
Fathoms Down. E. P. Dutton & Co., New 
York. 

6. Maxwell, A. E., Lewis, R., Lomask, M., 
Frasetto, R. and Rechnitzer, A. 1957 A 
Preliminary report on the 1957 investi- 
gations with the bfithyscaph. TRIESTE 
(unpub. manuscript). 

7. Dr. Andres Rechnitzer, Office of the 
Oceanographer of the Navy, Alexandria, 
Va. (Personal Communications) 



71 



10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



17. 



19. 
20. 

21. 



22. 

23. 

24. 



25. 



26. 



Terry, R. D. 1966 The Deep Submersible. 

Western Periodicals Co., North Holly- 
wood, California, 456 pp. 
Piccard, J. and Dietz, R. S. 1960 Seven 
Miles Down. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York. 

Dr. Melchiorre Masali, Univ. of Torino, 
Torino, Italy (Personal Communication). 
Edmund S." Martine, SUBMAISAUT En- 
terprizes, Miami Beach, Florida (1967 
Personal Communication). 
Burt L. Dickman, Auburn, Indiana (1973 
Personal Communication). 
Cousteau, J. Y. 1956 The Living Sea. 
Harper & Row, New York. 
Cousteau, J. Y. and Dumas 1953 The 
Silent World. Harper & Row, New York. 
Shenton, E. H. 1972 Diving For Science. 
W. W. Norton & Co., New York. 
Parrish, B. B., Akyuz, E. F., Anderson, J., 
Brown, D. W., High, W., Peres, J. M. and 
Piccard, J. 1972 Submersibles and under- 
water habitats; a review. Underwater 
Jour., August, p. 149-163. 
Toggweiler, M. 1966 SUBMARAY, Two- 
man utility submarine . A paper pre- 
sented at the AIAA Symposium on Mod- 
ern Developments in Marine Sciences, 
Los Angeles, California, 21 April 1966. 
Rechnitzner, A. B. and Walsh, D. 1961 
The V.S. Navy bathyscaph TRIESTE, 
1958-1961. A presentation to the Tenth 
Pacific Science Conference, Honolulu, 
Hawaii, 21 August-September 1961. 
Undersea Tech. 1962 July/August. 
Covey, C. W. 1964 ALUMINAVT. Under- 
sea Tech., V. 5, n. 9, p. 16-23. 
Harter, J. R. R. 1964 Personal Communi- 
cation to Undersea Technology printed 
in March 1964. 

Munske, R. E. 1964 ALUMINAUT near 
completion. Undersea Tech., April 1964. 
Undersea Tech., April 1963. 
Andrews, F. A. 1965 Search operations 
in the THRESHER area 1964. Naval 
Engineer's Jour., August & October 1965 
(2 sections). 

Galantin, I. J. 1965 Vehicles for deep 
ocean technology. Shipmate, May, p. 24- 
29. 

Forman, W. R. 1966 DEEP JEEP from 
design through operation. Jour. Ocean 
Tech., V. 1, n. 1, p. 17-23 



27. Undersea Tech., September 1964. 

28. Loughman, R. and Butenkoff, G. 1965 
Fuel cells for an underwater research 
vehicle. Undersea Tech., Sept., p. 45-46. 

29. Vetter, R. C. 1970 Growth and Support of 
Oceanography in the United States 
1958-1968. National Academy of Sci- 
ences-National Resource Council Report, 
44 pp. 

30. Federal Marine Science Program, Fiscal 
Years 1968-1969 and 1970. 

31. Thomas F. Horton, Living Sea Corp., Los 
Angeles, California (Personal Communi- 
cation). 

32. Andrews, F. A. 1967 An analytical re- 
view of lessons learned from the H- 
Bomb sea search off Spain. Pt, 1, 
Search, classification, and recovery. 
Proc. 4th U.S. Navy Sym. Military 
Oceanog., v. 1, p. 3-28. 

33. Gaul, R. D. and Clarke, W. D. 1968 
GULFVIEW Diving Log. Gulf Univ. Res. 
Corp., Pub. No. 106, College Station, 
Texas, 37 pp. 

34. Summary of Commercial Leasing by 
Navy Activities. Enclosure (1) to Chief of 
Naval Materials ser. Itr. MAT 0327/DUB 
of 27 June 1969. 

35. Slates, E. F. 1968 HI KINO mock-up, an 
operational two-man catamaran sub- 
mersible. Naval Weapons Center Tech. 
Note 404-65-68, 39 pp, 2 appendices. 

36. Lang, R. G. and Scholtz, P. D. 1963 4 two- 
man plexiglass submarine for oceanic 
research. Undersea Tech., April, p. 26. 

37. Ocean Industry 1969, v. 4, n. 1. 

38. Munz, R. 1967 PX-15: A design for fu- 
ture needs. Data Magazine, November. 

39. Horton, T. F. 1968 Inside undersea vehi- 
cle systems. The Ocean and the Investor. 
Dean Witter & Co. Pub., p. 75-82. 

40. R. Bradley, Arctic Marine Ltd., Vancou- 
ver, B.C. (Personal Communication). 

41. Westinghouse Ocean Research Labora- 
tory. 1971 DEEPSTARISEARCHSTAR 
Research Submersible System CD-71-7- 
800, 15 pp. 

42. Piccard, J. 1971 The Sun Beneath The 
Sea. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 
405 pp. 

43. La Prairie, U. 1972 Recent achievements 
of the French in offshore technology. 
Ocn. Ind., April, p. 115-120. 



72 



44. Undersea Tech., October 1969. 46. Goudge, K. A. 1972 Operating: experience 

45. Miller, J. W. and Beaumariage, D. C. 1972 with PISCES submersibles. Conf. Papers. 
NOAA''s Manned Undersea Science find Oceanology International '72, Brighton, 
Technology Program. National Oceanic England, 19-24 March 1972, p. 270-273. 
and Atmospheric Agency (unpublished 

manuscript). 



73 




4 



MANNED SUBMERSIBLES: 
1948-1974 



The construction and performance charac- 
teristics of 88 submersibles built or under 
construction during the period 1948 through 
1974 are presented in the following pages. 
Not all submersibles built during this period 
are represented, but only those for which 
sufficient details are available to provide an 
adequate description. In some cases there 
are several vehicles of one type; for example, 
the K-250 is one of nine vehicles built to a 
design of Mr. G. Kittredge; 10 additional 
pressure hulls of this design were con- 
structed, but there is no indication that they 
saw completion to a final vehicle. The 
SPORTSMAN 300 and 600 series are other 
examples where some 20 models are alleged 
by various sources to have been constructed, 



but only 3 can be accounted for in the litera- 
ture and from personal communications 
within the field. In all then, over 132 sub- 
mersibles, not including the Soviet bloc, were 
built to at least the pressure hull stage of 
completion in this 26-year period. For ready 
reference and from a historical aspect. Table 
4.1 lists all known vehicles and their perti- 
nent characteristics. 

The great majority are one-of-a-kind and 
show little commonality in design and perfor- 
mance. This diversity of design is matched 
by diversity in definition of terms used to 
describe the various vehicles and their per- 
formance characteristics. "Payload" and 
"Endurance," for example, may be defined 
quite differently by the owner and the user, 



75 



and both, for their own purposes, may be 
correct. For reasons of clarity, definitions of 
the dimensional and performance terms used 
in the following descriptions are given below. 
Definitions of the specific terminology used 
within these categories can be found in the 
appropriate chapters. 



Payload: The total weight which may be 
placed aboard (internally and externally) a 
submersible after the pilots/observers and all 
other equipment or supplies are aboard 
which are required to conduct a dive to its 
operating depth under routine, safe condi- 
tions. 



DIMENSIONAL/PERFORMANCE 
TERMS 

Length, Beam. Height, Draft: See Figure 
4.1. 

Weight (dry): In-air vehicle weight in a 
ready-to-dive condition with only operating 
and hotel equipment aboard. 

Operating Depth: The deepest depth a sub- 
mersible can operate and maintain a speci- 
fied safety factor, usually 1.5 or greater. 

Collapse Depth: The computed depth (de- 
termined by model testing or calculations 
based on materials testing) at which a pres- 
sure-resistant structure, e.g., pressure hull, 
will fail owing to ambient pressure. 

Hatch diameter: Least diameter of the per- 
sonnel entrance orifice in the pressure 
hull. Where the opening is a truncated cone 
this dimension is the minimum diameter. 

Life Support: The total time (in hours), 
including normal and emergency systems, 
available to sustain one "average" man 
within a closed pressure hull. (See Chapter 9 
for definition of an "average man.") 

Total Power Capacity: Total electrical 
power, in kilowatt hours (kWh), a submers- 
ible's power plant can generate to supply 
propulsion, hotel load and scientific work 
equipment. Derived from (total voltage .\ 
ampere hours) /1,000. 

Speed/Endurance: Expressed in knots (6,- 
080 ft/hr) and calculated, not from total kWh, 
but from that portion of the power supply 
devoted to propulsion. The employment of 
lights, echo sounders and other equipment 
requiring electrical power will detract from 
the endurance stated. 

Pilot: The number of individuals required 
to safely control the submersible in all as- 
pects of a dive. 

Observers: The number of individuals a 
submersible may routinely carry on a dive 
who are in no way required for control of the 
submersible. 



COMPONENT/SUB-SYSTEM TERMS 

Pressure Hull: The pressure-resistant com- 
ponent of a submersible wherein the human 
occupants reside. 

Ballast/Buoyancy: The means whereby a 
submersible attains negative or positive 
buoyancy to dive and surface, and to attain 
small-scale changes in ± buoyancy when 
submerged. 

Propulsion/Control: The devices a vehicle 
carries to propel it horizontally (main propul- 
sion), vertically and laterally (thrusters), and 
the systems (dive planes and rudders) used 
to control its attitude (pitch, roll, yaw) under- 
way. 

trim: The systems available to attain up/ 
down bow angles (pitch) or list angles (roll) 
through movement of weights or liquids for- 
ward or aft, or port/starboard. In some in- 
stances a builder defines trim as the means to 
attain small-scale buoyancy adjustments 
when submerged; where this is the case, it has 
been included under Ballast/Buoyancy. 

Power Source: The nature and total quan- 
tity of onboard energy (mainly electrical) 
carried by the submersible when diving. 

Life Support: The oxygen supply, carbon 
dioxide removal systems, temperature con- 
trol devices, atmospheric monitoring instru- 
ments, etc., carried aboard. 

Viewing: Dimensions, quantity and loca- 
tion of viewports and other devices providing 
the occupants of the pressure hull direct 
viewing of the external envii'onment. 

Operating/Scientific Equipment: Perma- 
nently installed submersible equipment 
used: 1) By the operator — to communicate on 
and under the surface, to monitor vehicle 
attitude and location and to determine the 
presence of possible hazards; 2) By the ob- 
server — to attain environmental information 
such as water temperature, bottom relief, 



76 



etc. This category is the most likely subject 
for change. 

Manipulators: The devices with capabili- 
ties approximating those of the human arm 
and hand and which permit an operator 
within the submersible to carry out specific 
work functions outside the submersible. 

Safety Features: Systems or components 
whereby the occupants of the vehicle may 
deal with emergencies such as power loss, 
normal deballasting loss, fire, entanglement, 
etc. 

Surface Support: The combination of 
equipments, systems and personnel neces- 
sary to transport, prepare for launch, 
launch, track, communicate with, retrieve 
and otherwise service the submersible and 
its occupants before, during and after actual 
diving operations. 

With the advent of the C5A all submers- 
ibles, excluding A t/G(/Sr£ PICCARD, ARGY- 
RONETE, 1\R-1 and the bathyscaphs, are 
air, sea and land (truck or rail) transportable. 
Only a few have a permanent support plat- 
form; for those that do, the name and nature 
of the support platform is included. Submers- 
ibles relying on charter ships or "Ships of 
Opportunity" are noted as '"SOOJ" 

External Lighting: Lights located outside 
the pressure hull are used for viewing, pilot- 
ing, etc. The majority of submersibles have a 
capability for external illumination; those 
that do not, need merely purchase an off-the- 
shelf underwater light. Rearrangement and 
modifications to lights are quite common and 
simple to conduct. For these reasons no de- 
scription of a submersible's lighting ar- 
rangement or quantity is provided, for it is 
too likely to change. 

The references provided are the sources 
from which descriptions of specific submers- 
ibles were obtained. In many instances the 
data was acquired from builders' brochures 
or specifications. In some cases it was de- 
rived from personal contact with the builder; 
where this is the case it is so noted. 



REFERENCES 

ALL OCEAN Fact sheet and Operating In- 



ALUMINAUT 



ALVIN 



AQUARIUS I 
ARIES I 
PISCES I, II, 
III, IV, V 



ARCHIMEDE 



ARGYRO- 
NETE 



STAR II 
ASHERAH 



AUGUSTE 
PICCARD 



BEAVER 



INDUSTRIES 



structions from All Ocean In- 
dustries, Inc., Houston, Texas 



Sheets, H.E. and Loughman, 
R.R. 1964 The ALUMINAUT. 

Paper presented at the 1st 
Ann. Meeting of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Aeronautics 
and Astronautics, Wash., 
D.C., 29 June-2 July 1964. 
AIAA No. 64-459 
Mavor, J.W., Froehlich, H.E., 
Marquet, W.M. and Rainnie, 
W.O. 1966 ALVIN, 6,000-ft 
submergence research vehi- 
cle. Paper presented at the 
Ann. Meeting, New York, 
N.Y., Nov. 10-11, 1966 of The 
Soc. of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers, n. 3, 32 pp. 
International Hydrodynam- 
ics Inc., North Vancouver, 
B.C. Fact sheets and personal 
communications with staff 
members. Vickers Oceanics 
Ltd. advertising brochure 
Le Bnthyscaphe AR- 

CHIMEDE. Technical bro- 
chure published by D.C.A.N. 
Toulon, March 1971 

Willm, P. 1971 Project ARCy- 
RONETE. A talk delivered at 
the OCEANEXPO Collo- 
quium 9-12 March 1971, Bro- 
deaux, France 

Brancart, C.P. and Hoffman, 
G.H. 1967 STAR II A second 
generation research subma- 
rine. Trans. 3rd Ann. Mar. 
Tech. Soc. Conf. & Exhibit, 5- 
7 June 1967 San Diego, Calif., 
p. 459-478 

The submarine AUGUSTE 
PICCARD. Technical De- 
scription published by The 
Swiss National Exhibition, 
Lausanne, Switzerland 1964 
Black, D.C. 1968 BEAVER 
MK IV Submarine Work 
Boat. Tech. Description T8- 
1473/020. Ocn. Sys. Opera- 
tions of North American 
Rockwell Corp., Anaheim, 
Calif. 



77 



BE^ FRANK- 
LIN 



BENTHOS V 



DEEP DIVER 
PCS A (1&2) 
PC-3B 
PC3-X 
PC5C 
PCS 
PC-14 
PS-2 

SHELF DI- 
VER 

SURVEY SUB 
1 

VOI^Ll 
DEEP JEEP 



DEEP 
QUEST 



DEEPSTAR 
2000 



Grumman Aircraft Engineer- 
ing Corp., Bethpage, New 
York. 1969 BEN FRANKLIN, 
Brief Systems Description 

Data and Controls Div., Lear 
Siegler Inc., Deep River, 
Conn. (Response to the Com- 
mittee on Marine Research, 
Education and Facilities (IC- 
MAREF) questionnaire, 1969 
and personal communication 
from Garrison Divers, Corp., 
to CDR R. Nevin of NOAA) 
Fact Sheet Perry Submarine 
Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla., 
and personal communications 
with Perry staff 



DEEPSTAR 
4000 



DEEPSTAR 

20000 



Forman, W.R. 1966 DEEP 
JEEP from design through 
operation. Jour. Ocn. Tech., 
V. 1, n. 1, p. 17-23 
Lockheed Missiles & Space 
Co. 1968 Lockheed DEEP 
QUEST Submersible System. 
LMSC/D080197 Revision b 
Eliot, F. 1967 The design and 
construction of the DEEP- 
STAR 2000. Trans. 3rd Ann. 
Mar. Tech. Soc. Conf. & Ex- 
hibit, 5-7 June 1967, San 
Diego, Calif., p. 479-492 
Westinghouse Electric Corp. 
1967 DEEPSTAR-4000 Oper- 
ation and Maintenance 
Manual, v. 1, pt. 1, Pub. 
A32213B710 

Shenton, E.H. 196S Exploring 
The Ocean Depths. New 
York, W.W. Norton & Co. 
Pritzlaff, J. A. 1970 DEEP- 
STAR-20,000. Trans. Mar. 
Tech. Soc. 6th Ann. Conf. & 
Expo. V. 2, p. 817-836 



DEEP SUB- 
MERGENCE 
RESEARCH 
VEHICLE 
DEEP VIEW 



DOWB 



FNRS-2 
TRIESTE I 
FNRS-3 
GOLDFISH 



GRIFFON 



GUPPY 



HAKUYO 



HIKING 



JIM 



Northrop Services, Inc., Ar- 
lington, Va. 1972 Proposed 
DSRV Operational Manual. 
Contract N00024-72-C-0207 
Forman, W.R. 1972 Develop- 
ment & sea trials of the glass 
submersible DEEP VIEW. 
Preprints The 2nd Interna- 
tional Ocn. Dev. Conf., Tokyo, 
V. 1, p. 810-819 

Daubin, S.C. 1967 The Deep 
Ocean Work Boat (DOWB) 
an advanced deep submer- 
gence vehicle. Paper No. 67- 
360 of Joint AIAA/SNAME 
Advanced Marine Vehicle 
Meeting, Norfolk, Va., 22-24 
May 

Piccard, A. 1956 Earth, Sky 
and Sea. Oxford Univ. Press, 
New York 

Dickman, B.L., Auburn, Indi- 
ana (personal communica- 
tion) 

Foex, J.S. 1974 Le GRIFFON. 
L'Aventure Sous-Marine 
Techniques et Exploration, n. 
97, p. 18-21 

Watson, W. 1971 The design, 
construction, testing and op- 
eration of a deep-diving sub- 
mersible for ocean floor ex- 
ploration. Paper presented 
in the Transactions of the 
Annual Meeting of The Soci- 
ety of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers, Nov. 11- 
12, New York, p. 405-433 

Arakai, A. 1972 The Opera- 
tion by the HAKUYO. Pre- 
prints The 2nd International 
Ocean Dev. Conf., Tokyo, v. 1, 
p. 820-828 

Slates, E.F. 1968 HIKINO 
Mock-up, an operational 
two-man catamaran sub- 
mersible. Naval Weapons 
Center Tech. Note 404-65-68. 
38 pp. with Appendices 

1973 One atmosphere diving 
suit passes tests for deep 



78 



JOHNSON 
SEA LINK 



K-250 



KUMUKAHI 



KUROSHIO 
II 

SHINKAI 
YOMIVRI 



MAKAKAI 



MERMAID II 
II & IIIIIV 



MINI DIVER 



NA VTI. 
LETTE 
NEKTON 
ALPHA, 
BETA, 
GAMMA 

NEMO 



water. Ocean Ind., Aug., p. 
26-28 

Kelsey, R.A. and Dolan, R.B. 
1970 The JOHNSON-SEA- 
LINK — The first deep diving 
welded aluminum submers- 
ible. Trans. Amer. Soc. Mech. 
Eng. Winter Ann. Meeting, 
Nov. 29-Dec. 3, New York, 
Pub. No. 70 WA/Unt 6, 12 pp. 
Kittredge, G., Kittredge In- 
dustries, Inc. Warren, Me., 
04864 (A brochure, no date) 
Forman, W.R. 1970 KUMU- 
KAHI paper presented at 
ASME Ann. winter meeting. 
(70-WA/Unt-ll) 
Sasaki, T. 1970 On underwa- 
ter observation vessels in Ja- 
pan. Preprints Mar. Tech. 
Soc. 6th Ann. Conf. & Expo., 
June 29-July 1, Wash., D.C., v. 
1, p. 227-262 

Talkington, H.R. and Mur- 
phy, D.W. 1972 Transparent 
Hull Submersibles and the 
MAKAKAI. NURDC Rept. 

NUC TP 283, 24 pp. 
NURDC Hawaii Laboratory, 
1970 4 systems Description of 
the Transparent Hulled Sub- 
mersible MAKAKAI (unpub. 
manuscript) 

Bruker-Physik A.G., Karls- 
ruhe, West Germany, Vehicle 
fact sheets and personal com- 
munication with Mr. J. Haas 
Great Lakes Underwater 
Sports Inc., Elmwood Park, 
111. Personal communication 
with Mr. J. Strykowski 
Brochure from Nautilette 
Inc., Ft. Wayne, Ind. 
Personal communication with 
Messrs. Douglas Privitt and 
J. W. Vernon of General 
Oceanographies, Inc., New- 
port Beach, Calif. 
Rockwell, P.K., Elliott, R.E. 
and Snoey, M.R. 1971 NEMO, 
a new concept in submers- 



N ERE ID 330 



OPSUB 



PAULO I 
SDL-l 



ibles. NCEL Tech. Rept. 
R749, 68 pp. 

Personal communication with 
Dr. Ir. H.H. Lok of Nereid nv. 
Yerseke, Holland 
OPSUB Instruction, Opera- 
tion and Maintenance Man- 
ual. Ocean Systems Inc., 
11440 Isaac Newton Indus- 
trial Sq. N., Reston, Va. 22090 
Fact sheet from Anautics, 
Inc., San Diego, Calif., 1969 
Systems Description and Op- 
erations Manual. SUB- 
MERSIBLE DIVER LOCK- 
OUT (SDL-l). Canadian 
Forces Technical Order C-23- 
100-000/MG-VOl, dated 18 
July 1973, prepared by Inter- 
national Hydrodynamics Ltd. 

U.S. Navy Submarine Devel- 
opment Group One, San 
Diego, Calif. Fact Sheets and 
personal communication with 
Group personnel 

Arctic Marine Ltd., North 
Vancouver, B.C. Personal 
communication with R. Brad- 
ley and staff members 

SEA RANGER Verne Engineering, Mt. Cle- 
mens, Mich. SEA RANGER 

600. (Technical Description 
of general capabilities) 

SEA-RAY Submarine Research and De- 

velopment Corp., Lynnwood, 
Wash. (Response to IC- 
MAREF questionnaire) 

SNOOPER Undersea Graphics, Torr- 

ance, Calif. Design Informa- 
tion on Undersea Graphics 2- 
man Submersible SNOOPER 

SP-350 Cousteau, J.Y. and Dugan, J. 

1963 The Living Seti. New 

York, Harper & Row 

SP-500 Small Bathysphere PUCES 

500. Technical description 
from Centre D'Etudes Ma- 
rine Avancees, Marseilles, 
France 



SEA CLIFF 
TURTLE 
TRIESTE II 



SEA OTTER 



79 



SP-3000 



SPORTSMAN 
300 & 600 



STAR I 



SUBMANAUT 

(Helle) 



CNEXO technical description 
SOUCOUPE PLONGEANTE. 

S.P. 3000 

Terry, R.D. 1966 The Deep 
Submersible. Western Peri- 
odicals, No. Hollywood, Calif. 
Underwater Development 
Engineering Research and 
Development Department, 
Gen. Dynamics Corp., 1966 
Underwater Equipment 
Availability. (Technical de- 
scriptions of all Gen. Dyn. 
pi'oduced submersibles) 
J.R. Helle, Oceanic Enter- 
prises, San Diego, Calif., (Re- 
sponse to ICMAREF ques- 



tionnaire, 1969) and personal 
communications 

SUBMANAUT Report of Survey by Capt . C. 

(Martine) Holland, Miami, Fla., of 16 

Aug. 1968 

SUBMARAY Fact sheets from Hydrotech 
Co., Long Beach, Calif. 

SURV Lintott Engineering Ltd., 

Horsham, Sussex, England 
Technical Description of 
SURV, Standard Underwater 
Research Vehicle 

TOURS 64 & Personal communication with 

66 P. Kayser of Maschinenbau 

Gabler GmbH, Lubeck, Fed- 
eral Republic of West Ger- 
many 




HEIGHT 




Fig 4 1 Submersible dimensions 



80 



TABLE 4.1 SUBMERSIBLES - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 
(AUGUST 1975) 











Operating 












Year 


Depth 








Builder 


Owner 


Launched 


(ft) 


Crew 


Status 


ALUMINAUT 


Gen. Dynamics 


Reynolds International 












Groton, Conn. 


Richmond, Va. 


1964 


15,000 


6 


Inactive 


ALVIN 


General Mills Inc. 


U.S. Navy 


1964 


12,000 


3 


Operational 


AQUARIUS 1 


HYCO 














Vancouver, B.C. 


P&O Intersubs 


1973 


1,200 


3 


Operational: 1 


ARCHIMEDE 


French Navy 


French Navy 








Under construction: 2 






Toulon 


1961 


36,000 


3 


Operational 


ARGYRONETE 


Center for Advanced 


CNEXO 








Construction Halted 




Marine Studies (CEMA) 


Paris 


- 


1,970 


10 


in 1971 


ASHERAH 


Gen. Dynamics 


Technoceans 












Groton, Conn. 


New York City 


1964 


600 


2 


Inactive 


AUGUSTE 


Giovanola Bros. 


Horton Maritime Expl. 








Operational by January 


PICCARD 


Monthey, Switzerland 


Vancouver, B.C. 


1963 


2,500 


* 


1976 
*Has carried 45 people 


BEAVER 


North Amer. Rockwell 
Seal Beach, Ca. 


International Underwater 
Contractors, 














New York City 


1968 


2,000 


4 


Operational 


BEN FRANKLIN 


Giovanola Bros. 


Horton Maritime Expl. 












Monthey, Switzerland 


Vancouver, B.C. 


1968 


2,000 


6 


Not operating 


BENTHOS V 


Lear Siegler, Inc. 


Garrison 8 Divers 












Deep River, Conn. 


Seattle, Wash. 


1963 


600 


2 


Not Operating 


CHIHIRO 


Kawasaki Heavy Ind. 
Tokyo 


Japanese Government 


1975 


164 


6 


Experimental 
Rescue Vehicle 


DEEP DIVER 


Perry Submarine 


Marine Sciences Ctr. 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


Ft. Pierce, Fla. 


1968 


1,350 


4 


On Display in 


DEEP JEEP 


U.S. Naval Ord. Test Sta., 


Scrippslnst. Ocean. 








Miami, Florida 




China Lake, Ca. 


La Jolla, Ca. 


1964 


2,000 


2 


Scrapped 


DEEP QUEST 


Lockheed Missiles 8> 
Space Corp. 


Lockheed Missiles & 
Space Corp. 












Sunnyvale, Ca. 


Sunnyvale, Ca. 


1967 


8,000 


4 


Operational 


DEEP SIX 


Deep Six Mar. Services 














Miami, Fla. 


Unknown 


1969 


150 


3 


Playground Display 


DEEPSTAR2000 


Westinghouse Elec. 
Corp. 


Westinghouse Ocn. Res. 
& Eng. Ctr. 














Annapolis, Md. 


1969 


2,000 


3 


Not Operating 


DEEPSTAR 4000 


Westinghouse Elec. 
Corp. 


COMEX 
Marseilles 
















1966 


4,000 


3 


Undergoing refit 


DEEPSTAR 20000 


Westinghouse Elec. 


Westinghouse Ocn. Res. 












Corp. 


& Eng. Ctr. 
Annapolis, Md. 




20,000 


3 


Construction Halted 

in 1970 

Under control of 


DEEP VIEW 


U.S. Navy 


U.S. Navy 


1971 


2,000 


2 


Southwest Res. Lab, 


DOWB 


Gen. Mtrs. Corp. 


Friendship, S.A. 








Undergoing Refit 




Santa Barbara, Ca. 


Miami, Fla. 


1968 


4,500 


3 


Undergoing refit 


DSRV-1 &2 


Lockheed Missiles & 
Space Corp. 














Sunnyvale, Ca. 


U.S. Navy 


1970; 1971 


3,500; 5,000 


27 


Undergoing sea trials. 


FNRS-2 


Auguste Piccard 














Lausanne, Switzerland 


French Navy 


1948 


13,500 


2 


Not Operating 



81 



TABLE 4.1 SUBMERSIBLES - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE (CONT.) 











Operating 












Year 


Depth 








Builder 


Owner 


Launched 


(ft) 


Crew 


Status 


FNRS-3 


French Navv 


French Navy 








Reconfigured from 








1953 


13,500 


2 


FNRS-2. Retired in 
1960 


GLOBULE 


— 


COMEX 
Marseilles 


- 


660 


- 


Operational 


GOLDFISH 


Burt Dickman 


Unknown 








Status unknown. 




Auburn, Ind. 




1958 


100 


5 


sold in 1973 


GRIFFON 


French Naval & Con- 
struction yard 


French Navy 








Undergoing sea trials 




Brest 




1973 


1,970 


3 


asof Feb. 1974 


GUPPY 


Sun Shipbuildings Dry 
Dock Co. 


Sun Shipbuilding & Dry 
Dock Co. 












Chester, Pa. 


Chester, Pa. 


1970 


1,000 


2 


Inactive 


HAKUGEI 


Heiwa Kosakusho 


Tokai Salunge Co. 








Tethered 




Osaka, Japan 


Toba, Japan 


1961 


656 


6 


Inactive 


HAKUYO 


Kawasaki Heavy Ind- 


Sumitomo Shoji Kaisha, Ltd. 












Tokyo 


Tokyo 


1971 


984 


4 


Operational 


HIKINO 


U.S. Naval Weapons 
Center 


U.S. Naval Weapons 
Center 








Not Operating; 




China Lake, Ca. 


China Lake, Ca. 


1966 


20 


2 


Experimental 


JIM 


Underwater Marine Equip. 


Oceaneering International 












Ltd. 


Houston, Tx 








A pressure-resistant 




Farnborough, Hants, Eng- 










diving suit; Under- 




land 




1973 


1,300 


1 


going sea trials. Has 
been to 440 feel. 


JOHNSON SEA LINK 


Aluminum Co. of 


Harbor Branch Foundation 








A second vehicle 




America (ALCOA) 


Ft. Pierce, Fla. 


1971 


1,000 


4 


will be completed 
in 1976. 


K-250 


G.W. Kittredge 


Various 












Warren, Me 




1966 


250 


1 


unknown 


KUMUKAHI 


Oceanic Institute 


Oceanic Institute 












Makapuu, Hawaii 


Waimanalo, Hawaii 


1969 


300 


2 


On display 


KUROSHIO 1 


Japan Steel & Tube 


Univ. of Hokkaido 












Corp. Tokyo 


Hokkaido, Japan 


1951 


650 


3 


Retired in 1960 


KUROSHIO II 


Japan Steel & Tube 


Univ. of Hokkaido 












Corp. Tokyo 


Hokkaido, Japan 


1960 


650 


4 


Not Operating 


MAKAKAI 


U.S. Navy 


U.S. Navy 


1971 


600 


? 


Not Operating 


MERMAID l/ll 


Bruker-Physik, A.G. 
Karlsruhe, West Ger. 


International 
Underwater Contractors 














New York City 


1972 


984 


2 


Operational 


MERMAID lll/IV 


Bruker-Physik, A.G. 


Bruker-Physik, A.G. 








To be operational 




Karlsruhue.West Ger. 


Karlsruhe, West Ger. 


1974 


656 


4 


by 1976 


MINI DIVER 


Great Lakes Unverwater 
Sports 


Same 












Elmwood Park, III. 




1968 


250 


2 


Not Operating 


MOANAI 


- 


COMEX 
Marseilles 


- 


1,320 


- 


Operational 


MOANAII 


- 


COMEX 
Marseilles 


- 


1,320 


- 


Operational 


NAUTILETTE 


Nautllettelnc. 


Mr. D. Height 












Ft. Wayne, Ind. 


Warrensville, III. 


ca, 1964 


100 


1 


Operational 


NAUTILETTE 


Nautillete Inc. 


Nautillete Inc. & Mr. C. 








Both vehicles opera- 




Ft. Wayne, Ind. 


Russner, Nashville, Mich. 


ca. 1964 


100 


2 


tional 


NEKTON A. B, C 


Nekton, Inc. 


General Oceanographies 


1968, 1970, 






All three vehicles 




San Diego, Ca. 


San Diego, Ca. 


1971 


1,000 


2 


operational 



82 



TABLE 4.1 SUBMERSIBLES - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE (CONT.) 











Operating 












Year 


Depth 








Builder 


Owner 


Launched 


(ft) 


Crew 


Status 


NEMO 












Operated bV South- 




U.S. Navy 


U.S. Navy 


1970 


600 


2 


west Research Inst. 


NEREID 330 


Nereid nv. 


Dutch Submarine Ser- 












Schiedam, Holland 


vices, Amsterdam 


1972 


330 


3 


Operational 


NEREID 700 


Nereid nv. 


Dutch Submarine Ser- 








Due to be launched 




Schiedam, Holland 


vices, Amsterdam 


- 


700 


4 


in 1976 


NR-1 


Gen. Dyn. Corp. 














Groton, Conn. 


U.S. Navy 


1969 


NA 


7 


Operational 


OPSUB 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Ocean Sys., Inc. 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


Reston, Va. 


1972 


2,000 


2 


Inactive 


PAULO 1 


Anautics Inc. 


Same 








Reconfigured to 




San Diego, Ca. 




1967 


600 


2 


SEA OTTER 


PC-3A (1&2) 


Perry Sub. Builders 


U.S. Air Force 


1964 






Retired in 1975 




Riviera Beach, Fla. 


U.S. Army 


1966 


300 


2 




PC-3B (TECH DIVER) 


Perry Sub. Builders 
Riviera Beach, Fla. 


International Under- 
water Contractors 














NYC. New York 


1963 


600 


2 


Not Operating 


PC3X 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Univ. of Texas 








Operational 




Riviera Beach, Fla. 


Austin, Tx. 


1962 


150 


2 


(dives occasionally) 


PC5C 


Perry Sub. Builders 
Riviera Beach, Fla. 


Sub Sea Oil Services, 
SPA 








Undergoing refit 






Milan, Italy 


1968 


1,200 


3 


(August 1974) 


PC-8B 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Northern Offshore Ltd. 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


London 


1971 


800 


2 


Operational 


PC1201 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Northern Offshore Ltd 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


London 


1975 


1,000 


2 


Operational 


PC-1202 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Northern Offshore Ltd. 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


London 


1975 


1,000 


5 


Operational 


PC-1401 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Texas A & M Univ. 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


College Station, Tx. 


1974 


1,200 


2 


Operational 


PC-U02 


Perry Sub. Builders 


U.S. Army 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 




1975 


1,200 


2 


Operational 


PC-16 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Northern Offshore Ltd. 












Riviera Beach. Fla. 


London 


_ 


3,000 


3 


Under Construction 


PHOENIX 66 


Sub Sea Oil Services 
SPA 


Same 












Milan, Italy 




- 


1,200 


7 


Under construction 


PISCES 1 


HYCO 


Vickers Oceanics Ltd. 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Barrow-in-Furness, Eng. 


1965 


1,200 


2 


Operational 


PISCES II 


HYCO 


Vickers Oceanics Ltd. 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Barrow-in-Furness 


1968 


2,600 


3 


Operational 


PISCES III 


HYCO 


Vickers Oceanics Ltd. 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Barrow-in-Furness 


1969 


3,600 


3 


Operational 


PISCES IV 


HYCO 


Dept.of Environment 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Victoria, B.C. 


1971 


6,500 


3 


Operational 


PISCES V 


HYCO 


P& Intersubs 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Vancouver, B.C. 


1973 


6,600 


3 


Operational 


PISCES VI 


HYCO 


Soviet Acad. Sciences 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Moscow 


1975 


6,600 


3 


Operational 


PISCES VII 


HYCO 


Soviet Acad. Sciences 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Moscow 


- 


6,500 


3 


Under Construction 


PISCES VIII 


HYCO 


Vickers Oceanics Ltd. 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Barrow-in-Furness 


- 


6,500 


3 


Operational 


PISCES X 


HYCO 


HYCO Subsea, Ltd. 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Vancouver, B.C. 


- 


6,500 


3 


Under Construction 


PISCES XI 


HYCO 


Vickers Oceanics, Ltd. 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Barrow-in-Furness 


~ 


6,500 


3 


Under Construction 



83 



TABLE 4.1 SUBMERSIBLES - PAST. PRESENT, FUTURE (CONT.) 











Operating 












Year 


Depth 








Builder 


Owner 


Launched 


(ft) 


Crew 


Status 


PORPOISE 


Unknown 


Pacific Sub. Co. 








A class of recreational 






Seattle, Wash. 


1970 


150 


1 


submersibles made in 
West Germany and sold 
in the U.S. 


PRV-2 


Pierce Submersibles 


Same 












BayShore, N.Y. 




— 


600 


3 


Under Construction 


PS-2 


Perry Sub. Builders 
Riviera Beach, Fla. 


Sub Sea Oil Services 
SPA 














Milan, Italy 


1972 


1,025 


2 


Operational 


QUESTER1 


Deep Sea Techniques 


Same 












Brooklyn, N.Y. 




1972 


650 


2 


Inactive 


SDL-1 


HYCO 


Canadian Forces 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Halifax, Nova Scotia 


1970 


2,000 


6 


Operational 


SEA CLIFF 


Gen. Dynamics 


U.S. Navy 












Groton, Conn. 




1968 


6,500 


3 


Operational 


SEA EXPLORER 


Sea Line Inc. 
Brier, Wash. 


Same 




600 


2 




SEA OTTER 


Anautics Inc. 


Candive Ltd. 












San Diego, Ca. 


Vancouver, B.C. 


1971 


1.500 


3 


Operational 


SEA RANGER 


Verne Engineering 


Same 












Mt. Clemens, Mich. 




1972 


600 


4 


Operational 


SEARAY 


Submarine Res. & Dev. 
Corp. 


Same 












Lynnwood, Wash. 




1968 


1,000 


2 


Operating 


SHELF DIVER 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Unknown 








Operational under Inter- 




Riviera Beach, Fla. 




1968 


800 


4 


Sub, Marseilles 


SHINKAI 


Kawasaki Heavy Ind. 
Kobe, Japan 


Japanese Maritime 
Safety Agency 














Tokyo 


1968 


1,968 


4 


Operational 


SNOOPER 


Sea Graphics Inc. 


Same 












Torrance, Ca. 




1969 


1,000 


2 


Operational 


SP-350 


Office Francais de 
Recherches Sous-Marine 


Campagnes Oceanogra- 
phique Francaises (COF) 












Marseilles 


Monaco 


1959 


1,350 


2 


Operational 


SP-500 


Sud Aviation 


COF 












France 


Monaco 


1969 


1,640 


1 




SP-3000 


Centre de I'Etudes Mar- 
ine Avancees (CEMA) 


CNEXO 
Paris 












Marseilles 




1970 


10,082 


3 


Operational 


SPORTSMAN 300 


American Sub. Co. 


Various 












Lorain, Ohio 




1961 


300 


2 


Unknown 


SPORTSMAN 600 


American Sub. Co. 














Lorain, Ohio 


Various 


1963 


600 


2 


Unknown 


STAR! 


Gen. Dynamics 


Phila. Maritime Mues. 












Groton, Conn. 


Phila. Pa. 


1963 


200 


1 


On display 


STAR II 


Gen. Dynamics 


Same 












Groton, Conn. 




1966 


1,200 


2 


Operational 


STAR III 


Gen. Dynamics 


Scripps Inst, of Oceanog. 












Groton, Conn. 


LaJolla, Ca. 


1966 


2,000 


2 


Not Operating 



84 



TABLE 4.1 SUBMERSIBLES - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE (CONT. 











Operating 












Year 


Depth 








Builder 


Owner 


Launched 


(ft) 


Crew 


Status 


SUBMANAUT 


Helle Engineering 


Same 










(Helle) 


San Diego 




1963 


200 


2 


Not Operating 


SUBMANAUT 


Marline's Diving Bells 


Submarine Services 










(Marline) 


San Diego, Ca. 


Coral Gables, Fla. 


1956 


600 


6 


Not Operating 


SUBMARAY 


C & D Tools 


Kinautics Inc. 












Calif. 


Winchester, Mass. 


1962 


300 


2 


Scrapped 


SURV 


Lintott Engineering Ltd. 


Same 












Horsham, Sussex, Eng. 




1967 


600 


2 


Scrapped 


TADPOLEl 


Mitsui Shipbuilding & 
Engineering Co. Ltd. 


Mitsui Ocn. Development 
& Engineering Co. Ltd. 








Tethered 




Tokyo 


Tokyo 


1972 


328 


2 


Inactive 


TAURUS 


HYCO 


P&O Intersubs 












Vancouver, B.C. 


Montrose, Scotland 


— 


2,000 


NA 


Under Construction 


TOKAI 


Heiwa Kosakusho 


Tokai Salvage Co. 








Tethered 




Osaka, Japan 


Toba, Japan 


1954 


656 


2 


Inactive 


TOURS 64 


Maschinenbau Gabler 
GmbH 


Kuoteng Ocean Dev. 
Corp. 












West Germany 


Taipei, Taiwan 


1971 


984 


2 


Operational 


TOURS 66 


Maschinenbau Gabler 
GmbH 


Sarda Estracione Lav- 
orazione 












West Germany 


Cagliari, Sardinia 


1972 


984 


2 


Operational 


TRIESTE! 


Auguste Piccard in 


U.S. Navy 












Trieste, Italy 




1953 


36,000 


3 


Retired. On display 


TRIESTE II 


Mare Island Shipyard 


U.S. Navy 












Mare Island, Ca. 




1964 


20,000 


3 


Operational 


TS-1 (SURVEY SUB 1) 


Perry Sub. Builders 


P& OSubsea (UK), Ltd, 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


London 


1970 


1,350 


3 


Operational 


TURTLE 


Gen. Dynamics 


U.S. Navy 












Groton, Conn. 




1968 


6,500 


3 


Operational 


URF 


Kockums 


Swedish Navy 






2 


Under Construction. 




Malmo, Sweden 




- 


1,510 


25 


Rescue sub. 


UZUSHIO 


Nippon Kokankk 










Tethered 




Tokyo 


Same 


1973 


658 


2 


Inactive 


VASSENA LECCO 


Mr. G. Vassena 


Same 












Torino, Italy 




1948 


1,335 


2 


Sunk 


VIPER FISH 


Mr. Don Taylor 


Same 












Atlanta, Ga. 




1969 


1,000 


2 


Unknown 


V0LL1 


Perry Sub. Builders 


Vickers Oceanics Ltd. 












Riviera Beach, Fla. 


Barrow-in-Furness 


1973 


1,200 


4 


Operational 


YOMIURI 


Mitsubishi Heavy 
Ind. 


Yomiuri Shimbu News- 
paper 












Kobe, Japan 


Tokyo 


1964 


972 


6 


Scrapped 


unnamed 


P. Costal & C. Hair 


Same 












Alvin, Tx. 




- 


600 


2 


Under Construction 


unnamed 


Charles Yuen Sub. 


All Ocean Industries 












Hong Kong 


Houston, Tx. 


1971 


150 


2 


Not Operating 


unnamed 


Robb Engineering 


Island Divers Assoc. 












Amherst, Nova Scotia 


Seal Cove, New Brunswick 


1970 


600 


1 


Unknown 



85 





B--^ 



•--^ 




86 



ALL OCEAN INDUSTRIES 



LENGTH: 15 ft 

BEAM: 3 ft 

HEIGHT: 5 ft 

DRAFT: 3?4 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 1 '/, tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 150 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,200ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 21Vjin. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 24 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: NA^ 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 3 

MAX NA 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape, acrylic plastic dome. Hull composed of Japanese Ashme steel % in. thick. Conning tower '/j in. thick. Hull 

36-in. ID. Dome 2 ft diam.; 1 in, thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY; Main ballast tanks blown by two 20-f t^capacity scuba tanks. Four variable ballast tanks, two forward, two aft. 

PROPULSION/COIMTROL: Four, y? hp (each), port starboard DC motors (Phantom M10). The motors are trained manually and rotate 360° in the 

vertical. 

TR IM: VBT's can be differentially filled either forward or aft to produce angle on the bow. 

POWER SOURCE: Two 12-VDC lead-acid batteries inside pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Two 20 ft^ -capacity Gt tanks. Automobile vacuum cleaner modified to hold potassium superoxide removes CO2 . 

VIEWING: Conning tower dome and one forward-looking plastic viewport. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Pressure depth gage, compass. 

MANIPULATORS None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Manually-droppable 680-lb weight. Pressure hull can be flooded for exit. Snorkel for surface breathing. 

SURFACE SUPPORT SOO^ 

OWNER All Ocean Industries, Inc., Houston, Tex. 

BUILDER: Charles Yuen Submarines, Hong Kong. 

REMARKS: Not operating. Has been to 300 ft. 



87 



ALUMINAUT 



LENGTH; 51ft 

BEAM: 15.3 ft 

HEIGHT: 16.5 ft 

DRAFT: 9.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 76 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 15,000ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 22,500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: T964 



HATCH DIAMETER: Hull-19 7/8 in., Sail-1 7 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 432 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 300 kwh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/76 hr 

MAX 3/32 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 3 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD: 3 tons 



PRESSURE HULL; Cylindrical shape, constructed of aluminum alloy 7079-T6 into 1 1 forged cylinders and 2 hemispherical endcaps all of which are 

bolted together. Cylinder length 43 ft 4 in., OD 8. 1 ft, thickness 6.5 in. Metal to metal contact between sections. All penetrations are in hemi-heads. 

Hull thickness at viewports is 7 in. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY Pressure hull provides primary positive buoyancy, seawater ballast tanks provide additional positive buoyancy. A 

maximum of 4,700 lb of iron shot ballast provides primary negative buoyancy in two tanks amidships port and starboard. Another source of primary 

negative buoyancy is from a 4,400-lb lead bar in the keel. At 4,000-ft depth the ballast tanks can be blown free of water to obtain 2,000 lb of 

positive buoyancy by displacing approximately 30 ft-* of water. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Horizontal propulsion is from two reversible, 5-hp, DC motors mounted port and starboard on the stern. Vertical 

propulsion is from a 5-hp, DC motor mounted topside amidships. Stern-mounted dive planes provide additional underway control. Horizontal 

maneuvering is through an electrically driven rudder or by using horizontal thrusters in opposition or other combinations. 

TRIM; Trim system is internal and consists of 300-lb-capacity tanks from which water can be pumped fore and aft. Lead ballast in the form of 50-lb 

blocks can be manually shifted to maintain desired trim to +30 bow angle. 

POWER SOURCE; Four 115-V, 400-amp-hr, silver-zinc batteries are in the pressure hull and provide nearly 20,000 Wh. The following forms of 

power are available; 115 VDC direct from batteries (118-140 V long-term potential), 230 VDC direct (236-280 V long-term potential), 28 VDC 

regulated (+10% voltage, +5% frequency) AC, 2.5-W, continuous, 115-V, 60-cycle super-regulated (+1% voltage, +0.03% frequency, 1 kw 

continuous). 

LIFE SUPPORT; On is supplied from two steel flasks of 127-ft3 capacity each. CO2 removed from cabin air by blowing through a scrubber 

containing 12 lb LiOH. 

VIEWING; Four viewports located in the bow provide a 160° (total) horizontal field of view through three of the ports and a vertical field of view 

from 25° above the horizontal to 80° below through two ports. Each viewport is 7% in. thick with a 4-tn. ID and a 19-in. OD. 

OPE RATING/SCI EIMTIFIC EQUIPMENT; Two up/down Fathometers, CTFM sonar, side scanning sonar, closed circuit television w/light mounted 

on pan and tilt mechanism, tape recorder, exterior-mounted depth gage, gyrocompass and UQC. 

MANIPULATORS; Two, each with six degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES; Shot (4,700 lb) and lead keel bar (4,400 lb) are electromagnetically held and may be dropped automatically or manually in 

the event of a power failure. Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) is supplied which provides 2 hr of emergency breathing/occupant. Ballast tanks can 

be blown at depths to 4,000 ft to supply some 2,000 lb of positive buoyancy. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT; ALUMINAUT is towed by a 1 35-f t support ship to dive site or anchorage. Ship's crew and support divers total 10, 

submersible's crew; pilot, co-pilot, 3 engineers. An operations officer coordinates the field effort and five additional personnel are ashore. The total 

required to operate the system is 21. Land facilities include a marine railway and barn to lift and shelter the vehicle for maintenance and repair, 

OWNER; Reynolds International, Richmond, Va. 

BUILDER; General Dynamics Corp., Groton, Conn. 

REMARKS: Has not dived since 1969. Now in Jacksonville, Fla. Greatest depth reached was 6,250 ft. 



STERN ACCESS TRUNK - 



VERTICAL PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



STERN ACCESS HATCH 



TV MONITOR 
FORWARD SONAR DISPLAY 
GYROCOMPASS 
DECK SUPERSTRUCTURE 
BOW ACCESS HATCH 



BALLAST TANK 




SHOT BALLAST TANK 
KEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE 



SIDE LOOKING SONAR 
(UNDER BALLAST TANK! 



BATTERY 
PORT ILLUMINATOR 



OXYGEN FLASK 



MANIPULATOR DEVICE 



88 




89 




THROUGH HULL 

ELECTRICAL 
PENETRATORS 

VIEWPORT 



ELECTRICAL 
DISCONNECT 



90 



ALVIIM 



LENGTH: 25 ft 

BEAM: 8ft 

HEIGHT: 13*' 

DRAFT: T/, it 

WEIGHT (DRY): 16'/. tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 12.000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 18.000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX); 216 manhr 

TOTAL POWER: 40'/. kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/8 hr 

MAX 2/2 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 1.000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape. Composed of Navy 621.08 titanium. 7-ft CD. 1.97 in. thick to 2'/. in. at inserts. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: MBT's provide 1,500 lbs of surface buoyancy. VBT's consist of hard tanks and pump operable to 12,000 ft. Syntactic 

foam provides approximately 4,000 lb of positive buoyancy. A 250-lb weight is carried to decrease descent time; it is dropped at the bottom; 

another 250-lb weight is dropped for ascent. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion IS from a 10-hp hydraulic motor driving a 50-in.-diam. propeller trainable 50° left or right. Thrusters 

are located amidships which are powered by 6-hp hydraulic motors and are rotatable 360 in the vertical plane. 

TRIM: Bow angles Of +1 0° are Obtained by transferring 450 lb of mercury forward or aft. 

POWER SOURCE: Three, pressure-compensated boxes of lead-acid batteries. Two boxes supply 30 V. the third supplies 60 V. Four 4-amp-hr 

nickel-cadmium batteries supply emergency power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O2 in pressure hull. LiOH is used to remove COt. Oj and CO2 monitors. 

VIEWING: Four large viewports forward; these are 3'A in. thick, 5-in. ID and 12-in. OD. A smaller viewport is in the hatch cover which is 2 in. thick, 

2-in. ID and 6-in. OD. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC with transponder interrogator. Four pressure depth gages, up/down echo sounder, TV, pinger, 

current meter, CTFM sonar, gyrocompass, two-35-mm still cameras, one 8-mm & one 16-mm cine cameras. 

MANIPULATORS: One with six degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Manipulator, batteries (3,400 lb) and specimen basket are attainable. Pressure sphere releasable (2.000 lb of positive 

buoyancy). Closed circuit emergency breathing off normal O2 supply. Distress rockets and flares, strobe lights, life vests, radio homing beacon. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Supported by the catamaran LULU. 105 ft LOA. 48-ft beam, 1 2-ft draft, 450-ton displacement, max. speed 6 knots, 

propulsion from three 200-hp outboard motors. Seventeen people constitute the system's crew. 

OWNER. U.S. Navy-owned. Operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 

BUILDER: General Mills/Litton Industries. Minneapolis. Minn. 

REMARKS: Steel pressure hull replaced by titanium hull in 1 973. thereby increasing depth range from 6,000 to 1 2,000 ft. 



91 




92 



AQUARIUS I 



LENGTH: 13'/. ft 

BEAM: 6 ft 

HEIGHT: 6% ft 

DRAFT: 5'/. ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 4'/, tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,200ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1973 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 108 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: NA 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 3 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 1,100 1b 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape of A516 grade 70 steel, 46-in. diam., 105 in. long. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast is from fore/aft mounted fiberglass tanks which are vented or blown dry to provide negative or positive 

buoyancy, respectively. A low pressure surface buoyancy system is provided to obtain reserve buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Lateral movement is provided through a stern-mounted, reversible propeller capable of training 90° port or starboard 

and powered by a pressure-compensated 5-hp motor. Vertical underway control is by port/starboard bow planes mounted forward and above the 

bow viewing dome. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles can be controlled by bow planes. Two fore and aft fiberglass tanks, subdivided at centerline, can be filled with ambient 

seawater or blown dry collectively or individually to provide both ballast and trim. 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid batteries contained in pressure-resistant cylinders (20-in. diam., 96 in. long) of the same material as the pressure hull 

are connected to provide a nominal voltage of 1 20 V at 225 amp-hr. A 15-V nickel-cadmium battery inside the pressure hull provides emergency 

power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried in two 70-SCF (nominal) tanks. COj is removed by LiOH cannisters. 

VIEWING: One 39-in.-diam., acrylic plastic (grade G plexiglass) dome in forward end of pressure hull. Smaller viewports are elsewhere on conning 

tower and hatch. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, scanning sonar, depth gage, compass. 

MANIPULATORS One with six degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Jettisonable propulsion unit and manipulator claw. Emergency power (15-V Ni-Cad battery) in pressure hull. Self-contained 

O2 rebreathers. Manually droppable weight. Life vests, dry chemical fire extinguishers and flashlights. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: SOO 

OWNER: International Hydrodynamics, Inc., Vancouver, B.C. 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

REMARKS: Operational. 



93 




MAIN 
PROPULSION 



STABILIZING 
KEEL 



VIEWPORT 



PRESSURE 
SPHERE 



94 



ARCHIMEDE 



LENGTH: 69 ft 

BEAM; 13*' 

HEIGHT: 26Vi ft 

DRAFT: I^l *« 

WEIGHT (DRY): 61 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 36,000ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 100,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1961 



HATCH DIAMETER: 17.7 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 108 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 100 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE '/i/IOhr 

MAX 2'/i/3 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 6,000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape. Two, bolted hemispheres of Ni-Cr-Mo steel 5.9 in. thick, 6-ft 7-in. ID. Total weight is approximately 15 tons. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Positive buoyancy is provided by 45,000 gal of hexane within a thin, iron alloy float. Iron shot (16'/j tons) ts released to 

ascend. A 26-ft-long, 1 32-lb cable is dragged on the bottom for fine buoyancy control. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a reversible, 20-hp motor. A horizontal and vertical thruster of 5 hp each are mounted forward 

and topside, respectively. 

TRIM: No systems available. 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid batteries, externally located: Two 24V, 160-amp-hr, one 28-V, 52-amp-hr; one 1 10-V, B60-amp-hr. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Four O2 tanks at 1 50 kg/cm^ pressure. COt removed by two soda lime cannisters. Silica gel used to reduce humidity. 

VIEWING: Three plastic viewports. One is on the longitudinal plane of symmetry; two are on each side and look forward and down at 20 from the 

horizontal. Viewports are 44 mm thick, 1 10-mm OD, 21 -mm ID. A binocular telescope in each viewport produces a 58° field of view. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Vertical/horizontal speed monitor, deep (0-36,000 ft) and shallow (0-1,200 ft) echo sounders, obstacle 

avoidance sonar, UQC, TV, three 35-mm still cameras, temperature (water) sensor, gyrocompass, sound velocimeter, pH meter, differential pressure 

gage. Environmental data is recorded on magnetic tape at 10-sec intervals. 

MANIPULATORS: One mounted forward of the pressure sphere capable of 5-ft extension, 200-lb lift. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Iron shot automatically dropped in the event of power failure. An extra 5.5 tons of iron/lead ballast is carried which may be 

dropped to compensate for leak in sphere or in largest hexane tank. Closed circuit O2 rebreathers are carried for each occupant of sphere. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Towed to dive site. 

OWNER: Owned by French Navy, operated by Centre National Pour L'E xploitation des Oceans (CNEXO), Toulon. 

BUILDER Frency Navy. 

REMARKS: Operational. This is presently the world's deepest-diving vehicle. 



95 



ARGYRONETE 



LENGTH: 27.8 m 

BEAM: 6.8 m 

HEIGHT: 8.5 m 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 282.2 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,970<t 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 3,800 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: Not completed 



HATCH DIAMETER: 1 .2 m 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX) 1,920 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 1,200 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 4 

CREW: PILOTS 4 

OBSERVERS 6 

PAVLOAD NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Two cvlindrical hulls with hemispherical endcaps; one for atmospheric pressure, one for ambient pressure. Both hulls are made 

of 30-mm-thick, high yield-strength (SMR-type) steel. Atmospheric hull is 16.2 m long, 3.7-m dram., ambient pressure hull is 5 m long, 2.5-m diam. 

Hulls are linked by two spherical lock-out chambers 1 .50-m diam. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two 1 ,250-l-capacity tanks forward and two 1,650-1 tanks aft supply main ballast. Two tanks of 1,120-1 capacity for trim 

and two tanks of 1 ,500-1 capacity for equalizing submersible displacement when carrying extra equipment. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; Surface and submerged propulsion is supplied by two Kort nozzles each driven by a hydraulic pump supplying 75 hp at 

330 rpm. The nozzles rotate around a vertical shaft and facilitate normal underway maneuvering. Slow speed maneuvering is attained by fore- and 

aft-mounted vertical and horizontal thrusters. 

TRIM; No systems available. 

POWER SOURCE: Surface power is supplied by a 225-hp diesel engine which accuates a 30-kW, 120-\/DC auxiliary generator for shipboard power 

and a 72-kW, 80-1 20-V generator to recharge batteries. Oil-immersed, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries (60 ea.) of Fulmen type-L cells 

supply 10,000 amp-hr. 

LIFE SUPPORT: External to the hull are the following at 250 bars pressure: Fourteen 330-1 air cylinders, fourteen 330-1 O2 cylinders; thirteen 

330-1 He cylinders; one 330-1 He-02 cylinder, A total of 3,500 I of fresh water can be carried in the submarine; 400 I in the underwater house. Food 

is prepared aboard in the main hull and can be transferred to the aft hull. A hookah system can supply air to divers. 

VIEWING: Several viewports located in both passenger and diver hulls. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, echo sounder, diver lock out capability, TV cameras. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: A releasable steel sphere (2.25-m diam., 20 mm thick) above main hatch can carry entire crew to surface. Crew can depart 

vehicle through lock-out. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Diesel/electric motors provide independent operations to a range of 400 nautical miles. 

OWNER: Centre National pour I'Exploitation des Oceans/lnstitut Francais du Petrole. 

BUILDER: Centre D'Etudes Marine Avancees, Marseilles. 

REMARKS: Construction halted in 1971. 



EMERGENCY ESCAPE SPHERE 



ENGINE ROOM 
HABITAT/DECOMPRESSION CHAMBER 
ELECTRICAL CONTROLS 

DIVING COMPARTMENT 

GENERATORS 



OBSERVATION POST 



OCEANOGRAPHERS' WORK AREA 
WARD ROOM 
DRY CHAMBER BALLAST TANKS 




THRUSTER 



DIESEL ENGINE ELECTRIC PROPULSION MOTORS \ Al R CONDITIONING SYSTEM 

TRANSFER AND LOOKOUT CHAMBER CENTRAL COMMAND STATION 



96 



ARIES I 



LENGTH: 25 1/3 ft 

BEAM: 12 ft, 1 in. 

HEIGHT: 10ft 

DRAFT: 8 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 14 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,200ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: Under construction 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 108 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 60 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 3 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 1,100 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: The pressure hull will be comprised of two basic elements; the submersible/diver command and control chamber, and the diver 

lock-out chamber fabricated from A51 6 grade 70 steel. All penetrators will be monel faced or 316 stainless steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: The ballast system is comprised of "soft" and "hard" ballast tanks. The soft tanks are fabricated from fiberglass and are 

open at the bottom and have mechanical vents ai the top. The tanks are connected to a high pressure air system so that they can be blown. The hard 

tanks are designed to withstand full diving depth and water is transferred between the tanks, and between the tanks and the sea by means of a salt 

water pump. The piping materials used in the system will be, in general, 316 stainless steel. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Propulsion will be provided by three 5-hp thrusters mounted on each side and the stern of the submersible. The side 

thrusters will be trainable not less than 120° vertical, and the sterm unit will be trainable not less than 90° port and starboard. The propulsion units 

wilt be jettisonable. The thrust output will be varied by SCR controllers, which are, in turn, controlled by a throttle. 

TRIM: NA. 

POWER SOURCE: The energy source will comprise a 500-amp-hr banery. The cells will be connected so that the nominal voltage will be 120 V. The 

battery will be located external to the command chamber in one oil-filled container. 

LIFE SUPPORT; The life support system consists of two major elements: O2 supply and CO2 scrubber. The O2 system consists of two 70SCF 

(nominal) bottles, complete with pressure and flow regulators. The CO2 removal system will consist of a motor blower assembly driving the 

atmosphere in the chamber through LiOH cannisters or a refillable cannister of "Soda Sorb", or equivalent. Environment monitoring equipment 

consists of a portable CO2 and O2 indicator, a barometer, thermometer and relative humidity gage. 

VIEWING: One 39-in.-diam. plastic bow dome. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, VHP FM radio, WESMAR scanning sonar, depth gage, compass. 

MANIPULATORS; Three. One heavy duty and two for light work. 

SAFETY FEATURES; The submersible mill be fitted with a manually droppable weight, which will constitute the emergency ballast system The 

manipulator claws and thrusters will be jettisonable using a manually operated hydraulic system operated from within the command chamber. 

Emergency breathing equipment will be provided in the form of Self-contained rebreathers in the command sphere. Other emergency equipment 

includes a 1 5-V nickel-cadmium battery for internal emergency power, six life vests, a dry chemical fire extinguisher, six standard flashlights and a 

first aid kit. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Soviet Academy of Science, Moscow. 

BUILDER; International Hydrodynamics Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 

REMARKS; Two of the vehicles are reportedly under construction. The above description is taken from the initial design, the finished vehicle may 

depart from this description. 



SOFT TANK & 
3 HIGH PR. AIR TANKS 



2 RETRACTABLE LIGHTS 

, FIXED LIGHT 




VENT VALVE 

SIDE THRUSTER 




VENT VALVE 



SOFT TANK 



MAIN PROPULSION 



LOCK 



Q5HP. 



ROTATABLE 
^ THRUSTER 



\ 



BALLAST TANKy 




DIVER LOCKOUT 



5 HP. 
MOTOR 



2 OXYGEN TANKS 
DROPABLE BATTERY & SKID 



LIGHT 

SALTWATER ' HOSE STORAGE 
PUMP 



ONE HEAVYDUTY MANIPULATOR 
TWO MECHANICAL ARMS 



97 




PLEXIGLASSAIL 



AUX BALLAST 



SYNTATIC FOAM 



PORT 




LIGHT 



PRESSURE HULL 



DROP BALLAST 
MECHANISM 



BATTERY 



SKIDS (DROP BALLAST) 



98 



ASHERAH 



LENGTH: 17 ft 

BEAM: 8.6 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.5 ft 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 4.2 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,200 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964 



HATCH DIAMETER: 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 21.6 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/8 hr 

MAX 3/1 .5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 100 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape 5-ft ID. 5/8 in. thick of A212 grade B mild steel (firebox quality). 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast air tank of SO-lb capacity provides surface buoyancy. Auxiliary ballast tank of 340-lb capacity provides fine 

buoyancy control submerged. High pressure air carried in external tanks (four tanks of 72 ft-* STP each) pressurized at 2,250 psi. Droppable skid of 

330 lb supplies additional emergency positive buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two, infinitely variable, individually controlled 2-hp, side*mounted, rotatable and reversible thrusters. 

TRIM: None. 

POWER SOURCE: Externally mounted, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries (Exide TSC-23-930) giving 930 amp-hr at 24 VDC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: CO2 scrubber with blower and gaseous Oj carried within the pressure hull. 

VIEWING: Six viewports, 5-in. ID; 9-in. OD, 2 in. thick and all are 90° truncated cones. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, Magnesyn compass. Fathometer, speed indicator, directional sonar tracker, one TV camera, one 

35 mm still camera. 

MANIPULATORS None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Manually releasable skids (300 lb). High pressure air blow of auxiliary ballast tank. Pressure hull may be flooded for 

emergency egress. Scuba regulators and mouthpiece tap main compressed air supply for emergency breathing. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Technoceans, Inc., New York City. 

BUILDER: General Dynamics, Electric Boat Div., Groton, Conn. 

REMARKS: Inactive. 



99 



i 




100 



AUGUSTE PICCARD 



LENGTH: 93.5 ft 

BEAM: 19.7 ft 

HEIGHT: 24 ft 

DRAFT: 11.9 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 185.2 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4,500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1963 



HATCH DIAMETER: 30.1 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 2,112 man-hr 

TOTAL POWE R : 625 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS); CRUISE 6/10hr 

MAX 6.3/7 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 4 

OBSERVERS 40 

PAYLOAD: 10 tons 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape of "VOEST" steel quality Aldur 55/68 for cylinder and Aldur 55 for the two hemispherical endcaps. Cylinder 

is 1 .5 in. thick, 1 0.25-ft OD and 59.7 ft long. Endcaps are the same dimensions and equal to radius of the cylinder. Two hatch openings fore and aft. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: External to the hull in two rows port and starboard are 12 steel ballast tanks of total volume 842 ft^ which supply 12.5% 

(23.8 tons) positive buoyancy. Three compensating tanks are provided: two (9 ft^ ea.) are in the hull near the center of gravity and one (49 ft^) is 

external to the hull, within the keel. On each side of the hull are four bins which hold 5.75 tons of iron shot electromagnetically released. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: An electf ic motor of 75 hp (1,500 rpm) drives a stern-mounted propeller. A directional Kort nozzle acts as the vehicles 

rudder. Fore- and aft-mounted diving planes provide underway vertical control and stability. 

TRIM: Two tanks forward and aft of 141 ft-* total capacity are used to trim the vehicle by transferring water fore or aft with an electric pump. 

POWER SOURCE: Five lead-acid batteries within and on the bottom of the pressure hull are distributed as follows: two 110-V capacity, 

2,000-amp-hr for propulsion; one 220-V, 700-3mp-hr for lighting and pumps, one 12-\/, 950-amp-hr for control instruments and emergency lighting, 

and one 6-V, 700-amp-hr for safety ballast control. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Normal dive of a few hours allows for breathing of ambient air inside vehicle at time of dive. For prolonged dives O2 is bled into 

the hull and CO 2 is removed by soda lime which assures a max imum of 2,112 man-hr. 

VIEWING: Twenty viewports each on port and starboard side, and three in forward hemisphere. All viewports provide 90° of viewing and are 3 in. 

thick, 12-in. OD and 6-in. ID. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: TV on sail, compass, pressure depth gages/recorder, down-looking echo sounder. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Iron shot "fail-safe" droppable. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Size and weight permit only towing to dive site or self-powered transit. ' 

OWNER: Morton Maritime Explorations Ltd., North Vancouver, B.C. 

BUILDER: Giovanola Freres, Monthey, Switzerland. 

REMARKS: Undergoing refurbishment to conduct gravity and seismic surveys. Originally designated as PX-8. 



101 




VARIABLE BALLAST & TRIM TANKS 



PROPULSION MOTOR 

\ 



FLOODABLE SAIL 



SONAR 




MATING SKIRT 



HYD. PKG. 



102 



BEAVER (ROUGHNECK) 



LENGTH: 26.3 ft 

BEAM: 11.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 10.3 ft 

DRAFT: 6.6 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 17 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2.000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 



HATCH DIAMETER: 25 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 360 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 44 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2.5/8 hr 

MAX 5/0.3 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 2,000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Two spheres joined by a cylindrical tunnel. All hull components are of HY 100 steel. The forward hull is 7-ft OD and 0.481 in. 

thick with an overhead access hatch. The aft hull is 5.5-ft OD; 0.387 in. thick and has a diver lock-out hatch on the bottom. The connecting tunnel is 

25-in. ID; 71 in. long and 0.75 in. thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast is obtained from two 24-ft3-capacity (each) tanks mounted port and starboard. A variable ballast system 

(combined with the trim system) is capable of obtaining neutral buoyancy within +1.5 ft by admitting or blowing seawater from two, port/starboard 

spherical tanks. A hydraulically-driven stern winch carries 500 ft of cable to which an anchor may be attached (2,000-lb capacity). 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Three 18-in. diam. propellers provide all propulsion. One thruster is mounted topside and the other two port and 

starboard just below the centerline; all are driven by a 5-hp motor. The inverted "y" configuration of the propellers and their control (360° 

rotatable; reversible) allows six degrees of freedom maneuvering and hovering. 

TRIM: Between three spherical tanks, one aft (1,238 lb) and two amidships (943 lb each), 1,474 lb of water can be transferred in various 

combinations to produce +30*^ pitch and +12° roll. 

POWER SOURCE: Main power source is from pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries which provide 30 kWh at 64 VDC to propulsion motors and 

hydraulic motors. Auxiliary power is from pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries which provide 14 kWh at 28 VDC to lights, vehicle controls. 

electronics. Emergency batteries in the forward sphere are sealed, non-gassing, lead-acid and provide 24 V at 8 amp-hr to jettison squids. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Both forward and aft pressure hulls have a fife support capacity of 48 hr each. A self-contained automatic O2 supply is carried 

within the hull and Baralyme and Purafil scrubbers remove CO 2- The aft sphere can be pressurized to a maximum depth of 1 ,000 ft, but cannot be 

depressurized less than ambient pressure. 

VIEWING: There are 11 acrylic plastic viewports, 1 in each of the 2 hatches and 9 in the forward pressure sphere. These nine ports are equipped 

with blowers to prevent fogging. These ports have a 5.19-in, ID, an 8.75-in. OD, are 1,78 in, thick, and have a 70° field of view underwater. Of the 

nine main viewports, five look ahead, down, and to the sides. These are the ports most commonly used during oceanographic missions. The 

remaining four ports look upward and are used primarily during work or inspection missions. The small port in the hatch of the forward sphere has a 

2. 19- in. ID, a 3.65-in. OD, and a thickness of 0.73 in. The smallest port, located in the hatch of the after sphere, has a 1 .1 15- in. ID, a 1 .87 5- in. OD, 

and is 0.38 in. thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC(8.087-kH2) Pan- & titt-mounted TV camera (W/90° pan), interior still camera synchronized 

w/exterior strobe, sonar, gyrocompass, speedometer, depth gage, current meter (speed & direction) w/optional strip chart recorder, 

upward/downward-fooking sonar w/strip chart recorder, depth indicator w/visual or strip chart recorder readout, azimuth-scanning sonar w/CRT 

readout, exterior-mounted 70-mm stiM camera, two 200-W-sec strobes, interior-mounted 16-mm cine camera w/400-ft capacity, 35-mm and 2Vd-in.2 

still cameras, water sampler (sample is drawn directly into aft sphere). 

MANIPULATORS: Each of the two manipulators has a 9-ft reach, eight degrees of freedom, and a 50-lb lifting capacity. The two manipulators can 

be equipped with nine different tools to perform various tasks. These tools are: impact wrench, hook hand, parallel jaws, cable cutter, stud gun, 

centrifugal pump, grapple, drill chuck, and tapping chuck. Rates of motion are variable. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Non-combustlble or slow-burning material within pressure hull, external fittings for gas replenishment. The following is 

jettisonable by emergency electrical power: Propellers (40 lb each), manipulators (150 lb each); pan/tilt lights, camera and current sensor {155 lb 

total), anchor (100 lb) and main battery (2,532 lb). Emergency battery, breathing systems and seawater actuated flashlights, pinger, marker buoy 

with dye and recovery attachment, flares. Personnel may lock-out. 

SURFACE SUPPORT SOO. 

OWNER: International Underwater Contractors, New York. 

BUILDER: North American Rockwell Corp., Seal Beach, California. 

REMARKS: Operational. The above description is as the vehicle was originally built. 



103 




RADIO ANTENNA 



ACCESS 

REAR 
HATCH 



BALLAST TANK 



SCIENTIFIC 

CONTROL 

CENTER 



COLD 
WATER 
TANKS VIEWPORT 



CANISTER RELEASE 
AIR LOCK 



TV CAMERA 



STERN 

OXYGEN 

TANK 



SHOWER 
BIOLOGICAL 
SAMPLER BATTERY-OIL BATTERIES 

RESERVOIRS 



HATCH 




PROPULSION MOTOR 



O^ FORWARD 
TRIM 
TANK 



UNDERWATER 
TELEPHONE 



104 



BEN FRANKLIN 



LENGTH: 48 ft 

BEAM: 20 ft 

HEIGHT: 2 1 f t 

WEIGHT (DRY): 14.3 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4.000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 



HATCH DIAMETER: 30 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 252 man-days 

TOTAL POWER; 750 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2.5 

MAX 4 

CREW PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 4 

PAYLOAD: 5 tons 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with hemispherical endcaps: OD 10.33 ft, length 48 ft. Hull material is 1-3/8-in. thick Aldur steel; hemi-heads 

of Welmonil steel of same thickness. Box ring frames 6.3 in. and 5.7 in. deep are spaced 27.5 in. apart to act as internal stiffeners. Twenty-nine 

viewports penetrate the hull (two of these are in the hatches). A 5.5-in.-diam. lock-out chamber (SAS) penetrates the hull topside amidships. The 

hull consists of two asymmetric sections bolted together. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast is provided by four fiberglass tanks, two on each side of the hull, of approximately eSO-ft^ capacity (48,600 

lb). Variable ballast for depth control ts provided by two pressure-resistant steel tanks in the lower keel section which hold 110 ft^ of water each 

(6,800 lb). Emergency ballast is 6 tons of iron shot stored in bins between the main ballast tanks. This shot is etectromagneticaily held and can be 

dumped as desired. Additionally, a door on the bottom of each bin can be manually opened, totally independent of the electric power. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Propulsion is derived from four-25-hp pressure-compensated, fresh water-filled, 22- V, 3-phase, 50-Hz units 

manufactured by Pleuger. The four motors can be rotated 360° in the vertical and can be fully reversed. Two rudders are located aft and are 

electrically controlled and can rotate 30° to each side. By applying reverse thrust on the port motors and forward thrust on the starboard motors or 

vice versa the vehicle can turn in its own length. 

TRIM: Trim is controlled by transferring water between two tanks located at each extreme end of the hull. The tanks are made of steel and hold 50 

ft-* of water each (3,100 lb). The tanks are connected by an overhead vent line in the hull and by transfer pipes beneath the deck. The pilot 

controls two electric pumps which transfer the water at a rate of 1 ,000 Ib/min. The system can obtain a bow angle of +1 . 

POWER SOURCE: Power is supplied by 378 lead acid batteries divided into 4 banks: six-56-V strings & four-28-V strings. An emergency system in 

the hull consists of fourteen-2-V cells of 192-amp-hr capacity. Two static inverters of 336 VDC power the four main motors; two inverters convert 

168 VDC to 1 15 VAC for the pod positioning motors. The main inverters are 3-phase and can be varied from 50 Hz at 70 VAC to 50 Hz at 220 

VAC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: A total of 922 Ib of liquid O2 "s carried. LiOH panels containing activated charcoal are used to remove CO2 by natural convection 

currents in the hull. An active odor removal unit consisting of a chemical absorbing section and a catalytic burning section is used to neutralize 

contaminants not removed by the charcoal. Contaminant levels are determined by Drager gas detector tubes. A manually-operated head macerates 

metabolic waste products and chemically treats and stores them onboard in six tanks of 6,000 tb capacity. A total 4,600 Ib of potable water is 

carried, 1 ,600 lb are carried in super insulated tanks at 21 0°F and are used to reconstitute freeze-dried food. 

VIEWING; Twenty- nine viewports are located throughout the vehicle, they are 6-in. ID, 12- in. OD and 3 in. thick and provide a 90 field of vision. 

A smaller viewport is located topside within a hatch of the SAS. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8-10 kHz) magnetic compass, directional gyro, turn/bank indicator, water temperature sensors, 

depth sensor-recorder gage, CTFM sonar, down/forward Fathometer, tracking pinger, two TV's. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable ballast of 5 tons. Blowing main and variable ballast provides 41 ,000 Ib of lift. Emergency breathing system of 4-hr 

duration each is obtained through a set of six Drager mixed gas (He/02) diving apparatus. Flooding of the hull and escape through an aft trunk is 

possible. Fire extinguishers, flashlights, life raft, releasable buoy, xenon light. 

SURFACE/SUPPORT: Towed or self powered. 

OWNER: Horton Maritime Exploration Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 

BUILDER: Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, New York. 

REMARKS: Not operating. Originally designed as PX-15. 



105 




106 



BENTHOS V 



LENGTH: 11.3ft 

BEAM: 8 ft 

HEIGHT: 6 ft 

DRAFT: 4.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 2.1 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,200 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1963 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 96 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: NA 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/16 hr 

MAX 3/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 400 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of A-28S-C steel 60-in. ID and 0.625 in. thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two separate 2.250 psi air systems. Within the hull are two variable ballast tanks to attain fine buoyancy control. An 

auxiliary ballast tank is mounted aft and a bow buoyancy tank is forward. Droppable lead ballast. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL All maneuvering is provided by two 1-hp, 24-VDC, motors mounted port and starboard amidships that rotate 180° in 

the vertical. 

TRIM: The forward and aft buoyancy tanks may be differentially filled to attain up/down bow angles. 

POWER SOURCE: Three nickel-cadmium batteries supply 80 amp-hr each and are carried within the pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT NA. 

VIEWING: Six viewports. Four look forward above centerline about the horizontal axis and two look down and forward. All are 6-in. diam. and 2 

in. thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Compass, Fathometer, directional gyro. 

MANIPULATORS None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable lead ballast. All ballast tanks can be blown at operating depth with emergency system. 

SURFACE/SUPPORT; SOO. 

OWNER: Garrison 8 Divers Corp., Seattle, Washington. 

BUILDER Lear Siegler, Inc., Deep River, Conn. 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



107 




% ^ 



180° MAIN MOTOR 
ASSEMBLY 



MAGNESYN 
COMPASS 
HOUSING 



INNER COMPARTMENT 
HATCH 



STABILIZER 



GAS STORAGE SPHERE 



DIVER EGRESS HATCH 
108 



CONNING TOWER 




360° BOW 
THRUSTER 



VIEWPORTS 



HIGH PRESSURE AIR 
BATTERY POD 



DEEP DIVER 



LENGTH: 22 ft 

BEAM: 5 ft 

HEIGHT: 8.5 ft 

DRAFT: 6.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 8.25 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,350 ft; lock-out 1,250 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 



HATCH DIAMETER: 23 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 32 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 23 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/4 hr 

MAX 3/0.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD: 1,500 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Forward hull, forward end cap, and diver's compartment are made of 0.5- in. rolled and welded T 1 steel. Forward compartment 
and diver's cell are 54 in. thick. The transition shelf, connecting pilots and diver's compartment is 5/8tn.SA212 grade B steel, 55-in. OD, which is 
welded directly to the diver's compartment. Conning tower is 28-in. OD made of 3/8 in. thick T 1 steel which increases to 0.5 in, at hull intersection. 
Conning tower is 1 9 in. above top of hull. All hatches are of cast almag 35 and are impregnated. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks of 24.2-ft3 (845 lb) capacity are located port and starboard of the forward hull adjacent to the conning 
tower and are made of 1 Vgage mild steel. The trim tanks may also serve as buoyancy control and hold 676 lb of seawater. The battery pod adds an 
additional 1,500 lb of negative buoyancy which can be dropped in an emergency. The ballast tank vent valves are operated by a reach rod that 
penetrates the pressure hull. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is a G.E. 10-hp, 1 ,150-rpm, 240- V, 48-amp motor contained in a pressure-compensated housing and is 

pivoted to swing 90 each side of dead center. A stern thruster, consisting of two right-handed propellers turning on a single 1-in. stainless steel shaft 

and driven by a 3-hp, 1 ,140-rpm, 1 20-V, 29-amp, DC, G.E. motor is mounted in a pressure-compensated container. This bow thruster is driven by a 

G.E., 3-hp, 1 ,750-3, 350-rpm, 120-V, 24-amp, DC motor which is shared with the trim tank pump and is mounted internally. The bow propulsion 

unit may be rotated through 360° in the vertical plane and serves as both horizontal and vertical thruster. 

TRIM: Two tanks provide trim: One in the pilot's compartment (365 lb) and one in the diver's compartment (375 lb). The pilot's tank is split into 

six sections and is pumped dry. The diver's trim tank is split into two sections and may be blown or pumped dry. The diver's tank provides negative 

buoyancy to partially compensate for the loss of weight when the divers leave the vehicle. 

POWER SOURCE: The mam power supply consists of four separate battery banks of thirty 12-V, lead-acid batteries. 92-amp-hr capacity each, at 

20-hr rate which are contained at atmospheric pressure in a droppable pod suspended under the pilot's compartment. The total water weight of the 

0.5-in. -thick steel (SA 212 grade B) pod is 1,500 lb. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is supplied from five bottles at 2,200 psi of 338-ft3 total capacity. Two bottles regularly supply the pilot's compartment and 

three supply the diver's compartment, but provisions are made for any arrangement desired. The bottles are stored externally between the He sphere 

and diver's compartment. CO2 is removed by two scrubbers of Baralyme, 6 lb capacity each, in the pilot's compartment and one 12-lb capacity 

scrubber in the diver's compartment. Two blowers, of 24 cfm, force air through the scrubbers; three 12 VDC fans help circulate air throughout. A 

pre-mixed He-02 supply can be stored in the 0.5-in. -thick, T-1 steel, 49-in. OD sphere. Two hookah hose adapters for divers working outside are also 

carried. 

VIEWING: Twenty-one acrylic plastic viewports, 12 are double-acting and are 6-in. ID, 8-in. OD and of 2-in. (external) and 1.75-in. (internal) 
thickness. The nine single-acting viewports a re 6-in. ID, 8-in. ODand 0.5 in. thick. 

MANIPULATORS None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Main ballast and trim tanks can supply 845 lb and 676 lb of positive buoyancy when blown; a jettisonmg battery pod 
provides 1,500 lb of buoyancy. Emergency breathing can be through scuba regulators from the main air system or by breathing pre-mixed gas 
through hookah rigs. By pressurizing the boat, escape is possible through the diver's compartment. Flooding the boat allows escape through the 
conning tower. Seawater-activated pinger, gas and electric power connections for supply from surface. Flares, life vests, anchor, dry chemical fire 
extinguisher, external flashing light. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Submersible is air, ship or truck transportable. It can be towed by or carried on a ship during operations. A crew of five is 

required for support of the submersible. The support ship must be a minimum of 1 00 ft LOA. 

OWNER: Marine Sciences Ctr., Ft, Pierce, Fla. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: Decommissioned. Donated to Smithsonian Inst. On display at Link Park, Ft. Pierce, Fla. Originally designated PLC-4. 



109 




FLOAT 



NONROTATABLE 
PERISCOPE 



ENTRY HATCH 
BUOYANCY TANKS 



LIGHTING ARM 



PRESSURE 
HULL 



MOTOR 



ELECTROMAGNETS 




VHF ANTENNA 



STABILIZER 

MARKER FLOAT 



BATTERY POD 

BATTERIES 



BALLAST PLATES 



110 



DEEP JEEP 



LENGTH: 10ft 

BEAM: 8.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 8 ft 

DRAFT: 7.75 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 4 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 5,250 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964 



HATCH DIAMETER: 24 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 104 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 7 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/5 hr 

MAX 2/2 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 200 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of A 225-B steel 0.85 in. thick and 5-ft ID. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Positive buoyancy provided by the pressure hull and an epoxy resin float embedded with glass microballoons 

(20-100-micron diam.) producing an overall density of 37 Ib/ft-^. Negative buoyancy is obtained by thirty-4-lb steel plates surrounding the battery 

pod which may be electromagnetically released individually. Two toroidal tanks (free flooding) provide an additional 500 lb of negative buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Propulsion is obtained by two port/starboard 0.75-hp electric motors which drive a 12-in.<liam. propeller. The motors 

can pivot simultaneously through 180° of arc, are reversible and have variable speed. A vertical fin atop the aft end of the float acts as an underway 

stabilizer. 

TRIM: No systems required. 

POWER SOURCE: Eight e-V, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries mounted below the pressure hull supply all power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Compressed O2 is dispensed through a hospital-type flowmeter and circulated by an electric fan. CO2 is removed by trays of soda 

lime which also contain a desiccant (silica gel) to reduce humidity. CO2 and O2 are periodically measured. 

VIEWING: One acrylic plastic viewport 5-in. CD and 2 in. thick. Monocular viewing scopes (one/occupant) allow synoptic viewing through 40 . 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, horizontal and vertical avoidance sonars, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable battery pod (560 lb) and steel plates. Pressure hull may be flooded to 600-ft depth for emergency egress. Scuba 

breathers can provide air for 50 hr. Two floats can be released which carry 3,000 ft of nylon line to the surface for subsequent attachment of a 

rescue line to a clevis on the hull. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT SOO 

OWNER: Scripps Institute of Oceanography, LaJolla, California. 

BUILDER U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, California. 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



Ill 




HATCH 



TV CAMERA 
BUOYANCY MATERIAL 

INSTRUMENT PANEL 

FWD TRIM TANK 




AFT TRIM TANK 

AFT VERTICAL THRUSTER 



FWD VERTICAL 
THRUSTER 



PRESSURE HULL 



SHOT HOPPER 



VIEWPORT 



VIEWPORT 



112 



DEEP QUEST 



LENGTH: 39 ft 11 3/4 in. 

BEAM: 19 *t 

HEIGHT: 13.25 ft 

DRAFT: 8.6 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 52 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 8.000ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 13,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1967 



HATCH DIAMETER: 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 204 man-hr 

TOTAL POWE R : 230 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 3/18 hr 

MAX 3/12 hr 

CREW: PILOTS ...." 2 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 7,000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Bi-sphere shape, each sphere is 0.895 in. thick, 7-ft OD and made of 18% nickel, KSI grade, maraging steel. Spheres are welded 

together and connection between the two is a 20-in.-diam, opening. Forward sphere contains three thru-hull penetrations: two are electrical 

penetrations and one is the viewport. After sphere contains three reinforced welded inserts for the three access hatches. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast consists of four tanks mounted two on each side to provide a reserve buoyancy of 12%. A seawater variable 

ballast system of two spherical tanks, 37-in.-dianri,, 200-KSI grade maraging steel, one on each side, provides 1,828 lb of ballast. A steel shot ballast 

system (three separate tanks) supplies 1 ,700 lb of ballast. Syntactic foam (36,000 lb at 36 Dcf ave. density) provides additional positive buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Forward and reverse thrust is from two, reversible, stern-mounted, 7.5 hp, AC, motor driven propellers. Vertical thrust 

is from two fore- and aft-mounted, 7.5-hp, AC motors and ducted propellers. Lateral thrust is from fore- and aft-mounted water jets powered by two 

7.5-hp, AC motors. A rudder and stern planes provide additional underway steering control. 

TRIM: A 30° up or down bow angle can be produced by transferring 1 ,440 lb of oil and mercury between two fore- and aft-mounted, 18-in.-diam., 

spherical, steel tanks. A 1 0° port or starboard list can be attained by transfer of 828 lb of mercury between two 15-in.-diam. tanks. Both trim and 

list systems are pressure compensated. 

POWER SOURCE: Main power is derived from two 115-VDC, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries mounted below and between the 

bi-spheres. Two 23-VDC, silver zinc batteries are carried in the pressure hull to provide 3.6 kWh of emergency power. Each main battery consists of 

four 30-VDC, series-connected batteries composed of 1 6 Exide RSC lead-acid cells. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Four 0.37-ft3-capacity tanks (2,250 psi) supply O2 for normal usage. CO2 is removed by blowing the air through LiOH/charcoal 

cannisters. O-, level is automatically monitored and regulated. Emergency breathing is by four full-face masks connected to an oxygen- demand 

system for survival periods of 1 2 man-hr. Temperature and humidity are automatically regulated. 

VIEWING: Two acrylic plastic viewports are provided. One is located on the axis of the forward sphere and is a few degrees below the horizontal, it 

is 3 in. thick, 9-in. OD, 3-in. ID. The second is in the aft sphere and looks directly downward, it is 5 in. thick, 1 5-in. OD, 5-in. ID. The aft viewport is 

equipped with an optical remote viewing system of 180 objective in the vertical and 360 in the horizontal. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, gyrocompass, CTFM sonar, altitude/depth sonar, vehicle control computer, four TV cameras, 

70-mm still camera/with strobe light, sediment corer, sediment vane shear device. 

MANIPULATORS: Two manipulators mounted forward and capable of seven degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Emergency breathing apparatus. Emergency power within the pressure hull. Positive buoyancy can be obtained by 

jettisoning: shot ballast (1,700 lb), list mercury (800 lb), trim mercury (1,250 lb), main batteries (3,500 lb) and manipulators (170 lb). 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Supported by a 100-ft (LOA), 40-ft beam, 395-ton, split stern ship using an elevator ramp for launch/retrieval. An operations 

manager coordinates sub and ship operations at sea. Two pilots and 18 additional personnel onboard ship maintain and support at-sea operations. 

Vehicle is air and semi-trailer transportable. 

OWNER: Lockheed Missiles and Space Corp., Sunnyvale, California. 

BUILDER: Lockheed Missiles and Space Corp., Sunnyvale, California. 

REMARKS: Operational. 



113 




PINGER 



THRUSTER 



STARBOARD 
MAIN PRO- 
PULSION 



THRUSTER 




INSTRUMENT 
BROW 



HARD BALLAST 
TANK 



SAMPLE BASKET 



HARD BALLAST TANK 



EMERGENCY 
ASCENT TANK 



114 



DEEPSTAR 2000 



LENGTH: 20 *t 

BEAM: 7.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 8.5 ft 

DRAFT: 5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 8.75 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4,130 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1969 



HATCH DIAMETER: 15.75 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 144 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 26.5 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/8 hr 

MAX 3/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 450 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape 5ft OD with hemispherical endcaps. Hull thickness 0.75 in.; overall hull length 10 ft. Hull n-iaterial HY-80 

steel. Penetrations include three viewports, one hatch, seven mechanical and three electrical. 

BALLAST /BUOYANCY: Main ballast system for surface buoyancy consists of flooded soft tanks blown dry with high pressure air. Tanks are an 

integral part of the exostructure and fairing. Variable ballast system consists of four hard tanks and collapsible bladders. Oil is pumped from hard 

tanks to bladders to increase displacement or reversed to decrease displacement. Permanently installed syntactic foam is used to obtain submerged 

neutral buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two main propellers in the stern {5-hp ea.), reversible, servo-valve controlled, continuously variable. Two vertical 

thrusters port and starboard, two horizontal thrusters fore and aft. All thrusters are powered by hydraulic motors driven off of the main hydraulic 

plant (two plants at 1 0-hp ea.). Each electric motor is pressure-compensated, 1 20-VDC, 7.5-hp. 

TRIM: Hydraulic-activated drive moves batteries fore or aft allowing pitch angles of up to ±25 . 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid batteries; one 120-V, 1 50-amp-hr, two 28-V, 150-amp-hr, located externally and pressure-compensated. Selectively 

droppable. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O2; two flasks of 840 in. 3 each at 2,250 psi. Monitors for CO2, Ot, cabin pressure, temperature and humidity. 

Emergency (three 1-hr) breathers. LiOH to remove CO2. 

VIEWING; Two, 4.5-in. ID, of plastic looking 19° downward and slightly to port and starboard giving overlapping fields of view. One, 2-in. ID, 

looking forward on centerline for still camera. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Sperry MK27 & repeater, FM radio, UQC, TV camera, alt/depth sonar, gyrocompass, pressure, depth, 

rate and acceleration system, extendable light booms with up to 2,500 W of lights, xenon flasher, voice recorder, velocity sensor, temperature probe, 

ambient light sensor, sound velocity sensor, subbottom profiler, side-looking sonar, still and cine cameras and sediment corers. Data logger for any 

digital signal, 8-track. 

MANIPULATORS: One with two degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Main ballast can be blown at operating depth (500-lb lift). Mechanically jettiscnable high pressure Air Bottles (500 lb). 

Mechanically jenisonable batteries (1,250 lb). Mechanically iettisonable payload brow (500 lb). Emergency breathing, manipulator jettisonable, life 

raft, flares, life jackets. 

SURFACE/SUPPORT: SOD. 

OWNER: Westinghouse Ocean Research and Engineering Center, Annapolis. Md. 

BUILDER: Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

REMARKS: Operationally ready, but has not dived since 1972. 



115 




STARBOARD PROPULSION MOTOR ACCESS HATCH 



DC POWER DISTRIBUTION 
AFTTRIM TANK 




ASCENT WEIGHT 

FWDTRIMTANK 



DESCENT WEIGHT 

STATIC INVERTER 

SYNTACTIC FOAM 



DROPPABLE 3.5 LB. WEIGHTS 

OBSERVERS COACH 



MANIPULATOR DEVICE 



116 



DEEPSTAR 4000 



LENGTH: 18 ft 

BEAM: 11tt 

HEIGHT: 7 ft 

DRAFT: 7 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 9 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH; 4,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 7,600 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1965 



HATCH DIAMETER: 15.75 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 144 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 49.6 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1.5/6 hr 

MAX 3/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 450 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: The hull consists of a 78.75-in. OD, HY-80 steel sphere with 11 openings machined into the sphere. These include two 

viewports, one camera port, one hatch, two electrical penetrations and five mechanical shaft feedthroughs. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks are used for positive buoyancy on the surface. Negative buoyancy is decreased by dropping small 

(3.4-lb) trim weights. DEEPSTAR dives with a 220-lb descent weight which is dropped as the vehicle nears the bottom. At the termination of a dive 

the 187-lb ascent weight is dropped allowing the vehicle to rise. A variable ballast system provides regulated increments of ballast change by transfer 

of oil between hard tanks and flexible bladders, 4,500 lb of syntactic foam (this has a density of 39 pcf) are installed to give neutral overall 

buoyancy, 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two fixed, reversible, 5-hp motors are mounted port and starboard just forward of amidships. The motors are variable 

in speed from 30 to 900 rpm. 

TRIM: Two pitch control cylinders mounted on the centerline, one forward and one aft, with hydraulically-activaled pistons are used to transfer 

225 lb of mercury from one end of the boat to the other allowing pitch angles of up to ±30°, 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid battery, 124-VDC, 400-amp-hr. Three 2-V dry cells are carried for emergency operation of radio, flasher and UQC. 

The lead-acid battery is carried externally and is pressure compensated. 

LIFE SUPPORT: CO2 is absorbed by blowing cabin air through LiOH granules then directing it downward across the viewports. O2 is supplied 

through a flow-control valve from a high pressure gaseous Q2 supply, A bypass valve allows manual control of Q2 if flow regulation fails. 

VIEWING: Two viewports provide overlapping coverage for the pilot and one observer. These ports are 21 below the horizontal centerline and 1 6 

port and starboard of the vertical centerline. Each viewport is 3.9 in. thick with an ID of 4.33 in. and an OD of 1 1.1 in. The ports are equipped with 

blowers to prevent fogging. There is also a smaller port located on the vertical centerline which is used exclusively for cine photography. This port is 

1.51 in. thick with an ID of 1.69 in, and an OD of 3.32 in. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Gyrocompass, three sonar transducers (forward, downward, and upward-looking) with strip chart 

recorder, depth sensor, depth monitor with interior dial readout, depth indicator, current meter (speed only), odometer, water temperature probe, 

inclinometer, yaw indicator, 2-channel tape recorder, interior-mounted 16-mm cine camera (400-ft film capacity), exterior-mounted 70-mm still 

camera with two strobes. 

MANIPULATORS: One with three degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Releasable forward battery (600 lb). Jettisonable manipulator. Mechanically releasable trim mercury (225 lb), backed up by 

3,000 psi N2 for angle jettison. Mechanically releasable ascent weight is 185 lb (also released by an overdepth release). Small weight dropper rack 

contains 150 lb of weights which may be released hydraulically or mechanically. An overdepth release device, independent of the pilot and power 

supplies, will release both descent and ascent weights if vehicle reaches 4,200 ft +3%, 

SURFACE SUPPORT: DEEPSTAR has no permanent support ship, but is tended by a leased vessel. The last such ship was the M/V SEARCH TIDE 

owned by Tidewater Marine, New Orleans, La. SEARCH TIDE is a typical offshore supply boat, designed to service drilling rigs in the Gulf of 

Mexico. SEARCH TIDE is 155 ft LOA with a beam of 36 ft and a draft of 11 ft. Her displacement is 199 tons. She is powered by two 1,000-hp 

diesel engines giving a cruising speed of 1 2 knots and a range of 3,700 miles. Vans mounted on the deck provide living quarters, a machine shop, a 

dark room, and a maintenance shop for DEEPSTAR's electronics, 

OWNER: Westinghouse Ocean Research and Engineering Center, Annapolis, Md. 

BUILDER: Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



117 




VARIABLE BALLAST 
OIL RESERVOIR 



TRACKING 
TRANSPONDER 



HYDRAULIC VALVES 

AFT MERCURY 
TRIM TANK 



PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



UHF RADIO 
ANTENNA 

ELECTRICAL HULL PENETRATORS 

UNDERWATER TELEPHONE 

MAIN BALLAST TANK 



SYNTACTIC FOAM 



VARIVEC 
PROPELLER 




FORWARD 
MERCURY 
TRIM TANK 



FORWARD 
.LOOKING 
SONAR 



MOTION PICTURE 
LIGHTS 



•HYDRAULIC POWER 
SUPPLY 

70 MM STILL CAMERA 



CONTROLLER 



MAIN BATTERY 

REMOVABLE 
ACCESS PANEL 

SYNTACTIC FOAM 



VARIABLE BALLAST 
TANKS P/S 



WEIGHT DROPPER 

118 



MANIPULATOR 

5 IN. DIA. VIEWPORTS P/S 

MAIN PRESSURE HULL 
7 FT. IN. I.D. 



DEEPSTAR 20000 



LENGTH: 36ft 

BEAM: 10.25 ft 

HEIGHT: NA 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 42.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 20,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: (construction halted in 1970) 



HATCH DIAMETER; 16 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 144 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2 

MAX 3 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 500 2,000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape, 7-ft ID composed of HY-140 steel and weighing 12,414 lb. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Syntactic foam (42-pcf) permanently installed main ballast system uses 3,000-psi air to blow tanks dry and provide 6,800 

lb of surface buoyancy. Descent weight of 300 lb dropped near the bottom provides neutral buoyancy. A bladder/hard tank system reduces 

displacement proportional to depth to compensate for buoyancy gained by hull rigidity. A 500-lb ascent weight is used to initiate ascent. The 

bladder/hard tank air system is also used for ±1 ,100- lb changes utilizing a hydraulic pump. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: One 10-hp, AC motor drives a Varivec propeller mounted aft on centerline. One hydraulic pump driven by the same 

motor provides hydraulic power for vehicle hydraulics underway. 

TRIM: Mercury tanks fore and aft transfer 630 lb of mercury to obtain pitch angles of ±30 . 

POWER SOURCES: 120-VDC, silver-zinc batteries are carried externally and are pressure compensated. One 29-VDC auxiliary banery and one 

28-VDC emergency battery are carried in the pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O^. LiOH to remove COj. 

VIEWING: Two viewpoas, 4.5-in. 1 D, with overlapping field of view looking forward and down. One 2.25-in. ID camera port on centerline looking 

forward and down. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Tape recorder, FM radio, velocity indicator, transponder, 70-mm still camera, 16-mm cine camera, water 

temperature sensor, side-looking sonar, two depth gages. 

MANIPULATORS: NA. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Surface lights, radio beacon. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: NA. 

OWNER: Westinghouse Ocean Research and Engineering Center, Annapolis, Md. 

BUILDER: Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

REMARKS: Major components completed and in storage, never assembled. 



119 




INCLINOMETER 



ACCESS HATCH 



VIEWING DOME 



HIGH PRESSURE 

AIR TANK ^^<<Cn 



SAIL 



PROPELLER 
SHROUD 

FIXED BUOYANCY 
MATERIAL 



ELECTRICAL JUNCTION 
BOX 

LATERAL PROPELLER 



LATERAL PROPULSION 
MOTOR 

EJECTABLE BUOYANCY 
BLOCKS 




SAVONIUS 
ROTOR 

BROW 
RETAINING RINGS 



FORE AND AFT 

PROPULSION MOTOR 



BATTERY CABLES 
AND DISCONNECTS 



44%" DIA GLASS 
DOME 

TITANIUM TRANSITION 
RING 

HY 100 STEEL HULL 

PRESSURE COMPENSATION 
BELLOWS 



VERTICAL PROPULSION TUBE CYLINDRICAL BATTERY 

HOUSING 



120 



DEEP VIEW 



LENGTH: 16.5 ft 

BEAM: 6 ft 

HEIGHT: 6.5 ft 

DRAFT: 6 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 6 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1.500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 7,500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 38 man-tir 

TOTAL POWER: lekWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): 1/12 hr 

2/6 fir 

4/2 fir 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 800 lb (incl. crew) 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with one hemisphere endcap of glass and one of steel. Hull material and one endcap is HY-100 steel 

0.65-in.. thick. Ring stiffened cylindrical pressure hull 6 ft long, 44.5-in, diam. Glass endcap is 1.25.in. -thick Borosilicate weighing 300 lb. 

BALLAST /BUOYANCY: Forty 5-lb steel plates provide slight buoyancy for initial descent and may be dropped individually during the dive to 

attain positive buoyancy. Twenty 3-lb buoyancy blocks provide variable buoyancy and are ejectable to attain negative buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Five 5hp, reversible MK 34 torpedo motors (DC). Two are mounted astern for forward and reverse propulsion, one is 

mounted athwartships to provide lateral thrust, two are mounted amidships on each side to provide vertical thrust. Four degrees of freedom from 

thrusters plus two degrees by internal ballast trim are attainable. 

TRIM: Ballast plate drop or buoyancy block ejection for adjustment to buoyancy status. Internal movable ballast for pitch or (infrequently) roll 

trim. Fore and aft ballast plate drop determines pitch/trim external. 

POWER SOURCE: Sixteen 6-V, lead-acid batteries connected in series-parallel provide 12, 24 and 48 VDC at 220 amp-hr for main power. 

Emergency power may be attained from eight 6-V, lead-acid batteries connected in series-parallel to provide 1 5 amp-hr at 24 VDC. Four auxiliary 

batteries for switching and environmental control have 2.4-kWh capacity at 24 V. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Two each, 18-ft^ tanks of Oi; two each, 18 ft^ tanks of scuba air. Ot, COi, HtO, and temperature monitored visually with 

warning horns on Ot high and low and CO2 high. Primary CO2 removal by LiOH, backed up with Baralyme, 

VIEWING: Glass hemi-head provides panoramic viewing forward. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8.1-kHz) 4,000-yd range. Two depth gages, lights, echo sounder, VHF radio. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Jettisonable battery pods and ballast plates. Access trunk can be blown for 100-gal displacement (855-lb buoyancy). 

Emergency batteries internal. Redundancy of blow or pump for access trunk. Flood and go possible with portable scubas. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: SOO 

OWNER/BUILDER: U.S. Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, California 92132. 

REMARKS: Not operating. Certified to 100 ft. Now at Southwest Research Lab. 



121 




S4^i^-.., 



RETRACTABLE MAST 

PROPULSION CONTROLLER 

VERTICAL PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



180° OPTICAL DOME 

CENTRAL OPTICAL ASSEMBLY 

FWD SHOT TANK 



SONAR MONITORS 
TV MONITORS 




INBOARD VERNIER TRIM TANK 



LOAD SKIRT 

OPTICAL RELAY TUBE 



MAIN BATTERIES 
BOTTOM SKI 

122 



PRECISION SONAR 
TRANSDUCERS 



TV CAMERA 
MANIPULATORS 



DOWB 



LENGTH: 1 7 f t 

BEAM; 8.75 ft 

HEIGHT: 1 1 .0 f t 

DRAFT: 5.0 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 9.4 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 6,500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 10.000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 



HATCH DIAMETER; 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAXI; 195 man-fir 

TOTAL POWER; 40 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS); CRUISE 1/26 fir 

MAX 2/6 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 580 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of HY-100 steel, 82 in OD and 0.935 in. thick. 

BALLAST /BUOYANCY: Two water ballast hard tanks are used to provide 3,330 lb of positive buovancv at the surface. The variable ballast trim 

system is composed of a hard tank and oil-filled bladders. This system is used primarily to adjust for small changes in displacement, but can be used 

to adjust for a difference of up to ± 2'/a in trim. This system can achieve a maximum of 512 tb of positive or negative buoyancy. Shot ballast (900 

lb) is used for ascending and descending. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Four ducted main propulsion motors provide four degrees of maneuvering freedom, these are; forward and reverse 

thrust, vertical thrust and yaw. The two horizontal propulsion units are located port and starboard in the plane of the deck, canted outward at 1 5 . 

The two vertical thrusters are located fore and aft with their axes normal to the plane of the deck. The propulsion motors deliver 2 SHP to 

18-in.-diam. propellers at 486 rpm. 

TRIM: By transferring oil (used to obtain fine buoyancy control) between fore and aft soft bladders, up/down bow angles of ±2.5 may be 

obtained. 

POWER SOURCE: Twenty externally-mounted, pressure-compensated, 12-\/, lead-acid batteries provide 43.2 kWh of 120 VDC. This voltage is 

converted to 1 1 5 VAC, 60 Hz, single phase. One auxiliary battery (silver-zinc) provides 1.82 kWh of 30 VDC for emergency use and is located within 

the pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 (160-scf) is carried within the pressure hull and operates together with the CO2 removal system which consists of a forced 

ventilated scrubber stack containing 25 lb of LiOH. Atmospheric monitoring is conducted continuously and automatically by an O2 concentration 

indicator, a thermometer, a hydrometer and an aircraft altimeter. 

VIEWING: Two optical ports located directly amidships and at the bow afford a total coverage of 360° through an internal periscope system. This 

optical viewing system provides a full 4-pi solid angle visibility through 180°-wide-angle objectives mounted outboard of the viewports. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, gyrocompass, scanning sonar, upward-looking and downward-looking Fathometers, closed circuit 

TV (camera mounted on manipulator), video tape recorder, 

MANIPULATORS: One manipulator possessing six degrees of freedom can pick up a 50-lb load at its maximum reach of 49 in. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Emergency breathing system consisting of closed circuit breathing connected to main O2/CO2 removal system. The 

following components are droppable; shot ballast, batteries, pan and tilt mechanism. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Was supported at sea by the R/V SWANN, a 135-ft (LOA), 250-ton displacement ex-U.S. Navy patrol craft. 

OWNER: Santa Barbara City College, Santa Barbara, California. 

BUILDER: A.C. Division, General Motors Corp., Santa Barbara, California. 

REMARKS; Inactive. Used for student training. 



123 




CONTROLLERSP&S 
TRIM TANK 



VARIABLE BALLAST TANKS 



MAIN PROP. 
CONTROLLER 



TILTING 
SHROUD 



MAIN PROPULSION 

AFTTHRUSTER 
DUCTS 

HYDRAULIC 
POWER UNIT 



BALLAST TANK 

MAIN BATTEF 




TRANSFER TANK 
AFT PAN & TILT MECHANISM 



CURYTRIM 
TANK 

CONTROLLERS 

FWDTHRUSTER 
DUCTS 



MAGNETIC 
ANCHOR P&S 

CONTROLLER 
Lie POWER UNIT 
TRANSFER TANK 
FWD PAN &TILT UNIT 
CONTROLLERS P&S 

FWD DISTRIBUTION BOX 



MANIPULATOR 



124 



DSRV-1 & 2 (DEEP SUBMERGENCE RESCUE VEHICLE) 



LENGTH: 49.3 ft 

BEAM: 8.1 ft 

HEIGHT: 11 .4 ft 

DRAFT: 10.75 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 37.35 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 5,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH; 7,500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1970 & 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 25 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 729 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 58 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 3/12 hr 

MAX 4.5/3 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 3 

OBSERVERS 24 (Rescuees) 

PAYLOAD: 4,320 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Three 7.5-ft diam., 0.738-in. -thick, interconnected, HY-140 steel spheres contained within a formed fiberglass fairing. Forward 

sphere is for operators; aft spheres are for rescuees (24 total). Two hatches are in mid-sphere; one topside is for surface access, one on bottom 

enclosed by skirt is for rescuees to enter. 

BALLAST /BUOYANCY: Four saddle tanks (748 gal-6,400 lb total) provide freeboard on surface. Fore and aft tanks (123.4 gal-1 ,060 lb total) 

provide variable buoyancy control. Four collapsible bags in each sphere (478 gal-4,080 lb total) compensate for weight of rescuees. Fore and aft 

tanks (713.6 gal — 5,664 lb total) are used to store water pumped from rescue skirt. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Forward propulsion by a stern-mounted, reversible 4.ft diam. propeller driven by a 15-hp, AC motor. Two each vertical 

and horizontal ducted thrusters (fore & aft-mounted), each driven by a 7.5.hp, AC, electric motor. Shroud around stern propeller can be tilted to 

control yaw and pitch. 

TRIM: Up and down bow angles can be obtained by transferring part of the 1,428 lb of mercury carried in forward/aft tanks (36.5 gal total). Port 

and starboard tanks located above centerline provide list control by transferring 6 gal of mercury (440 lb). A similar tank located low on the 

centerline amidships can control BG by mercury transfer from list tanks. 

POWER SOURCE; Two pressure-compensated, silver-zinc batteries weighing 2,000 lb each supply 56 kWh apiece at 112 VDC for main propulsion. 

A similar system plus inverters and converter are available for ±28 VDC and 115 VAC at 400 cycle. A 28 VDC silver-zinc battery (115 kWh) is 

available for emergency. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Separate support for forward sphere and mid/aft spheres. COt is controlled by LiOH. Closed loop emergency breathing systems 

are available for 28 people. An air conditioning system controls humidity and heat. 

VIEWING: Five viewports are available: Two in the forward sphere (4-in. diam.), one looks forward and down 30°, one looks 140° to starboard and 

30° down from the horizontal. Two (4-in. diam.) in mid-sphere look 70° to port and starboard and 50° down from the horizontal. One in 

mid-sphere lower hatch looks directly down and is 3 in. in diam. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8.087 kHz), CTFM sonar, vertical sonar, altitude/depth sonar, Doppler sonar navigator, sound 

velocimeter, tracking transponder for DSRV, transponder navigation system, two TV cameras, side scan sonar, 16-mm cine camera, two 35-mm still 

cameras. 

MANIPULATORS: One manipulator with seven degrees of freedom on forward sphere. 

SAFETY FEATURES: The following is jettisonable: Manipulator, downhaul winch cable, pan and tilt camera units, magnetic anchors. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Air, ship, truck, submarine transportable. 

OWNER: U.S. Navy Submarine Development Group One, San Diego, California. 

BUILDER: Lockheed Missiles & Space Corp., Sunnyvale, California. 

REMARKS: Undergoing test and evaluation. Both vehicles are built to the same specifications. DSRV-1 is presently rated at 3,500 ft, but will 

eventually reach the 5,Q00-ft operating depth of DSRV-2. 



125 




126 



FNRS-2 

LENGTH: 22.75 ft HATCH DIAMETER : 16.9 in. ID, 21 .65 in. OD 

BEAM 10.4 ft LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): lOOman-hr 

HEIGHT: 18.9 ft TOTAL POWER; NA 

DRAPT: 10 ft SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.2 knots 

WEIGHT (DRY): 28 tons MAX NA 

OPERATING DEPTH: 13,500 ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 20,000 ft OBSERVERS: 1 

LAUNCH DATE: 1948 PAYLOAD: NA 

PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape composed of two hemispheres cast of Ni-Cr-Mo steel 6 ft 7 in. OD, 3.54 in. thick reinforced to 5.91 in. at 

viewports and held together with clamps along an equatorial ring. Weight in air of 1 tons. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Positive buoyancy is obtained by 6,600 gal (1,059 ft^) of gasoline contained in six upright, cylindrical tanks within a 

22. 75x10. 4xl3-ft, 0.04-in.-thick, iron float. Approximately 8 tons of gravel, scrap iron and iron shot are electromagnetically held to provide 

negative buoyancy: the iron shot may be dropped incrementally. A "horsetail" of thin cables serves as a near-bottom guiderope and fine buoyancy 

control, 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two electric motors (1-hp each) are mounted topside port/starboard and drive the vehicle forward or reverse. 

TRIM; No systems available. 

POWER SOURCE: One externally-mounted, pressure-compensated, droppable, lead-acid battery of 14 cells and 900 amp-hr supplies primary 

power. A reserve battery of 120 cells is also carried. Both batteries are electromagnetically held below the float. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried in the pressure sphere and released into the cabin automatically. Cabin air is blown through soda-lime cartridges to 

remove CO2. Humidity is reduced by silica gel. 

VIEWING: Two viewports, each is 5.91 in. thick, 15.75 in. OD, 3.94 in. ID. One looks downward from the vertical (about 30°) and forward. The 

second is in the entrance hatch and looks aft, upward toward the float. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Tachometer for vertical speed, pressure gage. 

MANIPULATORS: None 

SAFETY FEATURES: Snorkel for breathing when surfaced. Batteries (2,650 lb) and all ballast droppable. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Can be transported aboard ship and launched/retrieved at sea. Normally it is towed to dive site. 

OWNER: French Navy. 

BUILDER: Auguste Piccard, with funds from the Belgium National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS). 

REMARKS: Reconfigured to FNRS-3 by the French Navy in 1949 1953 after severe damage to float while in tow during heavy weather. 



127 



- 1/ ^-^^e^Q^^K^m 




128 



FNRS -3 



LENGTH: 52.5 ft 

BEAM: 11.1 ft 

HEIGHT: NA 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 28.1 tons 

OPERATINGDEPTH: 13,500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 20,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1953 



HATCH DIAMETER: 16.94 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 30 kWfi 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 5 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape composed of cast Ni-Cr-Mo steel 6-ft 10-in. CD and ranging in thickness 3.5 in. to 5.9 in. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Positive buoyancy provided by 2,794 ft-* of gasoline carried in 1 1 tanks within a thin-walled float. Negative buoyancy 

provided by 4,000 lb of steel shot electromagnetically held in four tanks. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two 2-hp, reversible, DC motors provide both main propulsion and steering control. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Two 28 V, pressure-compensated, lead acid batteries supply 900 amp-hr for lights and motors. One 28 V, silver zinc battery 

supplies 1 80 amp-hr for all other equipment. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Four O2 cylinders carried within the hull. CO2 is removed by soda lime. 

VIEWING: Sameas FNRS-2. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, echo sounder, depth gage, radio transceiver, compass, seawater sampler and temperature sensor. 

still camera. 

MANIPULATORS: None 

SAFETY FEATURES: All steel shot is automatically dumped upon loss of electrical power. Batteries also drop upon loss of electrical power (2,600 

lb). 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Towed on surface. 

OWNER: French Navy. 

BUILDER: French Naval Shipyard, Toulon. 

REMARKS: Inactive, retired in 1960, Deepest depth reached was 1 3,500 ft. The two major differences between FNRS-2 and 3 was that FNRS -3' s 

float was designed for surface towing and the occupants of FNRS-3 could enter the pressure hull while the vehicle was on the surface through an 

access trunk which ran through the float to the hull. 



129 




ENGINE & GENERATOR 
COMPARTMENT SEPARATE 



SCANNING 
LENS 360° VIEW 



CONNING TOWER 
WINDOW 



FORWARD BALLAST TANK 
BATTERY 



12" X 24" WINDOW 

ROCK BALLAST 
DROP AWAY 
BOTTOM 



REAR BALLAST TANK 



FORD V8 MOTOR 



SHARK FINS 



200 AMP GENERATOR 




HIGH PRESSURE AIR TANKS 
SET IN BALLAST TANKS 

ROCK BALLAST 
DROP AWAY BOTTOM 

NEGATIVE BUOYANCY TANK 



%" STEEL SKID RUNNERS 

130 



GOLDFISH 



LENGTH: 28.7 ft 

BEAM: 6.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 8.7 ft 

DRAFT: 4.0 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 6.25 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 100ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 320 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1958 



HATCH DIAMETER 32 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 18 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 1 .200 amp-hr 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 5/5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD: 1,000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Shaped as an inverted wedge and composed of 0.25-in. -thick steel plate with 4-in. -thick seamless steel ribs, "I" beams and 

0.25-in. plates mounted at angles. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two main ballast tanks, one forward and one aft and one negative buoyancy tank in the center. Five 122-ft3 capacity air 

flasks are used to blow water ballast. A low pressure air pump is used to adjust buoyancy on the surface. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; Main propulsion is provided by two propellers mounted port/starboard on the stern. Lateral thrust is provided by two 

propellers mounted athwartships on the bow. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Surface power is derived from a Ford '60 V8 engine which provides direct drive to the main propulsion units. Submerged power 

is derived from eight 60-amp-hr and sixteen 45-amp-hr lead-acid batteries. A 200-amp generator is carried within the vehicle to charge batteries on 

the surface. 

LIFE SUPPORT: NA. 

VIEWING: Three 12 in, x 24 in. viewports on main pressure hull. Two 6-in. viewports on conning tower. One 18-in.-diam. lens in hatch cover 

providing 360* viewing. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: CB radio, cameras, sonar. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable ballast. Pressure hull can be pressurized to ambient by introducing deballasting air into hull for egress of 

occupants through removable windows. 

SURFACE SUPPORT; None. 

OWNER: Unknown. 

BUILDER: Burtis L. Dickman, Auburn, Indiana 

REMARKS: Sold in 1973. Was due to be rebuilt by new owner. Present status unknown. 



131 




MSaii 



132 



GRIFFON 



LENGTH: 7.4 m 

BEAM: 2.1 m 

HEIGHT: 3.1 m 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 12 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1973 



HATCH DIAMETER: NA 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 100 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: NA 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 4/6 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 200 kg 



PRESSURE HULL: Central cylinder with an OD of 1.60 m capped with a forward cone closed by a hemispherical cap and after cone through which 

shafting penetrates. Hull is composed of 210-mm-thick steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Four main ballast tanks of 2.4-m^ capacity blown by compressed air. Gross pre-dive ballasting is adjusted by the removal 

or addition of lead weights on the keel. Submerged buoyancy is adjusted by fore and aft variable ballast tanks within the hull which allow a total 

adjustment of 1 30 kg. An anchoring device consisting of 20 m of cable and a 200-kg anchor allows vertical hovering control near-bottom. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: One.three-bladed propeller at the stern (5-hp) provides main propulsion. Two vertical thrusters and one lateral thruster 

all of 0.5 hp. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles can be obtained by transferring fresh water between two forward and two aft tanks within the pressure hull. 

POWER SOURCE: Nickel-cadmium batteries are located in jettisonable pods outside the hull. The batteries are pressure compensated and provide 

all electrical power. A 28-V battery within the hull is for emergency power, 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O2. CO2 is removed by soda lime. Monitors for O2, CO2 and cabin pressure. Three individual emergency breathing 

apparatuses are connected to the main O2 supply. 

VIEWING: Five viewports. One is in the access trunk and four are on the pressure hull bow. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (Straza ATM 504 A) which also operates as a transponder interrogator, an echo sounder, a pinger 

and a transponder. Depth gage, TV, VHF radio, gyrocompass, two recording echo sounders, sample basket. 

MANIPULATORS: One, with a reach of 1.60 m. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Battery pods and manipulator are jettisonable (total about 900 kg). Anchor cable can be cut with a pyrotechnic device. Two 
fire extinguishers. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Supported by the ship TRITON which may either tow it to the dive site or launch/retrieve it on station. 
OWNER: Operated by the Groupe d'Etudes et de Rescherches Sous-marines (GERS) and the French Navy. 
BUILDER: French Naval and Construction yard, Brest. 
REMARKS: Undergoing sea trials as of February 1974. 



133 




STARBOARD 
VIEWPORT 



EMERGENCY 
BREATHING 



SHOT HOPPER 



MANUALLY DROPPED 
BALLAST 



134 



GUPPY 



LENGTH; 1 1 ft 

BEAM: 8 ft 

HEGITH: 7.5 ft 

DRAFT; 5.6 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY); 2.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE; 1970 



HATCH DIAMETER: 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 72 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: tethered 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1 

MAX 3 

CREW; PILOTS, 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD; 850 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of HY 100 steel 66-in. ID and 0.5 in. thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY; An internal, variable ballast tank controls surface draft and main ± buoyancy. Two lead shot hoppers (150 lb each) 

provide negative buoyancy and a 400-lb weight in the keel provides additional negative buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two port-starboard mounted 10-hp, 440-VAC, 1,140/560 rpm, reversible and rotatable (180° in the vertical) motors 

provide lateral and vertical maneuvering. 

TRIM: Fore and aft shot hoppers may be differentially emptied to obtain up/down bow angles. 

POWER SOURCE: Derived from 440-V surface generator through a 35-kW cable. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 cylinders carried within the hull. Ot, CO2 and temperature/humidity gages are also carried. 

VIEWING: Three viewports one 16-in. diam., 1 .25-in. -thick, hemispherical viewport is incorporated into the access hatch. Two 8-in.-diam., 

1-in. -thick, hemispherical ports look forward on the centerline. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Hard line telephone, depth gage, inclinometer, corer. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Mechanically releasable weight (400 lb). Shot hoppers can be emptied (300 lb). Vehicle can be retrieved by its power cable. 

Sixteen man-hr emergency breathing, fire extinguisher, surface flashing light. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Chester, Penna. 

BUILDER: Same as Owner. 

REMARKS: Has not operated for several years. 



135 




TRANSPONDER^ /\ 
STABILIZING FIN VERTICAL THRUSTER 



ONE POINT 
LIFTING EQUIPMENT 

HATCH 



BEACON LIGHT 

ANTENNA 



GUARD 



PROPELLER 




OBSTACLE 
AVOIDANCE SONAR 



n EXTERNAL LIGHT 



^^^ UND 



ERWATER 
CAMERA 

DIVE PLANE 



PROPELLER DUCT 

HYDRAULIC SWIVEL DEVICE 

NO. 2 AUX. TANK 



MANIPULATOR 



INBOARD EQUIPMENTS 



BOTTOM KEEL 



SAMPLING 
TRAY 



136 



HAKUYO 



LENGTH: 4.7 m 

BEAM: 1.7 m 

HEIGHT: 2.0m 

DRAFT: 1 .9 m 

WEIGHT (DRY): 6 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 450 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 62 cm 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 144 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 14.4 kwh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1 /5 hr 

MAX 3/5 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD; NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape of quenched and tempered, high tensile NS46 (Japan Defense Agency Standard) steel. Hull is 1 .4 m in. diam. 

and cylinder is 1 2.5 mm thick, endcaps are 1 3.5 mm thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Vehicle is made negatively buoyant by letting seawater into the auxiliary tank and pumping out to become positive. A 

negative tank is used to obtain greater negative buoyancy when sitting on the bottom. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; A stern-mounted propeller (trainable 90 left or right) provides main fore/aft propulsion and is driven by a 10-hp 

motor. A horizontal thruster, driven by a 1-hp motor is mounted on the bow and 0.5-hp vertical thrusters (1 each) are mounted on bow and stern. 

Diving planes are mounted on the bow to provide underway vertical control. 

TRIM; A lead weight is moved along a rail at the bottom and inside the pressure hull by a hydraulic motor. Up/down bow angles of 10° are 

obtainable. 

POWER SOURCE: Two lead-acid battery systems are carried in a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell (battery pod) beneath the pressure hull. A 120-V 

system supplies power to all propulsion units, hydraulic pump and lights. A 24-V system powers acoustic equipments, compass and indicators. 

LIFE SUPPORT A high-pressure flask mounted outside the pressure hull carries the O2 supply. Baralyme is used to absorb COj, silica gel is used to 

reduce humidity. A Drager gas analyzer is used to monitor the interior atmosphere. 

VIEWING; E ight viewports are incorporated into the forward endcap, six are arranged around the conning tower. A 90° view is obtainable through 

the viewports which have an I D of 1 50 mm. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (9-kHz), obstacle avoidance sonar, up/down echo sounders, radio, pinger, transponder. 
MANIPULATORS: One manipulator capable of five degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Auxiliary and negative buoyancy tanks can be blown in an emergency. Battery pod of 250 kg is droppable. Manipulator 
wrist detaches when its applied load exceeds 50 kg. Emergency breathing apparatus is carried in the pressure hull which draws off of the main air 
supply. Fire extinguisher, flashing surface lights. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 
OWNER: Ocean Systems Japan Ltd., Tokyo. 
BUILDER: Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo. 
REMARKS; Operational. 



137 



v^arsi- X ■ ■ r^JSK^^^s 




THRUST VECTOR 
CONTROL POWER 



PLASTIC 

PRESSURE 

HULL 



MOTOR POWER 

ASCENT TANK 
VENT VALVE 



RETAINING RING 



FLOOD VALVE 



PONTOON 



BATTERIES 



ASCENT TANK 
AIR SOURCE VENT VALVE 
STAND PIPE 



PURGE VALVE 
(SOLENOID) 




SUMP PUMP 



FLOOD VALVE 



138 



HIKINO 



LENGTH: 16ft 

BEAM: 8 ft 

HEIGHT: 5.5 ft 

DRAFT: 2.1 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 5,700 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 20ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 30ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1966 



HATCH DIAMETER: none 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 2.3 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS) CRUISE 0.9 

MAX 3.5M5 min. 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of two 56-in. OD plastic hemispheres 0.25 in. thick. The two hemispheres were hinged together bv an 

aluminum flange and opened to allow entry of personnel. The catamaran hull was constructed of marine plywood, covered with fiberglass and sealed 

with paint. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Lead ballast weights (1,750 lb) gave the vehicle neutral buoyancy at launch. Total buoyancy was a function of trapped 

air, water absorption, personnel and equipment weight. The pressure sphere furnished about 3,160 lb positive buoyancy. Floodable tanks at each 

end of both pontoons were vented to obtain negative buoyancy. Normally the vehicle dived 10 lb heavy, but over mud bottom It was 10 lb light to 

decrease stirring of mud. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two 1.4-hp, DC motors powered cycloidal propellers forward of pressure sphere and capable of swiveting 90° up or 

down. 

TRIM: None. 

POWER SOURCE: Twenty 6-V, 190-amp-hr, lead-acid batteries are carried in two containers in the catamaran hull. The batteries are exposed to 

water and ambient pressure; to protect them, the terminals were coated with rubber cement, most of the air was displaced by the electrolyte, cells 

were modified to prevent gas trapping and pressure relief valves were screwed into filler holes of each cell. Voltages supplied were 18 VDC and 24 

VDC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O2 (514 in.-* at 1800 psi) was carried in the pressure sphere and metered out automatically at 2 SCFH. LiOH was 

employed in a 10-SCFM blower circuit to remove COj. Silica gel was used to decrease humidity. 

VIEWING: Panoramic viewing through plastic hull. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: NA. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Two scuba tanks and regulators carried in the pressure hull for emergency breathing or to exit vehicle after flooding. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Not applicable. 

OWNER: Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

REMARKS: HIKINO was an experimental vehicle (called a Mock- Up) used to gain experience with plastic hulls, this experience led to development 

of NEMO, DEEP VIEW, and other plastic-hulled submersibles. 



139 



'^0^ 




140 



JIM 



LENGTH: 

BEAM: 3.1 ft 

HEIGHT: 6.5 ft 

DRAFT: 

WEIGHT (DRY): 1,100 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,300 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1973 



HATCH DIAMETER: NA 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 16 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: Manual 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX NA 

CREW; PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 

PAYLOAD NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Main body and dome, knee spacer and boots are composed of magnesium alloy RZ5. All joints are composed of aluminum 

alloy forgings, as are the elbow spacers and hand enclosures. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Lead ballast of approximately 150 lb is required to reach neutral buoyancy. Additional buoyancy of 15 to 50 lb 

(depending upon bottom conditions) is required for negative buoyancy. This ballast is jettisonable. For independent mobility the lifting cable can be 

jettisoned. By dropping all ballast the operator will ascend at a rate of about 100 fpm. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A lift cable provides ascent/descent. Mobility on the sea floor is by walking. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Manual. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Sufficient O2 is carried externally in two flasks (440 I at 1 50 atm. each) and provides 4 hr for working with a 1 2-hr reserve. The 

operator yvears an oronasal mask with an inhale and exhale tube, both are connected to CO2 scrubbers (soda lime) and work at atmospheric pressure. 

Two complete O2 and CO2 sets are provided, one for backup. Monitoring instruments in the suit are for O2 internal pressure, temperature. 

Lightweight clothing can be worn and in the waters where Jl M has worked (Scotland) the internal temperature has stabilized at 19 to 20 °C. 

VIEWING: Four viewports in the dome and two at the back. The viewports are concave-convex lenses machined from Plexiglas 222. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Compass. 

MANIPULATORS: Initially four simulated fingers were used and operated on a 1-to-1 mechanical linkage with a thumb on a swivel base, though 

satisfactory, other alternatives to these general purpose manipulators are beTng sought. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Lift cable can be released if snarled. Ballast jettisonable. Two life support systems. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: DHB Construction Ltd., England. 

BUILDER: Underwater Marine Equipment Ltd., Farnborough, Hants, England. 

REMARKS: Developmental stage in August 1973 at which time it had dived to 442 ft. Classification to 1,300 ft operating depth was under 

contemplation by Lloyds Register of Shipping, JIM's design and operation fulfill every definition of a manned submersible (chap. 1 ). 



141 




SURFACE BOUYANCY 
TANKS 



PASSENGER 
ACRYLIC SPH 



ATTACHMENT POINT FOR 
HYDRO CRANE 

UMATIC VENT 



VER BALLAST TANK 

SONAR CALIBRATION 



PNEUMATIC VENT 



TRANSDUCER 
STROBE LIGHT 

PNEUMATIC VENT 

MAIN PROPULSION 
MOTORS & RUDDER 
'AFT VERT.THRUSTEr/ 




BOW LATERAL 
THRUSTER 



BATTERY POD 



ELECTRICAL 
CONNECTORS 



DIVER 
GAS SUPPLY 



HIGH PRESSURE 
AIR TANKS 



DIVERS ENTRANCE 
& EXIT HATCH 



SIDE MOTORS 



PORT SIDE-FATHOMETER TRANSDUCER 
STARBOARD SIDE STRAZA TRANSDUCER 



142 



JOHNSON SEA LINK 



LENGTH: 23 ft 

BEAM: 7.9 ft 

HEIGHT: 10.8 ft 

DRAFT: 7.1 ft 

WEIGHT(DRY): 9.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: DIVER 6,000 ft 

PILOT 6,000 ft 
LAUNCH DATE: 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 24 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 72 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 32 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.75 

MAX 1.75 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD: 1,100 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Two hulls: Forward spherical hull is for pilot and observer and is composed of acrylic plastic (Plexiglas grade G) 66-in. OD, 4 

in. thicic and weighing 2,300 lb. The after hull is a cylinder of aluminum (alloy 5456) 50.5-in. OD, 3.36 in. thick and Sl^/s in. long with aluminum 

(alloy 5456-0) plate hemispherical endcaps 2.33 in. thick at the apex and 2.80 in. thick at the equator. The entire cylinder is 8 ft long and weighs 

4,800 lb. One metal hatch is topside of the sphere and the second hatch is on the bottom of the cylinder for diver lock-out. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Surface flotation is from two port/starboard tanks which provide positive buoyancy of 1 ,940 lb; these tanks are flooded to 

dive and blown with compressed air on the surface. Fine buoyancy trim control submerged is obtained from two tanks located (1 ea.) within the 

surface flotation tanks; they are blown by compressed air and contribute ±170 lb of buoyancy. To compensate for weight of divers and their 

equipment when they leave the cylinder are two aluminum tubes (±180 lb ea.) (which are a part of the top two frame members) and bilge ballast 

tanks (±1 10 lb ea.) located in the bottom of the divers' compartment. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; Propulsion is attained through eight reversible 28 VDC electric motors driving 14-in., three-bladed propellers. 

Forward/reverse propulsion is from three stern-mounted (trainable 90° left and right) and two port/starboard motors mounted amidships. Vertical 

propulsion is from one each, fore and aft thrusters. and lateral propulsion is from a forward-mounted thruster. 

TRIM: No systems available. 

POWER SOURCE: All power is obtained from fourteen 2-VDC, lead-acid batteries located in a pressure-resistant battery pod (jettisonable) attached 

to the bottom of the submersible. The batteries are aligned in two banks; each supplying 14 VDC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is from two cylinders (2,640 psi at 330 SCF ea.) mounted externally. The starboard tank supplies the sphere and the port tank 

the cylinder. He for the diver's cylinder is supplied from a sphere (1,750 SCF) and four reserve buoyancy tanks (502 SCF). To remove CO2 both 

sphere and cylinder carry 8 lb of Baralyme through which fans force compartment air. 

VIEWING: Panoramic viewing through plastic forward sphere. Three viewports in the aft aluminum cylinder, one is central on the forward endcap 

and one each (port/starboard) on the cylinder. All viewports are double acting, the outside port is 7-in. ID, 9.5-in. OD and 1 in. thick. The inside 

viewport is 10.25-in. OD; 7-in. I D and 2 in. thick. Two additional viewports are located in the double-acting diver's egress hatch. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, Doppler sonar navigation system, CTFM sonar, transponder, pinger, echo sounder, compass. 

Diver-to-submersible, sphere-to-cylinder communication system. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Scott-type breathing masks in both sphere and cylinder are connected to high pressure air system. Battery pod (1.5 tons) 

jettisonable. Surfacing can be controlled from diver's compartment. Divers and pilot/observer may lock-out in an emergency. Both surface flotation 

and ballast/trim tanks can be blown at operational depth ( 1,000 ft). 

SURFACE SUPPORT: R/V JOHNSON with articulated crane. 

OWNER: Owned by the Smithsonian Institution, Wash., DC. Operated by the Marine Sciences Center, Ft. Pierce, Fla. 

BUILDER: Designed by Mr. Edwin Link, built by Aluminum Co. of America (ALCOA). 

REMARKS: Operational. A second vehicle is due for completion in 1974. 



143 



-'TTr^ 




] 





,y 



/ 




FORE MAIN 
BALLAST TANK 



VIEWPORT 
PROTECTOR 



TRIM PUMP 

VARIABLE BALLAST TANK 

144 



VIEWPORT 



DROP LEAD WEIGHT 



K-250 



LENGTH: 10.5 ft 

BEAM: 4.7 ft 

HEIGHT: 5 ft 

DRAFT: 3 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY) 2.200 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 250 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: ca. 1966 



HATCH DIAMETER: 22 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 6 man-hr 

TOTAL PO\A(ER: NA 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 2.5 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS O 

PAYLOAD: 280 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape composed of 0.25-in-thick gage steel with internal "T" bar frames. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two fiberglass main ballast tanks, free-flooding and blown by compressed air. A variable ballast tank within the hull 

provides buoyancy changes when submerged. The VBT is normally pumped dry, but can be blown dry if necessary. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two motors (port/starboard) are rotatable 360*^ in the vertical. The motors have three speeds forward and are manually 

rotated. A rudder provides underway directional control. 

TRIM: No system provided. 

POWER SOURCE; Four 12-V, lead-acid batteries carried within the hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Relies upon air entrapped in hull when hatch is closed. Snorkel for surface operations. 

VIEWING: Plastic dome (24-in. diam.) on conning tower provides 360 of viewing. Viewport in bow 2 in. thick, 16-in. diam. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable weight (190 lb). MBT's and VBT can be blown dry at operational depth. Pressure hull can be flooded for 

emergency egress. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Various. 

BUILDER: G.W. Kittredge, Warren, Maine. 

REMARKS: Six of these vehicles were completed by 1 971 and six more were under construction at that time. Also designated as the VAST MK III. 



145 




ELEC. PENETRATION 

CLEAR ACRYLIC HULL 
MAGNETIC COMPASS 
GYROCOMPASS 

AMMETERS & VOLTMETERS 
(BATTERIES & MOTORS) 
VERTICAL MOTOR 
MOTOR SWITCHES 
CIRCUIT BREAKERS 
STEERING MOTOR 
CO-PILOT SEAT 
PILOT SEAT 
WATER BALLAST CONTROL 



ACRYLIC COVER 
BATTERIES 



HATCH CLOSURE 

ELEC. PENETRATION 



OXYGEN BOTTLES 
U.W. TELEPHONE 

STEERING MOTOR 




OIL COVERED 
PRESSURE COMPENSATED 



BATTERY CABLE 
OUTLETS 

MAIN HULL PENETRATION 

CABLE FROM BATTERIES 
(HOOKUP NOT SHOWN) 

WATER BALLAST PUMP 
MAIN PROP. MOTOR 



DROP WEIGHT 
(BALLAST) 



146 



KUMUKAHI 



LENGTH: 5,9 ft 

BEAM 6.6 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.5 ft 

DRAFT: 7.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 3,700 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1969 



HATCH DIAMETER: 18 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 32 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 5.1 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/4 hr 

MAX 1.3/3 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 600 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Sphere of Rohm and Haas Plexiglas G, 1 Vs in. thick, made in four parts and hot-press molded. Quarter parts bonded into a 

sphere using epoxv resin. Hull buoyancy 3,045 lb, weight in air 690 lb. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: A 1 50-psi pump moves water into or out of a 15-gal tank within the hull to provide 93 lb of ± buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Four fixed, reversible, '/3-hp motors; 12-VDC Sears & Roebuck outboard trolling motors with minor modifications for 

kerosene-filled pressure-compensation and mounting. Two motors are mounted at the sides of the sphere for fore and aft motion. One motor is 

mounted at the top facing athwartships for transverse motion, another is mounted at the bow facing up for vertical motion. 

TRIM: None. 

POWER SOURCE: Two 18-VDC pods, each with three batteries (lead-acid) of fast drain type. Batteries are ESB Ltd 9, 143 amp-hr/6 hr built for 

golf cart use. Batteries are submerged in oil (SAE 30 motor oil) and pressure-compensated by a seawater bellows. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Two Scott Aviation O2 cylinders and two CO2 humidity scrubbers contain soda lime and silica gel (2 men, 8 hours, 0.5% CO2, 

60% rel. hum,). Instruments to check internal atmosphere are: Teledyne model 330 O2 meter, MSA CO2 tester, Taylor temperature/humidity gage, 

Taylor 2-psi differential pressure gage. 

VIEWING: Panoramic viewing through plastic hull. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (27-kHz), Directional gyrocompass and magnetic compass, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: A 440-lb steel drop weight is located under the pods and is actuated by three turns of the thru-hull bolt. Pods and mount 

frame release with seven more turns of the same bolt. F lood valve can equalize internal pressure in 1 .5 min for blow and go ascent to surface. 

SURFACE/SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Oceanic Foundation, Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Hawaii. 

BUILDER: Oceanic Institute, Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Hawaii. 

REMARKS: On display at Sea Life Park, Waimanalo, Hawaii. 



147 





.m 



SSfl^^^ 




RUDDER 



COMPRESSED AIR CYLINDER 
ELECTRIC SUPPLY CABLE 1 OBSERVATION WINDOW 

HANDRAIL \ | HATCH-. / HOISTING HOOK 



AZIMUTH FINDER 




TIDAL CURRENT METER 
OBSERVATION WINDOW 
SONAR SOUNDER 
BALLAST TANK 



PROPELLER BALLAST TANK 



UNDERWATER 
FLOOD LIGHT 



ANCHOR CHAIN 



TURNING MIRROR 
OBSERVATION WINDOW 

REVOLVING STAND 



SONAR SOUNDER 
OBSERVATION WINDOW 



148 



KUROSHIOII 



LENGTH: 11.8 m 

BEAM: 2.2 m 

HEIGHT: 3.2 m 

DRAFT: 1.9 m 

WEIGHT (DRY) 12.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 200 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 365 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1960 



. . 538 mm 
96 man-hr 
. . tethered 
1 



HATCH DIAMETER: 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 

TOTAL POWER: 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 

MAX 2 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: The main section of the hull is a cylinder of soft steel (SM41)14mmthick; 1,482-mm OD and 5,600-mm length. One end plate 
is a hemisphere of soft steel 24 mm thick and 1,3Q0-mm radius. The other end plate is a cone of soft steel. The hatch coaming is a cylinder of soft 
steel 12 mm thick, 550.mm OD and 1,000 mm high. All components are joined by electrical welding. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two ballast tanks fore (240 I) and aft (180 I) within pressure hull are flooded and pumped dry of seawater to obtain 

desired surface weight. A main tank (6,000 I) below the pressure hull is filled with seawater to capacity to obtain negative diving buoyancy. To 

ascend the ballast tanks are pumped dry and, upon reaching the surface, a low-pressure air hose from the support ship is used to blow the main tank. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL A stern-mounted, three-bladed, 800-mm diam. propeller provides lateral propulsion and is driven by a 3.2-kW, 

three-phase AC, 4006 motor. Underway lateral control is through two rudders mounted within a cylinder surrounding the propeller which is trained 

left/right. Two stern-mounted, port-starboard bow planes control vertical movement. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles can be obtained by differential filling of the VBT's. 

POWER SOURCE: A 600 m long, 36-mm diam, cable from surface ship supplies all electrical power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Compressed O2 is carried in a 40-1 -capacity cylinder. CO2 removal is through a 1 00-W ventilation system. 

VIEWING; Sixteen viewports throughout the vehicle ranging in diameter from six 60-mm, seven 120-mm to three 160-mm. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Hard-wired telephone to support ship (24-V, battery-powered), battery (3-V) powered compass, tidal 
current meter, water temperature sensor, horizontal vertical sonars. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Main ballast tanks can be blown. Electric supply cable can be manually detached from within the pressure hull. Vehicle can 

be hoisted to surface by power cable. Marker buoy. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Towed by support ship to and from dive site. 

OWNER: University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, Japan. 

BUILDER: Japanese Steel and Tube Co., Hokkaido, Japan. 

REMARKS: Operational. Kuroshio I was a tethered vehicle also, and operated from 1951 through 1960. Kuroshio II radically departs from its 
predecessor's design, in that Kuroshio I was basically a diving bell configured for support from the surface. 



149 




CYCLOIDAL PROPELLER 
SPEED REDUCER 



HATCH 



HYDRAULIC DRIVE MOTOR 

ELECTRICAL BOX 
BALLAST AIR STORAGE 



PLASTIC SPHERE 



INTERIOR SUPPORT STRUCTURE 




HYDRAULIC MOTOR PUMP UNIT 



CENTER CROSS STRUCTURE AND SPHERE TIE DOWN 

150 



MAKAKAI 



LENGTH: 18.5 ft 

BEAM: 8 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.5 ft 

DRAFT: 5.9 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 5.3 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4,150ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 19'1 



HATCH DIAMETER: 18.5 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 72 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 36 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.75/8 hr 

MAX 3 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 870 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Acrylic plastic (Plexiglas G) sphere composed of 12 spherical pentagons bonded together with adhesive. Hull is 66-in. OD and 

2.5 in. thick. Top (hatch) and bottom plates are of cadmium plated 4130 steel. Bottom plate is for passage of penetrators. Hull weighs 1,500 lb in air 

and displaces 5,500 lb in water. A 0.5-in-thick acrylic cap around the pressure hull protects it from abrasion or accidental impact. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Variable weight system consisting of four pressure-compensated ballast tanks mounted at each corner of the vehicle from 

which water mav be pumped into or out. System is limited to three complete fill/refill cycles by the volume of compressed air used for pressure 

compensation, 400 lb may be gained or lost. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two Kirsten Boeing, pi-pitch cycloidal propellers provide four degrees of maneuvering freedom and are driven by a 4-hp 

hydraulic motor. 

TRIM: Gross trim is adjusted manually before diving by fore or aft movement of 1 ,200-lb (each) battery pods. Trim is controlled up or down by 

pumping water fore or aft in the ballast tanks. Roll is controlled by pumping water overboard on one side and taking water onboard on the other. 

POWER SOURCE: External, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries in two pods, each containing a 1 20-V and 30-V battery string. The 120-V 

string is made up of twenty 6-V, 190-amp-hr batteries which power the propulsion and ballast systems and lights. The 30-V string powers the 

controls, electronics and scientific instrument payload. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Oj is stored in the pressure hull in high pressure flasks and is bled through a pressure reducer at 2 ft^/hr. COj is removed by 

Baralyme and water vapor by silica gel. Both O2 and CO2 are monitored visually from instruments within the sphere. Three blowers circulate the air 

to remove water vapor and CO2. 

VIEWING: Panoramic viewing is provided through plastic pressure hull. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8.08-kHz), two depth gages, altimeter. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Emergency breathing through two closed-circuit O2 rebreathers of 36-hr capacity each. Pressure hull mechanically releasable 

from chassis. Jettisonable 50-lb ballast weight. Jettisonable 1 ,200-lb battery pods (2,400 lb total). Additional surface freeboard (3 ft total) may be 

obtained by inflation of four modules (one at each corner of the chassis). 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Air, ship, or truck/trailer transportable. May be launched/retrieved from conventional ship with necessary capacity handling 

system. Has been deployed and retrieved with LARP system (see chap. 12). 

OWNER: U.S. Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif. 

BUILDER: USNUC, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. 

REMARKS: Placed in storage in 1974. 



151 





fj 




VIEWPORT 



HORIZONTAL THRUSTER 
WITH HYDRAULIC MOTOR 



LIFT HOOK 




MAIN PROPELLER 



HORIZONTAL THRUSTER 



BATTERY POD 



152 



MEKMAID l/ll 



LENGTH; 5. 15m 

BEAM: 1''0 rn 

HEIGHT: 2.60 m 

DRAFT: 1.8 m 

WEIGHT (DRY): 6.3 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 600 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1972 



HATCH DIAMETER: 0.60 m 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 120man-hr 

TOTAL POWER 16.2 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1.5/8 hr 

MAX 3/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 550 kg 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape composed o< three cylindrical sections and two endcaps of high tensile steel (St 53.7). Diameter of the 

cylinder is 1 .25 m, thickness is 15 mm and total length is 4.30 m. A cylindrical conning tower (600-mm diam.) is welded to the main hull. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Glass-fiber reinforced ballast tanks (300 kg total) are located one on each side and atop the pressure hull. The tanks are 

free-flooding for descent and blown dry for ascent by compressed air. F ine buoyancy adjustments are made by regulating tanks in the pressure hull 

which are blown by compressed air. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; A stern-mounted propeller driven by a 3-hp motor provides fore and aft propulsion. Two lateral thrusters, one in the 

stern and one aft of the conning tower, are each driven by a 1.6-hp motor. Alt propellers are controlled independently and are reversible which 

allows any combination of lateral thrust. 

TRIM: Within the "legs" beneath the vehicle is a trim system which is hydraulically or manually operated and can obtain up/down bow angles of 

±20° by moving the batteries fore or aft. 

POWER SOURCE: Within the two "legs" are pressure-resistant containers holding two lead-acid accumulators which supply 660 amp-hr at 24 V. An 

emergency battery of 24V, 115amp-hris carried within the pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Ot is supplied from tanks of 24-1 capacity mounted external to the pressure hull. CO2 is removed automatically on command by a 

special compound called Drager-Atem Kalk and a CO2 detector controls removal rate. 

VIEWING: Four viewports are available: three in the conning tower of 180-mm diameter and 35 mm thick and one in the bow of 22-mm diameter 

and 55 mm thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UOC, echo sounder, depth gage, directional gyrocompass. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Mechanically droppable ballast. Ballast tanks may be blown at maximum operating depth by a hand valve or compressed air. 

A pressure sensor may be set to automatically activate surfacing if maximum depth is exceeded. Emergency battery in pressure hull; hull may be 

flooded for egress. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: International Underwater Contractors, New York City. 

BUILDER: Bruker-Physik A.G. Karlsruhe, West Germany. 

REMARKS: Operational. A prototype, MERMAID I, was launched and tested in 1972. From these tests modifications were made and the vehicle 

renamed MERMAID l/ll in 1973. 



153 




ELECTRICAL DECOMPRESSION 

CONNING TOWER HATCH SWITCHBOXES CHAMBER 

HORIZONTAL 
THRUSTER 



NAVIGATION 
PANEL 



MANIPULATOR 



MIXED GAS 
DIVING EOUIPMENT 



VIEWPORT 

MAIN PROPELLER 




HORIZONTAL THRUSTER 



BATTERY POD I ANCHOR DEVICE DIVER LOCK OUT 

MAIN ENGINE VIEWPORT 



154 



MERMAID lll/IV 



LENGTH: 6.2 m 

BEAM: 1.8 m 

HEIGHT: 2.7 m 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY) 10.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 200m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1975 



HATCH DIAMETER; main hull 0.6 m 

HATCH DIAMETER: lock-out 0.7 m 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 120 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 36 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 2/1 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Composed of two cvlinders of high tensile steel (St S3. 7) both with hemispherical endcaps and joined by a cylindrical chamber. 

The forward cylinder operates at atmospheric pressure; the after cylinder operates at ambient pressure and is equipped for diver lock-out. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: NA. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a 10-kW, stern-mounted hydraulically-actuated propeller continuously variable in speed and 

reversible. Two lateral thrusters of 1-kW each are mounted fore and aft, provisions can be made to also incorporate vertical thrusters. 

TRIM: NA. 

POWER SOURCE: Same as MERMAID l/ll. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Same as MERMAID l/ll for the atmospheric (forward) cylinder. He/02 supply for the divers consists of four flasks of 50-1 

capacity (each). 

VIEWING: Nine plastic viewports. Five in conning tower of 170-mm diam. and two of 80-mm diam. Four viewports in lock-out chamber of 70-mm 

diam. The bow can be fitted with two or three viewports or one large plastic hemisphere. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, depth gage, echo sounder, compass. 

MANIPULATORS; None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: No data available, but is assumed equal to that of MERMAID l/ll. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: International Underwater Contractors, New York City. 

BUILDER: Bruker-Physik A.G. Karlsruhe, West Germany. 

REMARKS: These are two identical lock-out submersibles. MERMAID lll/IV is scheduled to be operational by 1975. 



155 




GLASS HEMISPHERE 



LIFTING EYE 



RADIO ANTENNA 



FORWARD 
BALLAST TAN 



FLOOD LIGHTS 




MAIN PROPULSION MOTORS 
MOUNTED OUTSIDE 



TRIM PUMP 
VARIABLE BALLAST TANKS 



QUICK-RELEASE DROP KEEL 



TRANSDUCER 



156 



MINI DIVER 

LENGTH: 16ft HATCH DIAMETER NA 

BEAM 3.5ft LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 18man-hr 

HEIGHT: 5ft TOTAL POWER: NA 

DRAFT: 2 ft SPE ED ( KNOTS) : CRUISE 1/6hr 

WEIGHT (DRY): 1.9 tons MAX 6 

OPERATING DEPTH: 250ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 400 ft OBSERVERS 1 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 PAYLOAD: 300 lb 

PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape of welded steel 0.275 in. thick, 3-ft OD. Penetrations include two for motors, dive planes, rudder and three 

for viewports. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Surface buoyancy derived from a main ballast tank, submerged buoyancy changes are obtained from a variable ballast 

tank. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Lateral propulsion is obtained from two stern-mounted, 1-hp, 6-V propellers. Diving planes and a rudder provide 

underway maneuvering. 

TRIM: No system provided. 

POWER SOURCE: All power is derived from four 6-V lead-acid batteries. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Compressed air for Oj , COj absorbant. 

VIEWING: Three, 1 6-in. diam. acrylic plastic viewports. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Transponder, Fathometer, artificial horizon, chronometer, compass, UQC. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable ballast, emergency breathing apparatus for escape 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Great Lakes Underwater Sports, Inc., Elmwood Park, III. 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

REMARKS: Not operating. Deepest dive 70 ft. Undergoing refit, operational future depends on market for vehicle or services. 



157 




158 



NAUTILETTE 



LENGTH: 1 -man : 1 1 .25 ft 

2-man: 13.75 ft 

BEAM: 4.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 3.9 ft 

DRAFT , 2.25 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 1-man: 1.9 tons 

2-man: 1.2 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH 100 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH 1,800 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964 



HATCH DIAMETER: 22 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 1:2 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 4.4 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS) CRUISE 2/6 fir 

MAX 5/3 hr 

CREW PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 (2 man model) 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Cvlindrical shape composed of steel, 9.375 in. tfiick and 30-in. ID. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Internal ballast system (400 lb) wfiich can be pumped dry by an electric motor or manually. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A 1.5-fip, 24-VDC reversible electric motor in a pressure-resistant container drives a propeller mounted topside aft. Two 

bow planes and a rudder are manually maneuvered to obtain underway control. 

TRIM: No systems. 

POWER SOURCE: Four 185-amp-hr, 6-V, lead-acid batteries provide all power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Air within the pressure hull at time of hatch closure provides about 1 hr/passenger breathing. Soda Sorb used for CO2 removal. 

VIEWING: Cylindrical plastic dome (two on 2-man model) over hatch openings and one forward on bow. Domes are 0.5 in. thick on cylinder 

portion and 2.5 in. thick on plate portion. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Depth gage, radio, lights, remote compass. The Haight 1 man model has a hard line radio from vehicle to 

surface buoy. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES; Droppable weight. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOD. 

OWNER: Various. 

BUILDER: Nautilette, Inc., Ft. Wayne, Indiana, 

REMARKS: Three vehicles built, two 2-man and one 1 -man, and are located as follows; 

1-man: Mr. D. Haight, Warrensville, III. (used for salvage of wrecks). 

2-man: Mr. C. Russner, Nashville, Mich. 

2-man: Nautilette, Inc., Ft. Wayne, Ind. (used for commercial purposes). 
All models are capable of operations within 48 hours. 



159 




160 



NEKTON ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA 



LENGTH: 1 5.5 ft 

BEAM Six 

HEIGHT: 6 ft 

DRAFT: 4 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 2.35 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968, 70, 71 



HATCH DIAMETER: 18 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 4.5 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1.5/3.5 hr 

MAX 2.5/1 fir 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD 450 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cvlmdncal sfiape of A-212 and A 515 (BETA, GAMMA) mild steel, 9/16 in. thick, 8-ft length and 42 in. ID. Conning tower is 

24-in. diam. and 24 in. high of A-285 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Vehicle launched positruely buoyant, flooding of fore and aft ballast tanks (1,500-lb capacity each) produces 15 to 20 lb 

negative buoyancy for descent and during dive. Fine buoyancy control can be obtained by venting or blowing a 30 lb-capacity tank in pressure hull. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: One 3.5-hp Westinghouse M-15 electric motor (24 V) mounted on the stern within a pressure-resistant tank, drives a 

10-in. diam. propeller. Mechanically actuated rudder provides lateral control and a starboard-mounted dive plane provides vertical control. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles are controlled by dive plane. 

POWER SOURCE: Eight 6-V, 190-amp hr, lead-acid batteries, wired for 24 V and 48 V, carried in a pressure-resistant compartment. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Compressed O2 is carried in the pressure hull in two tanks, one tank is of SO-ft^ capacity and the other is of 25-ft3, both are at 

1,800 psi, CO-i is removed by blowing air through Baralyme cannisters of which four each are carried (2 lb Baralyme/cannister). An aircraft altimeter 

is used to measure ambient cabin pressure. 

VIEWING: Seventeen acrylic plastic viewports are provided which are flat discs 6.5 in. in diameter and 1.25 in. thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8 kHz) 2,000 yd range, needle type depth gage (0-1,300 ft), scanning sonar (audio, variable 

frequency), Straza-type tracking system (37-kH2), compass, directional gyro, echo sounder, sample bag. 

MANIPULATORS: One hand-operated manipulator consisting of a 3-ft long rod penetrating the starboard side of the pressure hull through a 

stuffing gland and terminating in a 3-pronged grasping device can be manipulated by the observer to obtain suitable samples or artifacts. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Emergency breathing provided by two scuba regulators attached to a high pressure air system (72-ft3 capacity). 

Mechanically-droppable, 75-lb lead weight, propeller-rudder assembly droppable (40 lb), ballast tanks and trim tank blowable at maximum operating 

depth (1,040 lb total). 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Supported and launched/retrieved at sea by either R/V SEAMARK or R/V DAWN STAR. Launch/retrieval from SEAM AR K 

by a non articulated boom, from DAWN STAR by an "A" frame type apparatus. A total of four people is required to support and operate the 

submersible and support ship (DAWN STAR) at sea. 

OWNER: General Oceanographies, Inc., Irvine, California. 

BUILDER: NEKTON, Inc., a subsidiary of General Oceanographies. 

REMARKS: All operational. NEKTON ALPHA varies from sister submersibles in the following: length 15 ft, weight 2.25 tons, payload 300 lb, and 

in its topside bow viewport configuration. 



161 




LIFTING CAGE / O 




HIGH PRESSURE AIR 
BALLAST BOTTLES 



BATTERY 
COMPARTMENT 



LIFE SUPPORT AND 
MANUAL HYDRAULIC 



ELECTRICAL AND 

HYDRAULIC 
PENETRATOR PLATE 



162 



NEMO 



LENGTH: 

BEAM: 

HEIGHT: 

DRAFT: 

WEIGHT (DRY): 

OPERATING DEPTH: 



7.5 ft 
7.5 ft 
9.2 ft 
1 ft 
4 tons 
600 ft 



COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4,150ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1970 



HATCH DIAMETER: 18.7 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 64 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 15 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.75/8 hr 

MAX NA 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD 850 lb (incl. crewl 



PRESSURE HULL: Acrylic plastic (Plexiglas G) sphere composed of 12 spherical pentagons bonded together with adhesive. Hull is 66-in. OD and 

2.5 in. thick. Top (hatch) and bottom plates are of cadmium-plated 41 30 steel. Bottom plate is for passage of penetrators. Hull weighs 1 ,500 lb in air 

and displaces 5,500 lb rn water. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Mam ballast js supplied by an B-ft^ capacity free-flooding cylindrical tank below the pressure hull. Deballasting is 

accomplished by six 50-ft^ capacity air bottles at 2,250 psi. which make available 19-ft^ (371 SCF) of air at 600-ft depth and allow two complete 

cycles at this depth. A free-flooding auxiliary ballast tank aft has a capacity of 2 ft^. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two 1.5-hp hydraulic motors mounted on each side of the vehicle drive 8-in. diam., shrouded propellers, which serve to 

rotate the vehicle in the lateral plane and to allow short excursions when at neutral buoyancy. Within the service module is a hydraulically-driven 

winch ( 1 ,200 ft of 0.25-in. wire ropes) which the pilot can operate to provide vertical excursions (anchor weight 380 lb). 

TRIM: Not required. 

POWER SOURCE; Main power is from twenty -one-6-V, 1 50-amp hr, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries supplying 120 V. Secondary power 

is supplied by a 20-amp-hr, silver-zinc battery carried within the pressure sphere. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is stored in two 50-ft-^ -capacity tanks at 1 ,600 psi and automatically bled into the sphere at a selected rate. CO2 is removed by 

blowing air through an 8-lb cannister of Baralyme. Silica gel (50-in,-*) removes water vapor. Partial pressure of O2, cabin pressure and COt content 

are continuously monitored, a Drager kit serves as backup measuring device. 

VIEWING: Panoramic viewing through the plastic pressure hull. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8.08 kHz). 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Two closed-circuit O2 rebreathers for emergency use. Internal emergency power supply can actuate anchor cable cutter drop 

battery pack (2,170 lb in air), blow ballast tanks and operate normal life support system. There is also a manual anchor cable cutter. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Air, ship, truck transportable. Launched/retrieved at sea from any ship of 100 tons or greater with an over-the-side 

handling capacity of at least 10 tons. 

OWNER: U.S. Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, California. 

BUILDER: U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. 

REMARKS: Not operating. Now at Southwest Research tnst. 



163 




HINGE OF ENTRANCE HATCH 

\ CONNING TOWER 

SIDE THRUSTER \ ccmrpr VIEWPORTS (4) 
PRESSURIZED SEAWATER BALLAST TANK TRANSDUCER U W TELE ^ 



FIRST STAGE CLAw\ FIRST STAGE MANIPULATOR 



SECOND STAGE MANIPULATOR 



VARIABLE PITCH PROPELLER 



MOVABLE MAIN BATTERY HOUSING 

AUXILIARY MACHINERY 



CABIN VIEWPORTS (8) 




PROTECTIVE 
SONAR HOUSING 



RETRACTABLE 
SONAR DOME 



EMERGENCY BALLAST 



SEAT/BED 

ECHOSOUNDER TRANSDUCERS 



164 



NEREID 330 



LENGTH: 29 ft 

BEAM: lift 

HEIGHT: 11 ft 

DRAFT: 7ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 11 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 330 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1972 



HATCH DIAMETER: 22.8 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 96 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 40 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/8 hr 

MAX 4 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 5,500 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape steel hull, OD of 70 in. symmetrical axis perpendicular to fore-aft axis. Dished ends. Two cylindrical 

extensions, OD of 20 in. on port and starboard side, length of 13 ft. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tank is half filled with seawater and air compressed at a higher pressure than the 330 ft operating depth; to 

obtain negative buoyancy a pump is used to add more water. To obtain positive buoyancy a purge valve is opened which blows the main ballast dry. 

One 200-1 atmospheric tank provides auxiliary negative buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A stern-mounted, lalerally-trainable, variable-pitch propeller driven by a 10-hp motor provides main horizontal 

propulsion. A 2.5-hp lateral thruster mounted aft of the pressure hull assists in fine maneuvering control. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles of 30 are obtainable by hydraulically moving the main battery housing fore or aft. 

POWER SOURCE: Nine 12-V each, lead-acid batteries are carried in two longitudinal pressure-resistant tubes below the vehicle and deliver 200 V. 

Four 12-V, lead-acid batteries supply 24 V. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Two 12 I capacity tanks 

VIEWING: Thirteen viewports. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, CTFM, gyrocompass, depth indicator speed iog, downward-looking echo sounder. 

MANIPULATORS: Two; one is 15 ft long and capable of 2,500-lb lift; the second is a smaller one attached to the larger arm which is used to 

perform delicate operations. Installed on starboard side near center of buoyancy. Gripping force of the large claw is 6 tons. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Internally-pressurized buoyancy tank may be blown by entrapped air to operational depth. Hand released reserve ballast 

(700 lb). Emergency breathing equipment for leaving flooded hull through escape hatch. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Nereid nv. Schiedam, Holland. 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

REMARKS: Operating. A 700-ft lock-out NEREID 700 was scheduled for launching in 1973, but nothing has been heard of this project since May 

1973. 



165 







166 



OPSUB 



LENGTH: 18ft 

BEAM 8.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.5 ft 

DRAFT: 6 ft (est.) 

WEIGHT (DRY): 5.2 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1972 



HATCH DIAMETER: NA 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 ,Tian-hr 

TOTAL POWER: Tethered 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 2 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 750 lb 



PRESSURE HULL; Spherical shape, 66 in. OD, 0.5 in. thick and composed of H Y^O steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Large weight changes are compensated for before the dive by changing external weights in the fixed ballast compartment 

on a droppable weight platform. Small buoyancy changes during the dive are obtained through a variable ballast tank (200-lb capacity). The tank is 

flooded to fill and pumped dry. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; Five motors provide propulsion. Three are for horizontal motion and are mounted port, starboard and aft, the aft 

motor is trainable 90° left and right. The remaining two motors are thrusters for horizontal and vertical control- All motors are oil-compensated, 

1 0-hp, 350-lb thrust, and are reversible with two speeds forward and aft. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: An umbilical from the surface provides 50 kW of power from a diesel generator providing 440-VAC regulated power. 

Communications, TV transmission and voltage sensing also passes through this wire. The umbilical is 1,000 ft long, 1.4-in. diam. and has a breaking 

strength of 10,000 lb, it can be cut by the vehicle if the need arises. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Three O2 flasks are carried in the hull. CO2 is removed by Baralyme in a forced-air scrubber. O2 is monitored by a Teledyne 

Analyzer, CO2 is monitored by a Drager Analyzer, a second Drager Analyzer (Multi-gas Detector Mod. 21) measures both CO2 and CO. An altimeter 

measures cabin pressure. Two scuba bottles (compressed air) and regulators provide emergency breathing for approximately 4 man-hr. 

VIEWING: There are 13 viewports total. Four are in the hull, eight in the conning tower and one in the hatch. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC and hard wire communications, scanning sonar, TV, 35-mm still camera 81 strobe, two depth gages, 

directional gyro. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: A 600-lb, droppable weight, emergency breathing, backup communications on batteries, umbilical cutter, running lights, fire 

extinguisher, life jackets, underwater flashlights. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Phillips Petroleum, Bartlesville, Okla. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: Inactive, has not made an operational dive. 



167 




HATCH 



MAIN 
PROPULSION 




DIVE PLANE 



METAL 
FAIRING 



PRESSURE 
HULL 



BATTERIES 



168 



PAULO I 



LENGTH: 13.5 ft 

BEAM: 4.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 6.3 ft 

DRAFT: 4.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 2.6 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH; 3.650 ft 

LAUNCH DATE; 1967 



HATCH DIAMETER; 20-3/4 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 96 man hr 

TOTAL POWER; 5.2 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.75/25 hr 

MAX 3/10 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD; 480 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with hemispherical endcaps. Cylinder is 4-ft. ID. 8 ft long and 0.75 in. thick of A 212 steel. Endcaps and 

hatch are 0.5 in. thick of a 212B steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main and fairwater ballast tanks prouide 480 and 3,000 lb positive/negative buoyancv, respectively. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A stern-mounted, 1 1 -in. diam. propeller is driven by a 4-hp Bendix, 4,000 rpm, 30 amp motor. Propeller may be trained 

mechanically left or right and is reversible. 

TRIM: Ten 6 in. OD, 40-in.-long tanks of 48-lb capacity each may be vented or blown to adjust trim. 

POWER SOURCE: Four 6 V, 217-amp-hr. each lead-acid batteries provide 6, 12, or 24 V through a selector switch to provide main power supply 

Auxiliary power is from two 92-amp-hr each lead acid batteries. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Ot is earned in two 70-ft-^ capacity tanks at 2.200 psi with automatic flow adjustment. A blower circulates air through a soda 

sorb cannister to remove COt. 

VIEWING: Ten acrylic plastic viewports. Six are in the pressure hull forward area and are 4- in. ID, 8-in. OD and 2 in. thick. Four girdle the conning 

tower and one is in the hatch which is 2-in. ID, 4-in. OD and 1 in. thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (42 kHz), Bendix Magnesyn compass, depth gage, echo sounder, altimeter and differential pressure 

gage 

MANIPULATORS: None 

SAFETY FEATURES: Mechanically droppable keel (100 lb). Main and fairwater ballast tanks can be blown by divers from surface ship. Pressure 

hull can be pressurized and opened for emergency exit. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: SOO 

OWNER: Previous owner: Anautics Inc.. San Diego, Calif. 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

STATUS: Sold in 1971 to Candive Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. and leased on long term basis to Arctic Marine. Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. who reconfigured it 

into the present SEA OTTER. 



169 




SURFACE 

RADIO 

ANTENNA 



UNDERWATER 

TELEPHONE 
TRANSDUCER 



FIBERGLASS 
FAIRWATER 



FORWARD 
TRIM AND 
VARIABLE 
BALLAST 
TANK 



FIBERGLASS 
FAIRWATER 




MOTOR 
ROOM 



SONAR 



AFT AUX. 

FOOT COMP. 
WELL 



F.W.D. 
FOOT 
WELL 



DROPPABLE BALLAST 



BOW 

HOVERING 

MOTOR 



170 



PC-3A1 & 2 



LENGTH: 18.5 ft 

BEAM: 3.5 ft 

HEIGHT 5.75 ft 

DRAFT 3.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 4,790 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964, 1966 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 20 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 7.5 kwh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/8 hr 

MAX 4.5/5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 750 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Mam hull, motor room and battery compartment are of 0.25-in. -thick A285 steel. Canopy is 0.25-in -thick plate, heads are of 

A285 steel. Hatch trunk is 0.5-in. S.S.ASTM A-351 casting and hatch cover is Almag 335 casting. Mechanical penetrations in hull are for propeller 

shaft, hatch opening shaft and droppable keel operating shaft. Motor room is separated from batteries and operators by a wall capable of 

withstanding full ambient pressure at operating depth. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks are made of 1 1 Si 1 2 gage A285 steel and located fore and aft to provide displacement of 1,250 lb. 

Trim tanks may also be employed to provide 320 lb displacement. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a stern-mounted, 7-hp, 36-V, 855-rpm, Allis Chalmers motor vuith infinitely variable speed 

control, Hydraulically -operated rudder and bow planes provide horizontal and vertical maneuvering. Bow or stern thrusters of fractional hp are 

available if required. 

TRIM; Two tanks, 0.25 in. thick, of A285 steel, 160-lb capacity each can be blown or pumped to and from seawater or fore and aft from one tank 

to the other. Valves and piping are stainless steel of non-corrosive 600-psi test minimum. Trim pump is a Hypro 3,1 gpm at 200 psi driven by a G.E. 

0.5 hp, 15amp, 32-V motor. 

POWER SOURCE: Six 6-V, 210-amp-hr, Excel, lead-acid batteries, type GRP 6, are located in a pressure resistant, gas tight compartment. 

Optionally, silver cadmium (72 Yardney Ys-200) or silver-zinc (100 Yardney LR-200) batteries may be used to extend cruising time to 10 and 20 hr, 

respectively 

LIFE SUPPORT: COt removal by Baralyme (4-qt supply) through which air is drawn by two 72 cfm Vane-Axial Blowers. One external 70-ft^, 

2,200 psi Ot bottle connected to reducer to flowmeter and regulator. Low pressure air is connected to the scuba regulators which can be used in an 

emergency, 

Vl EWING : Seventeen viewports through vehicle, thickness is 1 .0 in.; ID of 6.5 in., OD of 8 in. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC. magnetic compass, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Pressure hull can be pressurized and flooded for escape. By blowing ballast tanks or dropping solid ballast the following 

positive buoyancy can be obtained Main ballast tank 1.250 lb, trim tanks 320 lb, keel 180 lb. Emergency air is obtained through scuba regulators 

and hoses off the low pressure air supply. Ballast tanks can be blown through external connections. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: US, Army and U.S. Air Force. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla, 

REMARKS; Operating. Kentron Ltd. of Hawaii operates these vehicles for the Atr Force and Army. 



171 




SURFACE RADIO ANTENNA 



BOW HOVERING 
MOTOR 



UNDERWATER 
TV 



HIGH FREQUENCY 
UNDERWATER PHONE 



LOW FREQUENCY 
ACOUSTIC PHONE 

/ PLASTIC FAIRWATER 

- X 




SONAR 



\ 

AFT. TRIM& VBT 



MECHANICAL ARM 



TV LIGHTS (2) 

TRACKING HYDROPHONE 



FLOOD LIGHTS 

DROPPABLE KEEL 



172 



PC-3B 



LENGTH: 22 ft 

BEAM; 3.5 ft 

HEIGHT; 5.75 ft 

DRAFT; 3.5 ft 

WEIGHT(DRY): 2.75 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 900 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1963 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 40 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 10 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1.75/10 fir 

MAX 4/2 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 300 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Main hull of 0.5 in. -thick plate and heads of A212 steel. Canopy of 0.25-in thick plate and 3/8 in. heads of A212 steel. Motor 

room & battery compartment 0.25-in. plate and heads of A212 steel. Hatch trunk is 0.5 in. -thick S.S.ASTM A-351 casting, hatches are Almag 335 

castings. Mechanical penetrations in hull are for propeller shaft with crane seal backed up by pneurtiaticalty operated seal; two hatch openings and 

one droppable keel operating shaft. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks made of 1 1 & 1 2 gage A285 steel are located fore and aft and provide a displacement of 2,000 lb. Trim 

tanks may also be employed to provide 400-lb displacement. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a stern-mounted, 7-hp, 36-V, 855-rpm, AMis Chalmers motor with infinitely variable 

speed controls. Hydraulically-actuated rudder and bow planes provide horizontal and vertical underway maneuvering. Bow or stern thrusters of 

fractional hp available. 

TRIIV1: Two tanks, 0.25 in. thick, of A212 steel 200-lb capacity each can be blown or pumped to and from seawater or fore and aft from one tank 

to the other. Valves and piping are of stainless steel or other non-corrosive material. Trim pump is a Hypro 6 gpm at 400 psi driven by a 2.5-hp, 36-V 

60-amp, Milwaukee motor. 

LIFE SUPPORT: CO2 removal by Baralyme (4-qt supply) through which air is drawn by two 72-cfm Vane-Axial blowers. O2 is supplied from one 

externally-mounted 70-ft-*. 2,200-psi bottle connected to reducer to flowmeter and regulator. Two scuba regulators within the vehicle are connected 

to the low pressure air supply for emergency breathing. 

POWER SOURCE: Either silvercel batteries or 10 lead acid batteries may be used which are located in a pressure-resistant compartment just above 

the keel and aft. The silvercel batteries extend cruising time by a factor of 2 over the lead-acid batteries. 

VIEWING: Seventeen viewports throughout the vehicle of 1.5-in. thickness, ID of 6 in., OD of 8 in. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, radio, echo sounder, magnetic compass, forward-scanning sonar. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Pressure hull can be pressurized and flooded for escape. By blowing tanks or dropping ballast the following positive 

buoyancy can be obtained; main ballast tank 200 lb, trim tanks 400 lb, weight drop 75 lb. Main ballast tanks can receive air from ship or scuba diver 

with air bottle. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: International Underwater Contractors, New York. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: Has not dived for several years, but can be available on short notice if required. Renamed TECHDI VER when purchased by its present 

owner. 



173 




174 



PC3-X 



LENGTH: 20ft 

BEAM; 3.5 ft 

HEIGHT: 5 ft 

DRAFT: 3.75 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 4,700 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 150ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1962 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 16 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 11 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/6 hr 

MAX 4/3 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 100 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Composed of 0.25 in. thick plate and heads of A285 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks fore and aft which are free flooding and blown by compressed air in four bottles (270-ft^ total 

capacity) at 2.000 psi. Two variable ballast tanks fore and aft which are pumped dry to the sea or from one tank to the other. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: One, stern mounted, reversible propeller provides all propulsion. It is powered by a 4^hp, 1 15-\/DC, 32-amp motor 

enclosed in a separate water-tight compartment. Bow planes and rudder are hydraulically actuated by the pilot using airplane-type controls. 

TRIM; Up/down bow angle can be achieved to a moderate degree by differentially filling the VBT's. 

POWER SOURCE; Six 6-V, lead-acid batteries rated at 210 amp-hr each are carried in a pressure-resistant compartment. 

LIFE SUPPORT: NA. 

VIEWING: Thirteen viewports located around the conning tower, 0.5 in. thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT; Magnesyn compass, echo sounder, two depth gages, CB radio, UQC, forward looking sonar, transponder. 

MANIPULATORS; None. 

SAFETY FEATURES; Emergency breathing through scuba regulator off high pressure deballasting air. Pressure hull may be flooded for passenger 

egress. External fitting to receive air from divers. Life vests. 

SURFACE SUPPORT; SOO. 

OWNER: Applied Research Laboratory, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: This is the first Perry CUBMARINE considered a production-type vehicle (it was the third one built). It now dives occasionally in Lake 

Travis, Texas. Its present owner has designated it the GASPERGOU. At one point in its diving history it was called SUB-ROSA. 



175 




HATCH 



PRESSURE HULL 



RUDDER 




MAIN PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



HIGH PRESSURE AIR 



/ 



CONNING TOWER 
MAIN BALLAST TANKS 

VIEWPORTS 




BOW 
THRUSTERS 



BATTERY COMPARTMENT 



BATTERY COMPARTMENT 
HATCH 



176 



PC5C 



LENGTH: 22.3 ft 

BEAM: 4.1 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.1 ft 

DRAFT: 4.75 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 11,450 lb 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,200ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 



HATCH DIAMETER: 23 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 180 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 16 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.5/4 hr 

MAX 6.5/0.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 725 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Passenger compartment is a stiffened cylinder with hemispherical endcaps. Main hull and battery compartment is 0.5-in. thick, 

SA 212 grade B steel, conning tower and motor room are 3/8-in. SA 212 grade B steel; hatch is Almag 35 steel. Passenger, motor, and battery 

compartments have separate, water-tight integrity. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY; Buoyancy control tanks, made of 18 gage, 304 stainless steel, are located within the hull and have a total capacity of 260 

lb. A hydropump (4 gpm, 700 psi) can pump from tanks to sea or sea to tanks or bilges to tanks. The pump motor is a G.E,, 120-V, 2-hp at 750 rpm. 

Main ballast tanks straddle the pressure hull. 

PROPULSION CONTROL: Stern-mounted propeller provides main horizontal propulsion and is driven by a 10 hp motor. Two bow and one stern 

thruster of fractional hp are fluid filled, and 36° trainable. Plexiglass bow planes assist in controlling underway vertical motion. 

TRIM: A mechanical control systenn within the pilot's compartment moves lead slugs fore or aft in trim tubes located in the battery compartment. 

POWER SOURCE: Twenty 12 V, 67-amp-hr, 20-hr-rated, lead-acid batteries in separate water-tight compartment with nitrogen atmosphere and 

provisions for purging. Power available to customer: 120 VDC. 100 amp; 12 VDC, 2 amp. Additional 4-amp inverter available. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Three blowers supply air through three 4 lb beds of Baralyme with 36 lb carried in reserve for 52 hr of life support for three men. 

Increasing to three 6-lb beds of LiOH extends life support for three men to 60 hr, Ot supply is 50-ft^ bottles (ea.) at 2,000 psi carried externally. 

Reserve supply of chlorate candles can be made available to provide 50-man-hr support. Three emergency regulators operate off the air system. 

VIEWING: Eight horizontal and one vertical viewports in conning tower, 1 3 forward and 4 aft in pressure hull. Thickness of 1,5 in., ID of 6.3 in.; 

OD of 8.0 in. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Magnesyn and gyrocompass, automatic pilot, depth gage and depth recorder, UQC, current meter, water 

temperature sensor, altimeter. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Can surface by blowing main ballast tanks or buoyancy control tanks at operating depth. Droppable keel; inflatable bag can 

be filled with CO2 or gas generator. Cockpit may be flooded for egress. Three emergency breathing regulators are connected with vehicles' low 

pressure air system. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Sub Sea Oil Services (S.P.A.), Milan, Italy. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Florida. 

REMARKS: Presently undergoing refurbishment. 



177 




178 



PC-8B 



LENGTH: 18.5 ft 

BEAM: 5.75 ft 

HEIGHT: 6.75 ft 

DRAFT: 5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 5.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 800 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,800 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 24 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 22 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/8 hr 

MAX 4/2 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 500 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cytinder witti hemispherical bow and conical aft section composed of low temperature carbon steel 3.5-ft diam., 13.7-ft length, 

and 3/8 in. thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two main free-flooding ballast tanks straddle the pressure hull and are blown with compressed air. One variable ballast 

tank (160-lb capacity) in the pressure hull is free-flooding and pumped dry. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: All propulsion is provided by a stern-mounted, reversible propeller which is driven by a 7.5-hp, DC motor within the 

pressure hull. Electro-hydraulic rudder and dive plane. 

TRIM: No system provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid baneries are carried within two pressure-resistant pods beneath the hull and provide 24 and 120 VDC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 flasks are carried externally (four ea, of 72-ix^ cap., 2,250 psi). CO2 is removed by LiOH. Monitors for O2 and CO2, altimeter. 

Emergency breathing provided by two scuba regulators drawing off the compressed air for deballasting. 

VIEWING: Plastic bow dome, 2.25 in. thick (114° spherical segment). Eight (Bin. OD, 6V4-in. ID, 2 in. -thick) viewports in conning tower and one of 

the same dimensions in the hatch. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, CB radio, scanning sonar, compass, automatic pilot, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: One with three degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES; Droppable weight (450 lb), MBT's can be blown at operating depth. Fire extinguisher. Life vests. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Northern Offshore Ltd., London. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: Operating. 



179 




RUDDER 



GUARD 
RAILS 



COMPRESSED AIR 



DROPPABLE 
BATTERY POD 



180 



PC-14 



LENGTH: 19.5 *t 

BEAM: 5 ft 

HEIGHT: 8 ft 

DRAFT: 6 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,200 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1974 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 60 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 15 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX NA 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 1,100 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with a conical aft section made of A516 grade 70 normalized steel ''l\b in. thick. Plastic bow dome 40-in. ID 

and 2 in. thick. 

BALLAST /BUOYANCY: Two main ballast tanks straddle the hull, these have a capacity of 200 lb each and are blown dry. Variable ballast tanks to 

obtain neutral buoyancy submerged have a capacity of 100 lb. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a stern-mounted propeller powered by a 36-VDC, 7.8-amp, G.E. motor in the hull which drives 

a 0.5-hp hydraulic motor to actuate the propeller. PropeHer is reversible and has three speeds forward and reverse. Manually actuated dive planes and 

rudder. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Within a droppable, pressure-resistant cylinder are twelve 12-V, lead-acid batteries which provide all electrical power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Four O2 flasks within the hull. O2 flow is controlled by a flow meter. CO2 is removed by LiOH. Monitoring devices for O2, CO2 

and hull pressure, 

VIEWING: Plastic bow dome forward. Six plastic viewports on conning tower sides and one in hatch cover of 7.5-in. OD and 6.5-in. ID. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, directional gyro, CB radio, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: One with four degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Main ballast tanks can be blown at operating depth. Battery pod droppable. Emergency breathing off compressed air. Life 

jackets. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Presently operating off the R/V GYRE. 

OWNER: Texas A & M Univ., College Station, Texas. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: Operational. Redesignated DIAPHUS by owner. 



181 




PORT MOTOR CONTROL 
CIRCUIT BREAKERS 



SURFACE 
RADIO ANTENNA 



UNDERWATER PHONE 
TRANSDUCER 



OXYGEN REGULATOR 
AND VALVES 



OXYGEN TANK 
PORT 



AIR TANK 
STARBOARD 



OIL 

RESERVOIRS 



BUOYANCY 
SPHERE 

COMPENSATING 
OIL BAGS 



PROPULSION MOTOR (2 



HATCH 



EMERGENCY REBREATHER 
DEPTH SOUNDER 



MACHINE CONTROL 
GAUGES SWITCHES 




SONAR 
CONTOUR FOAM CUSHIONS 



VIEW PORTS 
DROP WEIGHT 



SURFACE 
BUOYANCY TANK 

1000 W LIGHT 
(QUARTZ IODIDE) 

NAVIGATIONAL 
INSTRUMENTS 

CAMERA 
LIGHT 



MANIPULATOR 



CAMERA 
PORT 



182 



PISCES I 



LENGTH: 16 ft 

BEAM: 11 ft 

HEIGHT: = 10 ft 

DRAFT: 7.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): , 7.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,200ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 3.600 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1965 



HATCH DIAMETER: 18 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 100 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 66 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/8 hr 

MAX 2/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 800 lb (Incl. crew) 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape (two hemispheres), of Algoma-44 steel, 0.75 in. thick and 6.5-ft OD. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Thirty gal of oil are carried in a hard aft sphere which can be electricaMy or manually pumped into flexible bladders at 

ambient pressure. Pumping oil into the bladders increases buoyancy at a rate of 64 lb for each ft^ of water displaced. A total of 300 lb of positive 

buoyancy may be obtained with this sytem. On the surface high pressure air can blow clear a circular tank surrounding the upper half of the pressure 

hull and add a total of 2,000 lb of positive buoyancy to increase freeboarc. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two 19-in. propellers mounted amidships on each side the vehicle provide forward or aft movement in the horizontal. 

The propellers are driven by two oil-filled, 5-hp, DC motors which can control screw rotation from to 1 ,200 rpm in either direction. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles of + 1 5 can be attained by moving the lower battery pod fore or aft by a hydraulic arm. 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid battery pack (60 cells) in an oil-filled, pressure-compensated aluminum box rated at 500 amp-hr. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 supply is carried internally in a SO-ft^ tank and is manually bled into the hull. COt is removed by LiOH. 

VIEWING: Three viewports looking forward and slightly downward of the horizontal. The two large ports are 6 in. thick, 6-in. ID, 13-in. OD 

providing approximately 48 of viewing each. A smaller viewport is located slightly above and between the two large ports for photography. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8-kHz), echo sounder, directional gyrocompass, TV, obstacle avoidance sonar, VHP radio, seawater 

temperature indicator, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: One arm, six degrees of freedom, of 82-in, total reach and 150-lb lift. A second clamping arm is available which has three degrees 

of freedom, a jaw opening up to 21 in. and can rotate 360° at the writst. Jaw clamp is capable of lifting or pulling 400 lb. 

SAFETY FEATURES: O2 rebreathers (two ea.). Mechanically jettisonable, 400-lb weight. Surface buoyancy system can be employed in an 

emergency while submerged. Mechanical arms jettisonable. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPO:lT: VICKERS VOYAGER & VICKERS VENTURER. 

OWNER: Vickers Oceanics, Barrow-in-Furness, England. 

BUILDER; International Hydrodynamics Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 

REMARKS: Operational. The basic details, e.g., length, beam, height, etc., are taken from a recent brochure from the current owner; the remaining 

data was obtained primarily from the builder and may be incorrect as the vehicle now stands. 



183 



MACHINERY 
SPHERE 

BATTERIES 




RADIO ANTENNA 



LIZING FIN ( 
J 


^*^ 


\. MAIN FUSE^^"'^ 
NPANEL ) 


/~^\ HATCH 


UNDERWATER 
TELEPHONE 

-^'^^^—-^ ^TR 



PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



HANDLING SKID 



TRIM SPHERE 
BALLAST TANK 



-OXYGEN 
BOTTLE 



VHF RADIO 



MANIPULATOR 



SONAR 
AIR PURIFICATION UNIT 



ECHO SOUNDER 



CONTROL CONSOLE 



184 



PISCES II 8< III 



LENGTH: 20ft 

BEAM: 10 ft 

HEIGHT: 10ft 

DRAFT: 7.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 12.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: Pll: 2.600ft 

Pill: 3,600 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH : 5,000 ft 

Pll: 1968 

Pill: 1969 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19.5 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 100 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 40 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 4 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 2,000 lb 



LAUNCH DATE: 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape, two hemispheres of A242 melded steel segments 1.1 in. thick; 6-ft 8-in. OD. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT; UOC. depth gage, echo sounder, directional gvo, transponder, TV, scanning sonar/interrogater, VHF 

radio. 

MANIPULATORS: Two; one is for grasping (three degrees of freedom) and one for working (six degrees of freedom). Both can be adapted to carry 

drills, impact wrenches, grinders, mud pumps and cable cutters which can be changed underwater. 

SURFACE SUPPORT; Both are supported by the M/V VICKERS VOYAGER (4,500-ton displacement) or the VICKERS VENTURER (640-ton 

displacement). The former is an ex-fish factory ship; the latter an ex-stern trawler. 

OWNER: Vickers Oceanics Ltd., Barrow-in-Furness, England. 

BUILDER: International Hydrodynamics Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 

REMARKS: The features given above are from the present owner, features not described parallel those of PISCES I when both Pll & Pill were first 

constructed. Considerable modifications have taken place since the present owner acquired these vehicles. 



185 




186 



PISCES IV & V 



LENGTH: 20 ft 

BEAM: 10 ft 

HEIGHT: 12ft 

DRAFT: 8.75 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 10 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 6,500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 9,750 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971,1973 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19.5 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 76 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 70 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/6 hr 

MAX 4/3 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 1,500 lb (Incl. crew) 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of HY- 100 steel hemispheres 1.1 in. thick, B-ft Bin. CD. 

VIEWING: On PISCES It, 111, IV and V there are three viewports one looking directly forward, and two looking slightly port and starboard of the 

centerline a few degrees below the horizontal. All are 6-in. ID, 14-in. OD and 3.5 in. thick. 

OWNER: PISCES IV: Canadian Department of Enuironment, Victoria, B.C. 

PISCES V: P 81 O Intersubs, Vancouver, B.C. 
BUILDER: International Hydrodynamics Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 
REMARKS: Operational. PISCES IV, V fall under the same constraints as the descriptions for PISCES 1 1 & 1 1 1. 



187 




188 



PS-2 

LENGTH: 18.5ft HATCH DIAMETER : NA 

BEAM: 5.75 ft LIFE SUPPORT: 72 man hr 

HEIGHT: 6.75 ft TOTAL POWER: 17 kWh 

DRAFT: .'. NA SPEED (KNOTS! : CRUISE NA 

WEIGHT(DRY): 6 tons MAX NA 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1.025ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA OBSERVERS 1 

LAUNCH DATE: 1972 PAYLOAD: 1,000 lb 

PRESSURE HULL: Cvlindrical shape of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel, 42-in. diam. and a 28-in. diam. conning tower. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Buoyancy is obtained through a soft tank which is pumped full to provide positive buoyancy or emptied to obtain 

negative buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a stern-mounted propeller driven by a variable-speed, reversible, DC, 7.S-ho, electric motor. 

Low speed maneuvering is provided by a thruster which can be mounted vertical or horizontal. Bow planes and a rudder are hydraulically controlled 

to provide underway attitude control. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Two pressure-resistant battery pods carry lead-acid batteries providing 120-V main power and 24-V auxiliary power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: NA. 

VIEWING: Six, 6-in. diam. viewports in conning tower and one 6-in. diam. in hatch. One 116° hemispherical bow window simitar to PC-8 provides 

wide angle viewing forward. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, (27-kHz), directional gyro, CB radio, scanning sonar, pinger, transponder, surface light. 

MANIPULATORS: One with four degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Ballast can be blown at maximum dive depth. Droppable weight of 200 lb, scuba apparatus for each passenger. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Sub Sea Oil Services, S.P.A., 45 Via San Vittore, 20123 Milano. Italy. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Inc., Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS: Operational. Also known as TUDLI K when operated by Access of Toronto, Canada. 



189 




HATCH 



COMPRESSED 
AIR 



FIBERGLASS 
FAIRING 



DIVER'S 
GAS 



UPPER BATTERY BOX 

CONNECTING TUNNEL 




LOWER 
BATTERIES 
(MOVEABLE! 



DIVER LOCKOUT 
SPHERE 



190 



SDL-1 



LENGTH: 25 ft 

BEAM: , 10 ft 

HEIGHT: 8 ft 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 14.25 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: . 4,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1970 



HATCH DIAMETER: fore sphere 25 in. 

aft spfiere 22 in. 
tunnel 22 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 204 man hr 

TOTAL POWER: 68 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/8 hr 

MAX 2/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 5 

PAY LOAD: 1,300 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Two spheres joined by a cylindrical tunnel. All hull components are of HY-100 steel. Forward hull is 7-ft OD and 0.481 in. 

thick with an overhead access hatch. Aft hull is 5.5-ft OD, 0.387 in. thick with a bottom diver lock-out hatch. Connecting tunnel is 25-in. ID; 71 in. 

long and 0.75 in. thick (Identical to BEAVER hulls.) 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks forward and aft which can be blown at 2,000 ft to supply 7,000-lb lift. Two variable ballast spheres 

(tanks) hold approximately 780 lb of seawater and a're filled and emptied by a pump. In the event of pump failure the VBT's can be blown dry. Two 

lead blocks each weighing 350 lb can be dropped in the event of an emergency. Syntactic foam provides additional positive buoyancy. A 

hand-operated bilge pump is in the diver's compartment. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two, 5-hp port/starboard side-mounted, reversible, variable-speed thrusters provide lateral maneuvering. Thrusters are 

fixed in a horizontal position, but may be operated independently to provide maneuvering about the vertical. 

TRIM: Bow angles of ±30° can be obtained by moving one of the battery packs and droppable lead weights fore or aft. Movement is accomplished 

by a hydraulic pump. 

POWER SOURCE: Externally-mounted, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries supply 60, 120, 12, and 28 V from three separate banks totaling 

495 amp-hr. Emergency power is from two 15-V nickel-cadmium batteries. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried externally in a 750-SCF, 3,000-psi tank and internally in two 60-SCF tanks. Each sphere contains a CO2 scrubber. 

O2 is controlled automatically and partial pressure is constantly monitored in both spheres. CO2 "S monitored with a Drager system in the forward 

sphere, as is temperature and pressure. 

VIEWING: Ten acrylic plastic viewports (identical to BEAVER). 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, scanning sonar, up/down sounders, aircraft gyrocompass, two depth gages. 

MANIPULATORS: Two; one is articulated, the other is for grasping. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Hydraulically jettisonable weights, motors and manipulators. Pinger, flashing surface light. Emergency breathing masks, fire 

extinguishers, VHF radio transceiver, pinger. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Canadian Forces, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

BUILDER: International Hydrodynamics Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. 

REMARKS: Operational. The pressure hulls of this vehicle were originally intended for a second BEAVER, but these plans never materialized. 



191 




SIDE PROP (2 PORT & STBD.) 
MAIN BALLAST TANK (PORT & STBD. 



SAIL HATCH 

/ „ /EM LOG 

xJK 



PROPELLER 



AIR BOTTLES 
(3000 PSD 

AFTER HY. TRIM TANK 
(2 PORT & STBD. 




CTFM 

SCANNING 

SONAR 



ELECTRICAL 

DISTRIBUTION 

CENTERS 

(2 PORT & STBD.) 



MAIN BATTERY 
(2 PORT & STBD.: 

HYDRAULIC 



PAN & TILT 



MANIPULATOR 
SPHERE / i2 PORT & STBD.) 

RELEASE FWD HYD. TRIM TANK 
(2 PORT & STBD.) 



CANNISTER VB (STBD. 



192 



SEA CLIFF & TURTLE 



LENGTH: 26 ft 

BEAM: 12 ft 

HEIGHT: 12 ft 

DRAFT: 7.4 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 24 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 6,500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 9,750 ft 

LAUNCH DATE; 1968 



HATCHDIAMETER: 19.75in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 100 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 60 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/8 hr 

MAX 2.5/1 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 300 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of 1 .33-in. -thick, quenched and tempered HY-100 steel. Sphere is 7-ft OD of two welded hemispheres which 

thicken to 3.5 in. at viewports. Entire sphere stress-relieved. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: The submerslbles descend by flooding the two main ballast tanks and partially emptying the two variable ballast oil-filled 

bladders into the four variable ballast tanks. This variable ballast system is the primary ballast control for diving and surfacing. The variable ballast 

system can attain a buoyancy differential of 880 lb. The two main ballast tanks are used primarily to gain freeboard while on the surface. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL A single stern shroud and propeller and two side propulsion units are the principal propulsion systems. The stern 

propeller is powered by a variable speed, hydraulic motor and can be trained through 45° left and right. The side pod propulsion units are powered 

by reversible, variable-speed, DC electric motors and can be trained together through 360° by an electric motor. The three motors and reduction 

gears are encased in a pressure-compensating oil environment and can be operated in three modes stern propeller alone, side pods alone, side pods & 

stern propeller together. 

TRIM; Up/down bow angles of +25° are obtainable by transferring 540 lb mercury/oil fo^e or aft to three (two forward & one aft) small fiberglass 

spheres. 

POWER SOURCE; Electrical power is supplied by two 60- V and two 30-V, pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries. The 60-V batteries have a 

total capacity of 500 amp-hr at a 6-hr discharge rate; energy stored totals 30 kWh. The 30-V batteries also have a total capacity of 500 amp-hr at a 

6-hr discharge rate; energy stored totals 15 kWh. Power is available as: 120 VAC, 60 Hz, single phase, 120 VAC, 400 Hz, single phase. 60 VDC, 30 

VDC; 24 VAC, 40 Hz, three phase (fed directly to gyrocompass). Two 30-V, silver zinc safety batteries located within the personnel sphere have a 

total capacity of 12 amp-hr at a 1-hr discharge rate. 

LIFE SUPPORT; O2 'S carried in a 0.6-ft3 tank at 3,000 psi. LiOH is used to remove CO2 by air blown through cannisters at 7 SCFM. 

VIEWING : There are five viewports, four in the sphere and one in the hatch. The four main viewports are oriented one dead ahead, two (one each 

side) on the port and starboard quadrant at an approximate 40° declination and one on centerline looking downward at approximately 80 from the 

horizontal. The main ports are 3.5 in. thick with an ID of 5 in. and an OD of 12 in. The fifth smaller port is located in the center of the hatch and is 

used for obstacle avoidance and ambient light observations, it is 2 in. thick, has an ID of 2-^/8 in., and an OD of 6 in., and a 45 angle of view. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC 18.087-kHz) Two closed-circuit TV cameras (one mounted on pan & tilt mechanism the other on 

starboard manipulator), gyrocompass, depth indicator, altimeter, speedometer, odometer, CTFM sonar, electromagnetic log, inclinometer, echo 

sounder. 

MANIPULATORS; Each submersible is equipped with two identical manipulators. Each manipulator can be equipped with tools to perform varied 

tasks such as drilling, cable cutting, and grasping of objects. These tools are stored in racks on the submersible and can be interchanged durmg a 

mission. Each manipulator is capable of seven degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Emergency breathing apparatus (3 man-hr). Manipulators jettisonable. The three banks of batteries weighing 3.400 lb can be 

dumped. Ultimately, the personnel sphere and buoyancy ring can be separated from the rest of the vehicle from within the sphere; its 1,800 lb of 

positive buoyancy will float the sphere to the surface. Emergency power in pressure hull, 

SURFACE SUPPORT Air (C5A), ship and truck/trailer transportable. Presently launched/retrieved at sea aboard a leased offshore work boat of 

1 64-ft length, 1 98.4 tons and equipped with a 1 OO-ton-capacity non-articulated crane. 

OWNER; U.S. Navy, Submarine Development Group-One, San Diego, Calif. 

BUILDER: General Dynamics Corp., Groton, Conn. 

REMARKS; Both operational. These vehicles were originally designated AUTEC I 61 (!. The Navy's numbered designation is DSV-3 (TURTLE) and 

DSV-4 (SEA CLIFF). 



193 




VIEWPORT 



BATTERY 



MOTOR 



SKIDS 



EMERGENCY 
WEIGHT 



194 



SEA OTTER 



LENGTH: 13.5 ft 

BEAM: 5 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.2 ft 

DRAFT: 5.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 3.2 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,500 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 3,650 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 192 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 13.8 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/6>r 

MAX 3/1.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 550 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Two 0.625-in. -thick, section welded, mild steel, hemispheric sections are welded to the ends of a 0.75-in. -thick, 57.0-in.-long, 

48.0-in.-wide, mild steel cylinder, with a 0.75-in. -thick, 19.0-in.-diam., hatch tower welded in with double plates to the pressure hull. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Launched positively buoyant. Buoyancy is controlled by two 250-lb main buoyancy air/water ballast tanks and two 

62.5-lb forward trim air/water ballast tanks. The tanks are alternately flooded and vented for descent, ascent and trim as required. Venting air is 

supplied by a BOO-ft^, 3,000-psi air flask. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A 3-hp, DC motor drives a 9-in. by 15-in. propeller for main propulsion. Two Vi-hp, DC, horizontal thrusters located 

fore and aft provide steering along with a hydraulically controlled rudder (mounted on the main thruster) which serves as a trim tab for use in cross 

currents. A Va-hp vertical thruster is mounted forward. All thruster and main propulsion motors are air compensated. A Kort nozzle surrounds the 

stern propeller. 

TRIM: Bow angle and fine trim are controlled by high pressure (3,000-psi) air and water in either the main or forward ballast tanks. 

POWER SOURCE: Twelve 2-V lead-acid batteries provide 13.8 kWh. They are located inside the pressure hull and are equipped with catalyzers to 

eliminate H2- 

LIFE SUPPORT: Three 40-ft^ tanks of medical grade O2 supply the life support system. Scrubbing of CO2 is accomplished by recirculating air 

through a 6.4-lb LiOH cannister. Three cannisters provide 192 man-hr of available life support on each dive. CO2 and O2 percentages along with 

atmospheric pressure are monitored. A backup emergency breathing system (air supply through mouthpieces), is also provided off the high pressure 

air. 

VIEWING: Four viewports are provided forward for the pilot and passengers, with two viewports along the side to accommodate reading 

externally-mounted instruments. Three viewports are located in the hatch tower, providing 270 of viewing and one viewport is located in the hatch, 

providing visibility toward the surface. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Two underwater telephone systems are provided (27-kHz primary, 42-kHz secondary). A directional 

gyrocompass and a narrow, horizontal bandwidth, 27-kHz receiving antenna are provided for navigation along with five air-compensated lights 

totaling 1,5 x 10^ cp of illumination. Also provided are external depth and temperature gages, a pressure gage, a Hydro Products 400-exposure 

70-mm camera and strobe, 1 6-mm cine camera with a capacity of 400 ft of film and a video camera with both audio and video recording capabilities. 

A 23-channel CB radio is provided for surface communication and direction finder location. A 27-kHz pinger for location, tracking and 

diver/submersible rendezvous operations and a upward/downward-looking echo sounder. 

MANIPULATOR: The Beaver MKI Manipulator gives all the degrees of freedom of the human arm and hand plus 360° of rotation at the wrist and a 

wrist extension. Additional tools are available and can be provided on the manipulator for specific tasks. An "A" frame which is hydraulically 

controlled is also provided and is utilized as an attachment point for core samples, cable cutters, collection basket and many other simple tasks and 

applications as required. 

SAFETY FEATURES: A 200-lb, mechanically-releasable, emergency ascent weight. A releasable buoy and messenger line that can be released by the 

pilot through a thru-hull penetrator. A magnesium release pin is used to provide release if the pilot is incapacitated. The messenger line is used to 

send down a self-tocking clamp and lift line. The submersible can be retrieved even if flooded. Eight hours of emergency breathing air is also 

provided. Xenon light, life vests, fire extinguisher, distress rockets, CB radio, emergency food rations. 

SURFACE SUPPORT; Can be transported by aircraft, ship, truck, or trailer. Submersible Is normally on a trailer and can be launched from small 

boat launching ramp. Can be towed at 4-5 knots. Tows completely submerged. 

OPERATORS; Arctic Marine, Ltd., North Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 

BUILDER: Anautics Inc., San Diego, California. 

REMARKS: Operational. This vehicle was originally PAULO I, it was purchased by Candive of Vancouver, B.C. and is now leased by the present 

operator. 



195 




liTMiBiaffllii.il 




VIEWPORT 




MANIPULATOR 



PRESSURE 
HULL 



17^ 




MAIN 
PROPULSER 



VERTICAL 
THRUSTER 



BALLAST TANKS 



196 



SEA RANGER 



LENGTH: 17ft 

BEAM: 8 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.75 ft 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT(DRY): 8 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1972 



HATCH DIAMETER: 20 in. 

LIFESUPPORT(MAX): 120 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 43.5 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE NA 

MAX 4 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD 1.25 tons 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with hemispherical endcaps; composed of 0.5-in.. thick A-285-C steel, 16 ft long and 4-ft diam. Conning tower 

is 2.25 ft high, 21-in. diam. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY NA. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two stern-mounted (port-starboard) main propellers of 5.5 hp each. One stern-mounted 5.5-hp thruster provides 

movement in the vertical. A 10-hp electric motor in the pressure hull and hydraulic pump operate propellers and thruster, 

TRIM NA. 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid batteries mounted externally in a pressure-resistant tank supply 240 V at 180 amp-hr, A cable can be fitted to the 

vehicle to supply surface-derived power if desired. 

LIFE SUPPORT: NA. 

VIEWING: Conning tower fitted with seven-7-in.-diam. plastic viewports, six circle the tower and one is in the hatch looking upward. Two 

1 2-in.-diam. viewports are located in the forward hemihead (port/starboard) for forward and downward viewing. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Electronic compass, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: Two manipulators. One is 6 ft lung, has six degrees of freedom and can lift 200 lb at full extension. The second is a telescoping 

type with a clamping device to stabilize the submersible when necessary. The telescoping device is pivoted at the center of the vehicle and can drop 

vertically to provide 2,600 lb of lift. 

SAFETY FEATURES: High pressure air can be blown into submersible to prevent flooding; 400-lb ballast is jettisonable; the entire undercarriage 

holding the propellers, manipulators, batteries and variable ballast tanks may be detached. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Verne Engineering, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. 

BUILDER Same as above. 

REMARKS Operating. 



197 




AFT BUOYANCY 
TANK 



MOTOR ROOM 



CONTROL ROOM 

(PRESSURE HULL) 



TV CAMERA 



PHOTO 
EQUIPMENT 




MECHANICAL 
ARM 



MAIN BALLAST TANKS 



198 



SEA-RAY (SRD- 101) 

LENGTH; 20.5 ft HATCH DIAMETER: 23 in. 

BEAM: 5 ft LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 24 man-hr 

HEIGHT: 5.5 ft TOTAL POWER: 15kWh 

DRAFT: 3.25 ft SPEED ( KNOTS) : CRUISE 4/4 hr 

WEIGHT (DRY): 4.5 tons MAX 6/2 hr 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1.000 ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH 5,000 ft OBSERVERS 1 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 PAYLOAD: 400 1b 

PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with hemispherical endcaps, 3-ft diam., 17 ft long, 0.5-in. -thick steel. An 18-in.-high. 2-ft diam. conning 

tower joins the hull. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tanks for surface buoyancy. A separate tank which can be blown or pumped dry provides negative buoyancy 

to submerge. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A reversible, 2-speed, stem-mounted propeller provides all propulsion and it is driven by a G.E.. 5-hp, 900-rpm, 36-VDC 

motor. Rudder and dive planes are hydraulically-actuated. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles can be obtained by transferring seawater between a fore and an aft tank. 

POWER SOURCE: Six, 12-V, 208-amp-hr, lead-acid batteries provide all power. The batteries are housed m a sealed compartment within the 

pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Ot tank carried within the hull. CO2 is removed by soda sorb. Monitors for Oj. CO2 and a H2 detector. Silica gel carried to 

reduce humidity. 

VIEWING: Eight viewports 1.75 in. thick and 6-in. diam. Four are in the conning tower and four are in the bow. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, gyrocompass, two depth gages, still and cine cameras, TV. 

MANIPULATORS: One. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Hull may be pressurized with compressed air for underwater egress. External fitting for resupply of air underwater. 

Droppable keel. Negative tank can be blown or pumped dry at operating depth. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO 

OWNER: Submarine Research and Development Corp., Lynnwood, Washington. 

BUILDER: Mr. E. Crosby, Edmonds, Washington. 

REMARKS: Operating. 



199 




HATCH 



VERTICAL THRUSTER 



VERTICAL 
STABILIZERS 




MAIN MOTOR 

VARIABLE BUOYANCY TANKS ' 
HORIZONtAL STABILIZER qiver EGRESS HATCHES 



LAST TANKS 
VIEWPORTS 



VERTICAL 
BOW THRUSTER 

BOW PLANES 



IM TANK 

RIZONTAL 
THRUSTER 



HIGH PRESSURE 
AIR 



200 



SHELF DIVER (PLC4B) 



LENGTH: 23 ft 

BEAM: 5.S ft 

HEIGHT: 9 ft 

DRAFT 6.7 ft 

WEir HT (DRY): 8.S tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 800 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,200 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 



HATCH DIAMETER: 23 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 172 man-hr 

TOTAL POWE R : 37 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/6 hr 

MAX 3/0.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD: 1,400 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Consists of two cylindrical compartments 0.5 in thick with 54- in. diam., hemispherical endcaps. ThehullsareA.S.M.E. SA-212 

grade B firebox quality steel. The conning tower is made of the same steel but is 3/8 in. thick increasing to 0,5 in. at the interception with the hull. 

The conning tower is 28- in. OD and 19 in. high. Hatches are made of cast A I mag 35. Gas sphere 0.5- in, H Y-100 and H Y-80 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two main ballast tanks, made of 11 gage mild steel, straddle the hull and provide 845 lb of positive buoyancy. Two 

externally-mounted high pressure air bottles of 440 ft^ total capacity supply air at 2,250 psi to blow the main ballast tanks. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main horizontal propulsion is provided by a stern-mounted propeller driven by a 120-VDC, l,15Q-rpm motor. Bow 

and stern thrusters are driven by a 2-hp, 120-VDC, 500-rpm motor. Bow dive planes assist in underway maneuvering. Additional assistance in 

steering is obtained from vertical and horizontal stern stabilizers. 

TRIM: Consists of one fiberglass tank forward divided into two sections of 380-lb total capacity and a steel trim tank aft of 400-lb total capacity. A 

Hypro pump (6 gpm at 500 psi) driven by an electric motor can pump water from one trim tank to another and/or to and from the sea. 

POWER SOURCE: Thirty-four V, lead-acid batteries of 95-amp-hr capacity each are located in an external banery pod. The batteries are at 

atmospheric pressure in the 0,5-in. -thick, 6.5-ft-long, 2. 1-ft-diam., 1 .200-lb pod. The pod is droppable in an emergency. 

LIFE SUPPORT: CO2 is absorbed by two 1 2-lb beds of Baralyme. Four externally-mounted bottles of O2 supply a total of 338 ft^ at 2,200 psi. 

Blowers circulate air in both compartments. Diver's gas mixture is supplied from a steel sphere of 33.5-ft-^ capacity at 2,000 psi. Emergency 

breathing from regulators in the vehicle is supplied from the high pressure air bottles used to blow the main ballast tanks. 

VIEWING: Twenty -three viewports total. 15 double-acting in main hull, 8 single-acting in conning tower. Thickness of ports is 1.5 in., ID is 6 in., 

00 is 8 in. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, Magnesyn compass, depth gages, echo sounder, radio, scanning sonar. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: The following systems can be blow free of water or jettisoned: ballast tank 845 lb, trim tanks 780 lb, battery pod (weight in 

water) 1,200 lb. Emergency batteries in hull. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: The vehicle can be carried on a truck, ship or an aircraft. It can be towed to the dive site or carried aboard its 85-ft support 

boat. 

OWNER: Operated by Inter-Sub, Marseilles, France. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Florida. 

REMARKS: Operational. Originally designated PLC4B. 



201 




NAVIGATION LAMP 



WIRELESS 
ANTENNA 



TRANSPONDER 
AUXILIARY TANK 



RESCUE CAPSULE 

CONTROL PANEL 

SONAR 



VERTICAL STABILIZER 



MAIN 
PROPELLER 




EMERGENCY 
□ 1 UNDERWATER 
TELEPHONE 



MANIPULATOR 



INVERTER 



EMERGENCY AIR FLASK 



202 



SHINKAl 

HATCH DIAMETER: (Escape) 1/600 mm 

LENGTH: 15.3 m (Access) 4/500 mm 

BEAM: 5.5 m LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 192 man-hr 

HEIGHT: 5.0 m TOTAL POWER: 200 kWh 

DRAFT: 4.0 m SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1.5/10 hr 

WEIGHT (DRY): 100 tons MAX 3.5/3 hr 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 m CREW: PILOTS 2 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,500 m OBSERVERS 2 

LAUNCH DATE: 1968 PAYLOAD: 3,300 kg 

PRESSURE HULL: Two spheres connected by a 1 45-m-diam. cylinder. Spheres are 4-m diam.. 36-mm-thick steel of SO-kg/mm^ tensile strength. A 

spheroid espace hull of 1 .7-m diam, is attached to an access trunk in the forward sphere. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two tanks (300 kg each capacity) are flooded by ambient seawater and blown by compressed air. One tank is used to gain 

fine buoyancy control, the other provides surface freeboard. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A stern-mounted, reversible propeller driven by a 11-kW motor with range of 680 to 3,200 rpm provides main 

horizontal propulsion. Two port/starboard, reversible, side motors are each driven by a 2.2 kW motor and can be rotated 360 in the vertical. A large 

rudder and stabilizer fins assist underway stability. 

TRIM: Provided by two tanks, one forward and one aft in the pressure hull, each having a capacity of 1,200 I. By pumping water fore or aft an 

up/down angle of 5° on the bow may be obtained. 

POWER SOURCE: Fifty lead-acid, externally-mounted, pressure-compensated, storage batteries of 100-V and 2,000-amp-hr capacity provide all 

power. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Interior is air conditioned to maintain 22°C temperature. 

VIEWING: Five viewports: three in forward sphere of 120-mm ID and one on each side of sphere of 50-mm ID, all have a viewing angle of 90 . 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, radio, gyrocompass, speedometer, depth gage, echo sounder, obstacle avoidance sonar, 

transponder, TV, stereo-camera, water sampler, bottom sampler, salinometer, water temperature sensor, seismic profiling system, light measurer, 

current meter, magnetometer, gravimeter, heat flow measurer, depth/sound speed meter, radiometer, 

MANIPULATORS: One, 

SAFETY FEATURES: Releasable escape sphere, manipulator jettisonable, releasable lead ballast (2,100 lb), automatic blow of ballast tanks below 

operating depth, life vests, fire extinguishers, surface lights, emergency air. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Towed to dive site by surface ship. 

OWNER: Maritime Safety Agency, Japan. 

BUILDER: Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kobe, Japan, 

REMARKS: Operational. 



203 




MAIN FLOOD 
LIGHT 



STROBE 
LIGHTS 



MANIPULATOR 



OPERATING 
BALLAST 



CLOSE-UP 
STROBE 



SURFACE 

OPERATION 

BALLAST 



PRESSURE 
HULL 




PIVOTABLE 

MOTOR 



DROPPABLE 
WEIGHT 



DROPPABLE 
BATTERIES 



204 



SNOOPER 



LENGTH: 14.5 <t 

BEAM: 4.1 ft 

HEIGHT: 7 ft 

DRAFT: 5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 2.25 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,100 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1969 



HATCH DIAMETER: 24 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 24 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 9.7 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/6 hr 

MAX 3/4 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 200 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with hemispherical endcaps. Composed of mild steel (A-212) 0.5 in. thick and 36-in. OD on bodv and 24-in. 

CD on conning tower. Cylinder is approximately 8.3 ft long, conning tower is approximately 2.2 ft high. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: At launch vehicle is positively buoyant and made negative by flooding a small volume tank located on conning tower 

fairing, A 12-ft-' capacity tank provides additional freeboard when on the surface. Both tanks are free flooding and open to the sea at their lowest 

point at all times. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: One stern-mounted, reversible propeller driven by a 2-hp electric motor and capable of rotating 220° in the horizontal 

provides forward, reverse and lateral movement. 

TRIM: No system included. 

POWER SOURCE: Four 205-amp, 6 V, lead-acid, pressure-compensated batteries mounted under the pressure hull provide main propulsion power. 

Alt other power is supplied by two 1 00-amp, 24-V, nickel-cadmium batteries carried within the pressure sphere. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried within the pressure hull and CO2 is removed by blowing cabin air through a Baralyme cannister. 

VIEWING: Ten acrylic plastic viewports all 2.5 in. thick. Two viewports are 12-in. OD, five are 10.5-in. ID and three are 8- in. ID. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8.072-kHz) range 6,000 yd. Two externally-mounted strobe lights for photography in addition to 

12 flood lights of 250-W capacity each contained within four (three bulbs/dome) pressure-resistant pyrex domes. Vehicle was designed primarily for 

photography. 

MANIPULATORS: One mounted forward of pressure sphere capable of two degrees of freedom and 8-lb lift. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Hand-operated, hydraulically-releasable 140-lb weight. Mechanically-droppable battery pod (400 lb). Pressure hull is 

floodable to allow egress in the event of emergency. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Sea Graphics Inc., Torrance, California. 

BUILDER: Sea Graphics Inc., Torrance, California. 

REMARKS: Operational. 



205 




RUBBER 
BUMPER 



WATER PUMP 

FOR HYDROJETS 

(NOT SHOWN) 



MECHANICAL ARM 



VIEWPORT 



MERCURYTRIM 
BALLAST 



BALLAST 



TELEPHONE 



SONAR 



206 



SP-350 

LENGTH: 9 ft HATCH DIAMETER: 15.75 in. 

BEAM 9 ft LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 96 man-hr 

height' 5 ft TOTAL POWER: 1 3 kWh 

DRAFT: 5 ft SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.6/4 hr 

WEIGHT (DRY) 4.2 tons MAX 1.0/2 hr 

OPERATING DEPTH 1,350 ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 3,300 ft OBSERVERS 1 

LAUNCH DATE: 1959 PAYLOAD: 300 lb 

PRESSURE HULL: Two, 0.75-in. thick, forged, mild steel ellipsoids are welded together to form a 6.5-ft major diam., 4.9-ft minor diam. pressure 

hull. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Launched negatively buoyant. Two 55-lb cast iron weights provide negative buoyancy at launch. When nearing the 

bottom one weight is mechanically dropped and the vehicle is near neutral buoyancy. Fine buoyancy control is obtained by flooding/pumping 

seawater in or out of a 1 2-gal tank. To ascend, the second 55-lb weight is dropped. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A 2-hp, DC motor drives ambient seawater through a hard plastic, 2-in. diameter tube configured to terminate on port 

and starboard sides at jet nozzles. Jets can be made to rotate 270° from straight forward (pointing aft) to the vertical. Water flow may be diverted 

from one jet to another. Motor speeds are '/a or full. 

TRIM: Bow angles of +30°from the horizontal are obtained by hydraulically pumping 275 lb of mercury from one to another of two cylinders 

located fore and aft of the vehicle. The forward cylinder Is above the vehicle's centerline and the aft one below. 

POWER SOURCE: Six 120-V, lead-acid batteries supply 105 amp-hr of power for propulsion and lighting. Batteries are located external to the 

pressure hull and are pressure-compensated. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Two 20-ft3 capacity tanks in the pressure hull holds sufficient O2 for 96 man-hr. Six perforated trays hold a total of 16 lb 

Baralyme to absorb COj. Air Is circulated by a fan to facilitate CO2 removal and is monitored periodically as is atmospheric pressure. 

VIEWING: Two, acrylic plastic viewports 120° apart looking forward and slightly below the horizontal for pilot/passenger. These two ports are 3.5 

in. thick, 4.7-in. ID, 6.55-in, OD and provide overlapping coverage at 80° each. Between the two large ports is a 1 .65-in.-diam. camera port. Three 

wide-angle optical windows look upwards and provide 170 field of view. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (42-kHz), gyrocompass, depth gage, up/down echo sounder, 35-mm external camera. Hydraulic 

boom (5 ft extension) holds a 2,500-W light source for internal 16-mm cine camera. 

MANIPULATORS: One mounted port side forward, hydraulically driven, with two degrees of freedom (shoulder/hand). Basically this is a pivoted 

arm (rotating in one plane) which folds under the brow when not in use and is extended downward in the vertical to grasp. The vehicle itself can be 

maneuvered to attain somewhat greater arm versatility. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Inflatable conning tower around hatch for emergency surface exit. 400 lb mechanically releasable weight. Trim mercury 

(275 lb) jettisonabte. Scuba tanks inside hull for emergency breathing. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Campagnes Oceanographique Francaises, Monaco. 

BUILDER: Office Francaisde Recherches Sous-Marine, Marseilles, France. 

REMARKS: Operational. Redesignated SP-350 in 1970 following repressurization of all components to assure greater operational depth capability. 

Also known as DIVING SAUCER, DENICE, DS-2, SP-300 and LA SOUCOUPE PLONGEANTE. 



207 




•• 



■rf^i 'Ifl 



STARBOARD 
WATERJET 




PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



208 



SP-500 



LENGTH: 2.9 m 

BEAM: 1.93 m 

HEIGHT: 1.35 m 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 2.400 kg 

OPERATING DEPTH: 500 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 3,000 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1969 



HATCH DIAMETER: 0.4 m 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 12 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 6.8 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.8/2 hr 

MAX 1.1/1.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 

PAYLOAD: 45 kg 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape steel with two hemispherical endcaps, ID of 1.03 m, length of 2.0 m. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY; Launched negatively buoyant, 40-kg descent weight, 20-kg ascent weight. There are twenty-one 1-kg lead weights which 

may be dropped individually and 20 kg of water ballast for fine buoyancy control. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Water jets with reversible-directional nozzles and a 2-hp electric motor which drives water through a " Y" shaped valve 

for yaw control. Jets rotate 270^ in the vertical. 

TRIM: Up/down bow angles of ±30 can be attained by transporting 70 kg of mercury fore or aft. 

POWER SOURCE: Pressure-compensated, lead-acid batteries of 1 25 V at 55 amp-hr. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried within the pressure hull and is automatically set and released into the hull. Cartridges containing IRS are used to 

absorb CO2- 

VIEWING: Three viewports, one large and two small. Large viewport on centerline is 1 20-mm OD with 80 field of view. Two smaller viewports are 

left and right of large port at 46 , they are 60-mm OD and allow 80° of view Atop and astern is a wide-angle viewport of 170° enabling viewing 

upward in the vertical. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Gyrocompass, echo sounder (down/forward) pinger. UOC, cine cameras, radio, directional antennae. 

MANIPULATORS: One hydraulically-operated arm and claw capable of two degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: One 50-kg weight and mercury dump of 70 kg Inflatable hatch trunk, flares, smoke signal, portable scuba for emergency 

breathing. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Campagnes Oceanographique Francaises. Monaco. 

BUILDER: Sud Aviation, France. 

REMARKS: Inactive. Two similar vehicles. Also known as PUCE de MER or OCEAN FLEAS. 



209 




AFT TRIM 
TANK 



DESCENT 
WEIGHT 



FIBERGLASS 
FAIRING 



EXOSTRUCTURE 



PRESSURE HULL 



PROPULSION MOTOR 
(STBD) 



FWDTRIM 

TANK 




LIGHT 



MANIPULATOR 



BATTERIES 



FAIRING 
LINE 



SAMPLE BASKET 



210 



SP-3000 



LENGTH: 5.7 m 

BEAM: 3.04 m 

HEIGHT: 2.1 m 

DRAFT: 2.1 m 

WEIGHT (DRY): 8 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 3,000 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4.570 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1970 



HATCH DIAMETER: 0.4 m 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 144 man hr 

TOTAL POWE R : 380 amp hr 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.5/12 hr 

MAX 3 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: 200 kg 



PRESSURE HULL: 

tons. 



Spherical shape composed ot two hemispheres. Sphere is of Vascojet 90 steel, 2,001 -mm OD, 305 mm thick and weighs 7.35 



BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Vehicle is launched negatively buoyant and descends in a helical spiral. To obtain neutral buoyancy at operating depth a 

100-kg weight is released, to ascend an 82-kg weight is released. To obtain fine buoyancy control when submerged titanium spheres (6.8 kg each) can 

be employed to take on seamater for negatiue buoyancy, 56 weights (1.9 kg each) may be dropped individually to obtain positive buoyancy. To 

compensate for loss of positive buoyancy through hull compressibility two weights ( 1 5 kg each) may be dropped. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion (forward/reverse) is provided by two, port/starboard-mounted, 3-hp, 750-rpm motors driving 

355-mm-diam. propellers. The reversible, 3-phase propeller motors can be independently adjusted to maneuver in any lateral direction. 

TRIM: Two tanks fore and aft are used to transfer 95 kg of mercury to obtain +28 up/down bow angle. 

POWER SOURCE: Pressure-compensated, Fulman-brand, type P2380, lead-acid batteries in three banks, one of 18 elements and two of 22 elements 

each. The 62 elements (cells) are in series; rated at 2 V each with a total of 380 amp-hr. Variable from 1 30 to 117 V. Forward battery pod is 

jettisonable (185 kg). 

LIFE SUPPORT; O2 is carried internally and its output is manually controlled. Cabin air is forced over a cartridge of soda lime to absorb CO2. Six 

cartridges are carried to absorb 1 l/min/man of CO2 for 24 hr minimum. Regnerated air is passed over a cartridge of CaCI (700 gm) to remove water 

vapor and reduce humidity. 

VIEWING: Two acrylic plastic ports for viewing located just below the equatorial axis and left-right of the vertical centerline forward. A smaller 

camera port is located on the equatorial axis between the viewing ports. Viewports are 1 1 0-mm ID and 100 mm thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC (8.08-kHz), VHF transmitter, audio tape recorder, depth indicator, depth and temperature 

recorder, inclinometer, gyroscope, up/down, forward echo sounder, lateral speed indicator, CTFM sonar, 27-kHz pinger, still and cine cameras. 

MANIPULATORS: One with three degrees of freedom, 

SAFETY FEATURES: Manually jettisonable: forward battery (185 kg); trim mercury (95 kg), and all weights described for buoyancy control (320 

kg total). Emergency breathing for each occupant through a closed circuit system (2 hr each). Inflatable conning tower for a surface egress, three 

1-man life rafts, flares, smoke signal, life jackets, surface flashing light, radio signal. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO 

OWNER; Centre National Pour I' Exploitation des Oceans (CNEXO), Paris. 

BUILDER; Centre de I'Etudes Marine Advancees (CEMA), Marseilles, France. 

REMARKS; Operating. Renamed CYANA tn 1 974, participated in the French-American program (FAMOUS) of exploration on the Mid-Atlantic 

Ridge. 



211 





212 



SPORTSMAN 300 & 600 



LENGTH: 

BEAM: 

HEIGHT: 

DRAFT: 

WEIGHT (DRY): 

OPERATING DEPTH: 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,300 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1961 



300 

. 12 ft 
. 4.3 ft 
4.75 ft 
. . NA 
. 1 ton 
300 ft 



600 

13 ft 

5.5 ft 

5.2 ft 

NA 

1.75 tons 

600 ft 

NA 

1963 



300 600 

HATCH DIAMETER: NA NA 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 16 man-hr 16man-hr 

TOTAL POWER : 4.2 kWh 4.2 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/8 tir 1/10 hr 

MAX* 4/3 hr 3/6 hr 

CREW; PILOTS 1 1 

OBSERVERS 1 1 

PAYLOAD: 450 lb 700 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape of high-strength, welded and dimecoted A-36 steel ^/it in. thick, partially reinforced with 3/g.jn. double 

plate and 2-in. flat bar rings for the 300 model. The 600 model is composed of 0.5-in. -thick A-36 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Surface buoyancy is supplied by two. side-mounted 1/6-in. -thick ballast tanks. A small tank within the pressure hull 

provides small adjustment in buoyancy when submerged. A low pressure (150 psi) tank is normally used to blow main ballast, a high pressure (2,000 

psi) tank is carried in reserve. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A 3-hp electric motor (12 and 24 VDC) with two speeds forward and reverse drives a stern-mounted propeller. 

Bow-mounted dive planes and a rudder provide underway attitude control. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: 300 Model: four, 175-amp-hr, 6-VDC, lead-acid batteries. 600 Model: four, 6-VDC, nickel-cadmium batteries. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried within the pressure hull in a 1 S-ft-'-capacitv tank and bled off as needed. CO2 is removed by Baralyme. A snorkel 

device may be used on or just below the surface. A barometer is carried to measure cabin pressure changes. 

VIEWING: The conning tower has circular wrap-around windows 4 in. wide and 1 in. thick. The 600 model has an 8-in,-diam. viewport in the bow. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPENT: CB radio, depth gage, compass. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: High pressure air for emergency ballast blow at operating depth. A 1 50-lb droppable weight on the keel. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: BOO. 

OWNER: Several of these vehicles are reportedly built, the only ones which have been located are The Tiburon Marine Laboratory, Tiburon, Calif. 

(300 Model) and the Brazosport College, Lake Jackson, Texas (600 Model). 

BUILDER: American Submarine Co., Lorain, Ohio. 

REMARKS: None of the models located are operating. 



213 



I 




PLASTIC BOW 
DOME 



PRESSURE HULL 



VIEWPORT 



INSTRUMENT 
PANEL 



LIFT PAD EYE 
FAIRING 




COMPRESSED 
AIR TANKS 



OXYGEN 
MOTOR CONTROLLER 



PROPULSION MOTOR 
IPORTl 



DIVE PLANE 



214 



STAR I 

LENGTH: 10 ft HATCH DIAMETER: 19 in. 

BEAM: 4 ft LI FE SUPPORT (MAX): ISman-hr 

HEIGHT: 5.8 ft TOTAL POWER: 4.3 kWh 

DRAFT: NA SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 3/4/3 hr 

WEIGHT (DRY): 2,750 lb MAX 1/1 hr 

OPERATING DEPTH: 200 ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 400 ft OBSERVERS ., 

LAUNCH DATE: 1963 PAYLOAD: 200 lb 

PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape 4 ft in diameter, 3/8 in. thick, A 212 grade B steel. Penetrations include two viewports, hatch and two shafts 

for rotating side pods. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Six main seawater ballast tanks of 375-lb capacity. Ballast is blown by 144-ft3 (STP) air at 2,250 psi. Auxiliary ballast 

tank inside pressure hull to obtain fine buoyancy control. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two side-mounted, rotatable, 0.25-hp, 24-VDC motors. Both steering and depth are controlled by rotating the motors 

and differentially controlling their speed. 

TRIM: None. 

POWER SOURCE: Two externally-mounted, pressure-compensated, 24-VDC, 72-amp-hr, lead-acid batteries for propulsion and one 12-VDC, 

72-amp-hr battery for instrumentation. Has carried experiemental fuel cell. 

LIFE SUPPORT: CO2 scrubber system with blower. Oj is carried in an 18-ft3 (STP) bottle. Emergency system consists of a scuba regulator which 

can be attached to the high pressure air supply or a scuba bottle. 

VIEWING: Two 7-in.-diam. flat plate plexiglass viewports on the centerline. Axis of one looks forward and up 15° above horizontal. The other 

looks down and forward 45 below the horizontal. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, directional gyro, echo sounder, depth gage, CB radio, avoidance sonar. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable weight of 200 lb. External salvage and air connections. Emergency breathing off main de-ballasting air or 

portable flask. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO 

OWNER: Philadelphia Maritime Museum. 

BUILDER: General Dynamics Corp., Electric Boat Div., Groton, Conn. 

REMARKS: On display. 



215 




VERTICAL PROPULSION MOTOR 



MAIN PROPULSION MOTORS 



BOW CAMERA 



RUDDER 




VIEWING PORTS 



PRESSURE HULL 



BATTERIES 



HIGH PRESSURE AIR 



216 



STAR II 



LENGTH: 17.75 ft 

BEAM; 5.3 ft 

HEIGHT: 7.7 ft 

DRAFT: 4.9 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH 1.200 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,400 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1966 



HATCH DIAMETER: 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 48 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 14.8 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/10 hr 

MAX 3/1.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 250 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape, 5-ft ID, 5/8 in. thick, of HY-80 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast tank of 500-lb capacity is blown bv four tanks of compressed air at 2,250 psi. Auxiliary seawater ballast tank 

of 1 30-lb capacity is used to obtain buoyancy adjustnnents when submerged. Two blocks of syntactic foam (30-pcf density) are carried fore and aft 

to provide additional positive buoyancy. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is provided by two propellers mounted aft on stabilizing fins and driven by a 2-hp, DC motor at 900 

rpm which is reversible. Immediately behind the hatch is a vertical thruster of similar characteristics as the main propulsion units. Electrically-driven 

rudder controls underway lateral maneuvering. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Main power is derived from externally-mounted, pressure-compensated lead-acid batteries (Exide 3-FN-17) providing 180 

amp-hr at 1 1 5 VDC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O2 is carried within the hull. CO2 is removed by soda sorb. 

VIEWING: Six viewports 5-in. ID, 9-in. OD and 0.625 in. thick. A smaller viewport (2-in. ID) is located in the hatch cover. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, CB radio, still camera, TV, pinger, Magnesyn compass, altitude/depth echo sounder, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: One. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Droppable skid (300 lb). Emergency battery pack in pressure hull. Scuba regulator in pressure hull provides emergency 

breathing by drawing off the deballasting air supply. Hull can be flooded for emergency egress. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOO. 

OWNER: Electric Boat Div., General Dynamics Corp., Groton, Conn, 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

REMARKS: Operating. On loan to Deep Water Exploration Ltd., Honolulu, Hawaii. 



217 



.--" • \ 




MAIN BALLAST 
TANK 



RUDDER 



VERTICAL THRUSTER 



TV CAMERA 



HORIZONTAL 
THRUSTER 




MAIN PROPULSION 
MOTOR 



BATTERIES 



MANIPULATOR 



218 



STAR III 



LENGTH: 24.5 ft 

BEAM: 6.75 <t 

HEIGHT: 8 ft 

DRAFT: 6.5 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 10.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 2,000 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH; 4,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1966 



HATCH DIAMETER; 20 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 120 nnan-hr 

TOTAL POWER; 30 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS); CRUISE 1/12 hr 

MAX 4/1.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 1,000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape, 5.5-ft ID, 0.5 in. thick and made of HY-100 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: NA. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is provided by a stern-mounted, reversible, 7.5-hp propeller. One vertical and one horizontal thruster, 

each powered by a 2-hp motor, assist in maneuvering. An electrically-actuated rudder assists in underway maneuvering. 

TRIM: Bow angles of +30 can be obtained by transferring mercury between fore and aft tanks. 

POWER SOURCE: Sixty, external, pressure-compensated, lead-acid battery cells provide 29 kWh of 120-VDC power at a 10-hr discharge rate. This 

can be converted to 1 1 5 VAC, 60 Hz. 

LIFE SUPPORT: A pressure regulator automatically bleeds O2 from a 72-ft^-capacity tank into the hull. CO2 is removed by soda sorb. A reserve 

O2 tank is carried that is manually operated as desired. Monitors for O2, CO2 and cabin pressure. Emergency breathing is from two scuba regulators 

drawing off the high pressure air supply. 

VIEWING: There are five viewports, each is 2 in. thick with a 5-in. ID and a 9-in OD. Three of the ports look forward and are depressed 33° from 

the horizontal. One of these is on the vertical centerline. The remaining two viewports are raised approximately 10 above the horizontal and are 

located 90 to the right and left of the centerline. Each viewport has a field of view of 69 in water. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, CB radio, pinger, Magnesyn compass, altitude/depth echo sounder, depth gage, two TV cameras, 

still camera. 

MANIPULATORS: One with six degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Lead weight (250 lb) drops automatically if high pressure air supply drops below 185 psi above ambient seawater pressure 

Manipulator jettisonable. Hull can be flooded for emergency egress. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SCO. 

OWNER: Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. 

BUILDER: Electric Boat Dtv., General Dynamics Corp., Groton, Conn. 

REMARKS; Not operating. 



219 



^^^nrmruuH 





220 



SUBMANAUT 



LENGTH; 9.5 ft 

BEAM: 4.2 ft 

HEIGHT: 4.75ft 

DRAFT; 3 ft 

WEIGHT(DBY): 2.75 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH; 200 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,000ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1963 



HATCH DIAMETER; 16.5 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 24 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER; 3.5 kWfi 

SPEED (KNOTS); CRUISE 1.1/4 hr 

MAX 1 .6/2 fir 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 1,200 lb 



PRESSURE HULL; Elliptically-sfiaped pressure flull, with a major axis of 96 in. and a minor axis of 42 in. It is constructed of 128 rings of 

0.75-in-tfiick plywood bonded togetfier. Tfie radial tfiickness of the rings is 4 in. and the assembled hull is covered with 0.75-in. -thick glass reinforced 

plastic giving a total hull thickness of 4.75 in. The hatch is of steel with a flat gasket seal. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: A water ballast tank located within the pressure hull provides ±1 10-lb buoyancy and may be manually pumped or blown 

with air. External ballast tanks are presently under construction. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; Forward and reverse thrust is provided by a 1.5-hp, 1,800-rpm, 24-VDC motor mounted on center! ine aft. Two 1/3-hp, 

800-rpm motors are mounted on the main motor casing, one vertically and one horizontally to provide vertical and horizontal thrust. 

Pneumatically-actuated diving planes and rudder are also mounted aft for altitude control while underwav- 

TRIM: No static trim or list control is provided. Underway trim is controlled by the diving planes and vertical thruster. 

POWER SOURCE: Four 6-V, 1 20-amp-hr, lead-acid batteries connected in series and one 1 2-V battery are carried inside the pressure hull. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 resupply is accomplished manually from a 60-SCF O2 tank and CO2 is scrubbed using a blower to recirculate cabin air. A 

desiccant is used to reduce humidity. 

VIEWING: A single 4-in. -thick plexiglass viewport with an OD of 24 in. is located at the bow. Because of the method of mounting, a viewing angle 

of 1 70° is obtained when in the water. The ID of the window is 1 2 in. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, speed /distance indicator, water temperature sensor, depth gage, pinger. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: 300 lb of lead in segments formed to the hull are held in place with a steel band around the hull forward of the conning 

tower. The band can be released hydraulically from inside the pressure hull to jettison the weights. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SUBMANAUT is transported on a modified auto trailer and launched by moving the trailer down any available boat 

launching ramp. No support ship has been used for transport. 

OWNER: Helle Engineering, Inc., San Diego, Calif. 

BUILDER: Same as above. 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



221 




222 



SUBMANAUT 



LENGTH: 43 ft 

BEAM: 10.75 ft 

HEIGHT: 16ft 

DRAFT: 9 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 50.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: NA 

LAUNCH DATE: 1956 



HATCH DIAMETER: 34 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 300 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER; 91 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 3/20 hr 

MAX 4.5/10 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 4 

PAYLOAD: 4,500 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape, constructed of an inner and outer hull 9/16 in. thick, 10/30 carbon steel, welded, air-peened and stress 

relieved. Honeycomb reinforcement between hulls. Conning tower is 1 .0-in.. thick rolled steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: To obtain ± buoyancy there are four hull tanks (346 gal ea.) and two keel tanks (140gal ea.). Tanks may be emptied by 

pumps (high & low pressure systems) or compressed air. Fine buoyancy control is obtained by adding or subtracting water from smaller tanks, 945 

gal are required to submerge leaving 5-35 gal to obtain negative buoyancy. Ballast pumps are: a 10-hp, 80 gpm at 300 psi (high pressure) and a 5-hp, 

400-gpm at 25 psi (low pressure). 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is provided by a stern-mounted, 38 in. x 34 in. propeller. Underway maneuvering is obtained through a 

rudder and dive planes. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Surface. General Motors, 6-cylinder diesel engine developing 235 hp. Submerged: lead-acid batteries in each "leg" are in 

pressure- resistant cases. There is a 1 15-V bank in each leg with a total of nineteen 12-V units of 400-amp-hr capacity. Batteries are recharged on the 

surface by the diesel engine. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Two tanks containing 200 ft' of O2 are carried within the pressure hull. Three circulating blowers with attached soda lime 

cannisters are used to remove C02- Two bunks are available. 

VIEWING: Three, 2.5-in.-thick, Plex R (Rohm 81 Haas) wrap-around windows are on the forward hemihead; they are two 17 in. x 48 in. and one 17 

in, X 16 in. all on a 51-in. radius in the same horizontal plane. Conning tower has one window 20 in. x 14 in., 3 in. thick, on a 20-in. radius. Six 

additional glass (crown optical) viewports, 6 in. thick, 7-in. OD and 5.75-in. ID, are located throughout the vehicle. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: Gyrocompass with three repeaters, depth sounder, radio telephone. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: The entire keel ("legs") section is manually releasable and totals 3,240 lb. Dry chemical fire extinguisher, life vests. 

SURFACE SUPPORT; Independent operation. 

OWNER: Uncertain, as of August 1968 vehicle was owned by Submarine Services Inc., Coral Gables, Fla. 

BUILDER: Martine's Diving Bells Inc., San Diego, Calif 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



223 




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:Crij^««*|l******« 





fC^u/jmaAzty 







is^'i'yf^^f^s^s^^m^^iss^^sms 



mmm 



AFT BALLAST TANK 



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b-^ V 



BALLAST TANK 




BATTERY BOX 
LIFE SUPPORT 
COMMUN. UNIT 
GYRO POWER SUPPLY 
VARIABLE BALLAST TANK 
HIGH PRESSURE AIR SUPPLY 



CENTER VIEWPORT 
FIXED LEAD BALLAST 
MANIPULATOR 

PORTABLE LEAD BALLAST 



224 



SUBMARAY 

LENGTH: 14 ft HATCH DIAMETER: 1 8 in. 

BEAM: 3 ft LIFE SUPPORT {MAX): 32 man-hr 

HEIGHT: 5 ft TOTAL POWER: 4.5 kWh 

DRAFT: 2.1 ft SPEED {KNOTS): CRUISE 2/6 hr 

WEIGHT (DRY): 1.45 tons MAX NA 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300 ft CREW: PILOTS 1 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,100 ft OBSERVERS 1 

LAUNCH DATE: 1962 PAYLOAD: 450 lb 

PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape composed of nnild steel (boiler plate) 36-in. ID; 88 in. long and 3/8 in. thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Main ballast is provided through 900-lb-capacitv tanks blown with high pressure air. An 8.5-gal-capacity tank serves as a 

variable buoyancv tank. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A stern-mounted propeller provides forward and reverse maneuverability and is powered by a 24-VDC, 2-hp, 

1,800-rpm, 1 -speed, forward/reverse motor. A rudder aft of the propeller and dive planes on the bow provide lateral and vertical maneuvering, 

respectively. 

TRIM: No systems provided. 

POWER SOURCE: Four, 6-V, 190-amp-hr, lead-acid batteries supply main power. Dry cell batteries power CB radio and UQC. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried within the pressure hull in a SO-ft-' tank. CO2 >5 removed by blowing cabin air through Baralyme. A barometer 

monitors cabin pressure and a hydrometer monitors humidity. 

VIEWING: Four viewports, 7-in. diam. in lower hull. Eight, 6-in. diam. ports in conning tower. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, depth gage, forward-scanning and downward-looking recording echo sounders. CB radio, 

gyrocompass. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Manually droppable 40-lb weights, main ballast blows at maximum operating depth, pressure hull may be flooded to allow 

escape, marker buoy can be released from within vehicle. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SCO. 

OWNER: Kinautics Inc., Winchester, Mass. 

BUILDER: C & D Tools, Calif. 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



22s 



FIBERGLASS 
FAIRING 




BATTERY 
PODS (5) 



METAL 
FAIRING 




MAIN BALLAST 

TANKS (WITHIN AND 

INTEGRAL TO FAIRING) 



STARBOARD 
THRUSTER 



HYDRAULIC 

MOTOR 
CONTROLLER 

PRESSURE HULL 



JETTISONABLE 
BALLAST 



VARIABLE 
BALLAST I 
TANK 



SKIDS 



226 



SURV 



LENGTH: 10.9 ft 

BEAM: 6.3 ft 

HEIGHT: 9.5 ft 

DRAFT: NA 

WEIGHT (DRY): 6.1 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 600 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 4,800 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1967 



HATCH DIAMETER NA 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 100 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 12 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.5/9 hr 

MAX 2.5 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 250 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with "dish" endcaps composed of mild steel plate to BS 1 501/1 51 8. Cylinder is 1- Vs in. thick; upper endcap 

is 1.5 in. thick; lower endcap is 1 S/g in. thick. Total length 6.5 ft, ID of 5 ft. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Three free-flooding tanks within fiberglass fairing around pressure hull provide surface buoyancy of 850 lb. They are 

blown by a 275-ft-'-capacity, 2,500-psi air tank. Tanks may be blown at 600-ft depth. Two trim tanks of ±40-lb capacity located aft of the pressure 

hull provide submerged buoyancy control. An identical backup blowing system is carried. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL; Lateral propulsion is provided by two (port/starboard), variable-speed, 2.5-hp each motors. The motors are rotatable to 

provide any angle beyond 5 in the vertical. 

TRIM: No systems. 

POWER SOURCE: Lead-acid batteries (146-V) carried in five pressure-resistant cases. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is supplied by two, 40-ft-^, 1 ,850-psi tanks within the pressure hull and is manually controlled. CO2 is absorbed in four soda 

lime cannisters of 3.5-lb capacity each. O2 and COj partial pressures are constantly displayed. An alarm system is automatically activated if CO2 

exceeds 1% or O2 departs from 20% to 24%. 

VIEWING: Ten plastic viewports in pressure hull are 2.25 in. thick; 7-in. OD and 4-in. ID. Three smaller viewports are located around the conning 

tower. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT; UQC, hard-line telephone (shallow depth), gyrocompass, rate-of-turn indicator, pressure depth gage, 

up/down echo sounder, speedometers, temperature gage. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Portable emergency breathing sets (40 ft-' of air ea.) are provided. Jettisonable weights (850 lb). Main ballast tanks can b( 

blown at operating depth. Pressure hull can be flooded for personnel egress. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: SOD. 

OWNER: Lintott Engineering Ltd., Horsham, England. 

BUILDER: Same. 

REMARKS: Retired 1969. 



227 




228 



SURVEY SUB 1 



LENGTH: 26 ft 

BEAM: 7.1 ft 

HEIGHT: 8 ft 

DRAFT: 5.3 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY) 11.25 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,350 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 2,500 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1970 



HATCH DIAMETER: 24 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 216 man-hr 

TOTAL POWE R : 49.9 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1.5/10 hr 

MAX 4.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS . . . . 2 

PAYLOAD: 500 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape of SA-537 grade A nornnalized steel 9/16 in. thick, 54.in. ID, 218-in. length. 

BALLAST /BUOYANCY: Main buovancy (1,100 lb) is from a soft reservoir tank connected to a smaller hard tank, both are blown by compressed 

air. Two internal, fore/aft tanks control fine buoyancy or trim (±400 lb). 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is through a variable-speed reversible lOhp, DC electric motor mounted in a water-tight container in 

the stern which drives a stern propeller. One single-speed reversible bow thruster (0.75-hp) and two 0.5-hp vertical thrusters provide low speed 

maneuvering. Hydraulically activated bow planes and rudder control attitude underway. An automatic pilot controls rudder angle. 

TRIM; Two, internally-mounted, fore and aft tanks can be differentially filled with seawater to attain up/down angles on the bow. 

POWER SOURCE: Twin battery pods, 18-in. diam. of SA53 grade B steel, contain 6-V, lead-acid heavy duty baneries providing 120 VDC main 

power l41.6kWhat20hr) and 24. VDC auxiliary power (8.3 kWh at 20 hr). 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous Oj (four tanks) is carried external to the pressure hull. 240-ft^ total capacity. CO2 is removed by LiOH (6.4 lb). 

VIEWING: Twenty-one viewports; nine in the forward pressure hull, nine in the conning tower and three aft. All are 6.25-in. ID, 1.5 in. thick, 8-in. 

OD. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, CB radio, Magnesyn compass, Doppler navigation sonar, scanning sonar, up/down recording echo 

sounder. Transponder and pinger, three TV's with three video recorders and five monitors. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Ballast (1,150 lb) can be blown at maximum operating depth. Mechanically droppable 840 lb weight. Emergency breathing 

devices for each passenger. Flashing light. 

SURFACE SUPPORT; Presently supported by the M/V WILLIAM DAMPIER.an off-shore oil supply boat 170 ft long, 39-ft beam, 9 ft draft which 

cruises at 12 knots and has a range of 6,500 n.m. A constant-tension, 50,000-lb-capability, stern A Frame handling system is used for 

launch/retrieval. The support ship can berth 22 people, 2 of these accommodations are for customer personnel. 

OWNER; Taylor Diving Services, Belle Chasse, La. 

BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 

REMARKS; Operating. Originally designated PC-9 by Perry, recently redesignated TS-1 by present owner. Original owner, Brown and Root, gave it 

its SURVEY SUB 1 designation. 



229 




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ENGINE 



^T^ 



BALLAST TANKS 



AIR TANKS 




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CONNING TOWER 
(WITH 5 PLEXIGLASS PORTHOLES) 



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AIR COMPRESSOR 




SIDE PORTHOLES OBSERVER SEATS 



OBSERVER SEAT 



BATTERY COMPARTMENT 



230 



TOURS 64 AND 66 



LENGTH: 7.28 m 

BEAM: 3.80 m 

HEIGHT: 3.20 m 

DRAFT: 2.0 m 

WEIGHT (DRY): 10 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 600 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1971 (Tours 64) 

1972 (Tours 66) 



HATCH DIAMETER 0.7 m 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 96 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER : 330 amp-hr 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 3/7 hr 

MAX 5.5/3.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 400 kg 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape, composed of a steel cylinder and hemispherical endcaps. Hull diameter is 1.90 m and length is 4.84 m, A 

cylindrical conning tower, called a trunk, is welded to the cylinder. Two hoisting eyes and two keel skates are also welded to the hull. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Two main ballast tanks (38.4-ft^ capacity), welded to the sides of the pressure hull, are flooded to descend to a decks 

awash depth, water is then admitted into a compensating tank until the conning tower is almost submerged, at this point the vehicle is trimmed to a 

down angle and the vehicle is powered to depth. Ascent is effected by powering to the surface where the main tanks are blown. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two side mounted propellers each driven by a 6-hp motor provide propulsion in the lateral and vertical. The motors are 

reversible, two speed and 360 rotatable. 

TRIM: A weight (150 kg) may be hydraulically shifted along a horizontal rail to obtain a trim angle of ±20°. 

POWER SOURCE: Two lead-acid banery packages of 48 cells each within the pressure hull, supply power at 165 amp-hr (5 hr discharge). A 

diesel-electric motor is used for surface power to charge batteries and drive a compressor to fill air tanks. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Three O2 flasks (5 I each) are carried within the hull. CO2 scrubbers (soda lime) are also carried. On the surface it is possible to 

draw fresh air into the hull with a snorkel device and thereby avoid opening the hatch. 

VIEWING: Four viewports in the forward hemisphere 283-mm OD; 155-mm ID and 65 mm thick. Five viewports in conning tower 203-mm ID," 

105-mm OD and 50 mm thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, echo sounder, depth gage, gyrocompass, forward-scanning sonar, radio, radar reflector, surface 

lights. 

MANIPULATORS: One mechanical arm which may be used to 200-ft depth. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Main ballast tank s may be blown at any depth. Droppable lead weight between skegs (100 kg), tf the vehicle descends below 

Its operating depth main ballast tanks are automatically blown. This system will activate automatically unless stopped once every 15 minutes. 

Pressure hull may be flooded for emergency escape using a closed circuit breathing system. Marker buoy and snorkel. 



SURFACE SUPPORT 

OWNER; TOURS 64 
TOURS 66 



SOO. 



Kuofeng Ocean Development Corp., Taipei, Taiwan. 

Sarda Estracione Lavorazione, Cagliari, Sardinia. 
BUILDER: Maschinenbau Gabler GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany. 
REMARKS: Operating, harvesting red and pink deep-sea coral. 



231 




PROPELLERS 



WATER 

BALLAST 

TANK 



VENT 




WATER 

BALLAST 

TANK 



PROPELLER 
BALLAST TUB 
PELLET BALLAST MAGNET 

?- MECHANICAL ARM 



WIRE 



PRESSURE 
SPHERE 



VIEWPORT 



232 



TRIESTE I 



LENGTH: 59.5 ft 

BEAM 11.5 ft 

HEIGHT: NA 

DRAFT: '8 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): NA 

OPERATING DEPTH: No known ocean limit 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 60,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1953 



HATCH DIAMETER: 1 6.9'in. I D; 22.5-in. CD 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): NA 

TOTAL POWER: NA 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 0.5 

MAX 0.5 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 2 

PAYLOAD: NA 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape of three, Ni-Cr Mo steel forgings 6.25nn. ID and 5 to 7 in. thick. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Buoyancy provided by 29,000 gal of aviation gasoline. Eleven tons of steel shot ballast carried in two hoppers is released 

to offset compresston of gasoline as vehicle goes deeper. Release controlled through an electromagnet valve. Additional shot release over amount 

required to offset gasoline compression initiates ascent. A small fixed percentage of gasoline may be released to offset over release of shot if 

necessary. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Two, 2-hp motors used for propulsion and steering. Motors in light casings filled with Trichtorethelene and 

pressure-compensated, 

TRIM: Some bow angles obtainable by dropping shot only from one hopper. 

POWER SOURCE: initially lead-acid batteries in the sphere, these were replaced by silver-zinc batteries. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Compressed, gaseous Ot at constant flow rate equivalent to usage of two men, passed through an eductor, draws cabin air through 

three Drager (LiOH) cannjsters to remove CO2- 

VIEWING: Two plastic conical viewports 2-in. ID, 16-in. OD and 7 in. thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC. echo sounder, depth gage. 

MANIPULATORS: None. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Electromagnetic shot valves fall open upon loss of power. Each of the two hoppers held in place electromagnetically may be 

jettisoned if valves fail and will release automatically in event of power loss. Gasoline compartments sized such that loss of ail gasoline in one 

compartment will not reduce buoyancy below ability of reserve shot to compensate. 

SURFACE/SHORE SUPPORT: Sea-going tug for tow to and from dive site. 

OWNER: U.S. Navy. 

BUILDER: Auguste and Jacques Piccard. 

REMARKS: The above description is from the 1953-1959 period. TRIESTE I established and still holds the world's deepest dive record: 35,800 ft 

in the Challenger Deep (200 miles southwest of Guam) on 23 Jan. 1960, Aboard during this dive was Jacques Piccard and LT Don Walsh, USN. The 

float is now on display in the Navy Yard, Wash., D,C. 



233^ 




GUIDE ROPE 
RELEASE MAGNET 

MOTOR 
BATTERY 
TANKS 



AFT BALLAST TUB 
RELEASE MAGNET 

MANEUVERING GASOLINE VALVE ^AH- 



WIREWAYPIPE 

SHOT TUB CHAIN PIPE 

SCIENTIFIC WELL 
SONAR 




SONAR 

HOUSING 

DOOR 

LIGHT (8) 



ANTI- 
CORROSION 
ANODES 

GUIDE ROPE PELLET 
I BALLAST 
AFT WATER j mAGENT 
-^ BALLAST 
TANK 



HATCH 

ANTECHAMBER 
UNDERWATER ' 

TELEPHONE ANTI-CORROSION ANODES 

TELEVISION CAMERA 

FATHOMETER (12KC) 

AFT SHOT TUB 



WRAPAROUND 

PLEXIGLAS 

WINDOW 



GASOLINE BALLAST TANKS- 



FWD WATER 

BALLAST 

TANK 



234 



TRIESTE II 



LENGTH: 78.6 ft 

BEAM: 1 5.25 ft 

HEIGHT: 26.9 ft 

DRAFT: 21ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 87.5 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 20,000 tons 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: >40,000 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964 



HATCH DIAMETER: 19.8-in. ID 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 72 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: NA 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 2/12 hr 

MAX NA 

CREW: PILOTS 2 

OBSERVERS 1 

PAYLOAD: 5 tons 



PRESSURE HULL: Spherical shape composed of two hemispheres of HY-120 steet damped together on an equatorial flange. ID of 84 in., 3.9 in. 

thick to 6 in. at viewports and penetrations. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Aviation gasoline (65,830 gal) is carried in a thin-walled float to provide positive buoyancv- Electromagneticalty hetd iron 

shot (22 tons) provides negative buoyancy and is incrementally released to ascend or decrease the vehicle's buoyancy. Trailing ball (250 & 750 lb) on 

150-ft cable. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Three, stern-mounted, 1,750-rpm, 120-VDC, 6.5-hp (each) motors provide main propulsion. A horizontal thruster is 

mounted on the bow. 

TRIM: Shot hoppers mounted port/starboard amidships and one aft may be differentially filled to obtain ±12 list, and +33 to —27 down bow 

angles at 20,000 ft. 

POWER SOURCE: Externally-mounted, pressure-compensated silver-zinc batteries. Sixteen cells provide 5,000 amp hr apiece at 24 V and 80 cells 

provide 952 amp-hr apiece at 120 V. 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous Oj, three bottles, each 72 ft^ at 2,250 psi (two normal, one emergency). CO2 removed by LiOH. Monitors for O2, CO2. 

cabin pressure, temperature and humidity. Air conditioning system, Hull heat exchange system. Emergency breathing off Oj bottle. 

VIEWING: Four plastic viewports. One is 16-in. OD, the remaining three are 3-in. OD. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, CTFM sonar. Doppler navigator, X-Y plotter, gyrocompass, altitude/depth sonar, echo sounder, 

transponder interrogator system, sound velocimeter, three still cameras, one cine camera, three TV's. 

MANIPULATORS: One with six degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Shot and several outboard equipments jettisonable. Emergency breathing of 36 man-hr. Fail-safe shot jettison. Fire 

extinguisher. Distress rockets. Surface lights. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Transported by floating Dry Dock towed by an ocean-going tugboat. 

OWNER: U.S. Navy, Submarine Development Group One, San Francisco, Calif. 

BUILDER: U.S. Navy, Mare Island Shipyard, San Francisco, Calif. 

REMARKS: Operational. Studies underway to substitute aviation gasoline with Isopar F., a lower flash-point fluid. Since its first major 

modification in 1964, TRIESTE II has undergone numerous, significant design and operational changes. The above description is how it now (Aug. 

1974) stands. 



235 




MOTOR 
COMPARTMENT STERN VERTICAL 

STERN HORIZONTAL THRUSTER 
RUSTER 



DEPTH GAUGE 

BATTERY POD 
COMPARTMENT / RELEASE LEVERS 
ESSURE GAUGE / / CO, SCRUBBER 



CONNING TOWER 

PILOTS CONTROL 
CONSOLETTE 



DIVER LOCKOUT 
COMPARTMENT 

INNER LOCKOUT 
HATCH 



TRIM SYSTEM 
CONTROL VALVES 



SONAR DISPLAY 
Sd CONTROL 




OUTER LOCKOUT 
HATCH 
PRESSURE TIGHT 
HATCH 

PRIMARY POWER 
DISTRIBUTION PANEL 

BATTERY POD RELEASE 
HAND PUMP 



-BOW HORIZONTAL 
THRUSTER 



SONAR HOUSING 



PTH GAUGE 



GYRO REPEATER 



DRY CELL 
WATER ALARM 



BATTERY POD 

HYDROPLANE 

UNDERWATER 
COMMUNICATIONS SET 



236 



VOL-L1 



LENGTH: 32 ft 

BEAM; 6 ft 

HEIGHT: 7 ft 

DRAFT: 5.3 ft 

WEIGHT (DRY): 13 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 1,200 ft 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 1,800 ft 

LAUNCH DATE: 1973 



HATCH DIAMETER: 22 in. 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 192 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 54 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS): CRUISE 1/13-15 hr 

MAX 5/0.5 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 1 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD; 2000 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cv'indrical shape with diver lockout sphere aft. Hull composed of SA-537 grade A steel to specs, for low temperature 

operations. Hull is 0.5 in. thick; 54-in. ID and 28.5 ft long. Conning tower is 20 in. high. Hatch to diving compartment ts 24-in. diam., diver egress 

hatch is oblong and 24-in. x 26-in. diam. Helium sphere is of HY-100 steel. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: Internal, fore & aft tanks are pumped dry or flooded to obtain ±545 lb (aft) and ±1 70 lb (fwd) buoyancy. Main (surface) 

buoyancy is attained by venting or blowing main ballast tanks of ±650-lb capacity, 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: Main propulsion is from a stern mounted propeller driven by two 10-hp, DC electric motors which have infinitely 

variable speed control and are reversible. Two horizontal and one vertical thruster assist in maneuvering, Electrohydraulically controlled rudder and 

bow planes assist in underway maneuvering. An automatic pilot controls rudder angle to +3°. 

TRIM: I nternal, fore and aft tanks can be differentially filled to obtain up/down bow angles. 

POWER SOURCE: Three separate banks of 1 2 V, heavy duty, lead-acid batteries contained in two pressure-resistant battery pods provide 1 20 VDC 

main power {44 kWh, 20 hr) and 24-V auxiliary power (10 kWh, 20 hr). 

LIFE SUPPORT: Gaseous O2 is carried external to the hull in four tanks of 288-ft-* total capacity. COj is removed by circulating air through a 

LiOH (8.2-lb capacity) cannister, O2 is continuously monitored and CO2 is monitored periodically with Drager tubes. 

VIEWING: Six viewports in the conning tower and one in the hatch. Aft compartment has a viewport in the egress hatch and two on each side of 

the sphere. The forward endcap is fitted with an acrylic plastic dome similar to PC-8. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, gyro compass, depth gage, automatic pilot, echo sounder, scanning sonar. 

MANIPULATORS: One with five degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Can blow ballast tanks dry at maximum operating depth. Battery pods are droppable (2,000 lb ea.). Medical lock in diver's 

compartment. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Support ship the same as for PISCES I, II, III. 
OWNER: Vickers Oceanics Ltd., Barrow-in-Furness, England. 
BUILDER: Perry Submarine Builders, Riviera Beach, Fla. 
REMARKS: Operational. Designated by Perry as PC-15. 



237 




UNDERWATER 
TELEPHONE TRANSDUCER 



STERN PLANE 



FORWARD BOUYANCY TANK 

RANGE DETECTER 




RUDDER 



\ V'-'^AGE 

\ BALLAST KEEL 



PROJECTOR 



MANIPULATOR 



AFT TRIM 
TANK 



DROP KEEL 
PROTECTOR 

RANGE & DEPTH 
DETECTION TRANSDUCER 



238 



YOMIURI 



LENGTH: 14.5 m 

BEAM: 2.45 m 

HEIGHT: 2.80 m 

DRAFT: 2.20 m 

WEIGHT (DRY): 41 tons 

OPERATING DEPTH: 300 m 

COLLAPSE DEPTH: 519 m 

LAUNCH DATE: 1964 



HATCH DIAMETER: 63.5 cm 

LIFE SUPPORT (MAX): 492 man-hr 

TOTAL POWER: 45 kWh 

SPEED (KNOTS); CRUISE 2/10 hr 

MAX 3/6 hr 

CREW: PILOTS 3 

OBSERVERS 3 

PAYLOAD: 1,900 lb 



PRESSURE HULL: Cylindrical shape with one heml-spherical endcap (stern) and one spherical mirror plate(bow). Hull material is high tensile steel 

(46 Hg/mm^), cylinder is 2.05-m OD, 16 mm thick and 10.683-m length. Stern endcap is 1.02-m radius, bow endcap is 2.0-m radius. 

BALLAST/BUOYANCY: The superstructure above pressure hull serves as the surface buoyancy tank with a capacity of 8 tons and is blown by 

compressed air. A 2-ton-capacitv ballast tank is located within the pressure hull which is flooded to descend and pumped dry to ascend. 

PROPULSION/CONTROL: A 12-kW, 100-rpm motor drives a 3-bladed, stern-mounted propeller for forward propulsion. A vertical rudder and 

horizontal stern plane aft of the propeller provides vertical and lateral maneuvering. 

TRIM: Two tanks of 0.4-ton capacity each are within the pressure huM (fore and aft) between which seawater is pumped to obtain desired trim 

angles. 

POWER SOURCE: Fifty lead-acid batteries within the pressure hull supply main power to the vehicle. An AC motor generator supplies AC power at 

60 Hz, 11 V and 1 .5 K V A. Battery recharging is performed at the surface by the submersible's motor generator. 

LIFE SUPPORT: O2 is carried in a 46.7-1 flask. COj is removed with LiOH scrubbers. During battery charging a fan circulates air in the pressure 

hull and the gases generated by charging are removed by absorbing them into the (recharging) diesel engine. 

VIEWING: Two viewports are in the bow of the pressure hull and one is in the bottom. They are 120-mm diam. and 62 mm thick and are made of 

optically homogeneous glass. Four viewports in the access trunk (conning tower) are 60-mm diam. and 40 mm thick. 

OPERATING/SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT: UQC, obstacle avoidance sonar, echo sounder, transponder. 

MANIPULATORS: One with six degrees of freedom. 

SAFETY FEATURES: Breathing masks are provided for each occupant in emergency. Two droppable blocks of 400-kg weight. Skirt under access 

trunk can be used to exit the vehicle by pressurizing interior. 

SURFACE SUPPORT: Vehicle is towed and supported at dive site by the 34.57-m (LOA), 235.7-ton ship YAMAMOTO. 

OWNER: Yomiuri Shimbu Newspaper, Tokyo. 

BUILDER: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kobe, Japan. 

REMARKS: Not operating. 



239 




PRESSURE HULLS AND 
EXOSTRUCTURES 

The first consideration in submersible de- 
sign is to provide the occupants with a dry, 
pressure-resistant habitat. Secondly, be- 
cause volume inside this habitat is generally 
limited, an external structure is required to 
carry power sources, motors, and other sup- 
porting systems. Thirdly, to prohibit this 
supporting structure from entanglement or 
snagging and minimize hydrodynamic drag, 
a smooth external covering or fairing is indi- 
cated. Within these major design considera- 
tions must be included pressure hull pene- 
trations to allow occupant entrance/egress 
and external viewing and penetrations for 
electrical, hydraulic or mechanical activation 
and monitoring of external systems. 



PRESSURE HULLS 



SHAPE 

Pressure hull shapes, with few variations, 
are predominantly spheres or cylinders in 
various combinations (Table 5.1). A sphere is 
the most efficient structural form to obtain a 
minimum weight-to-displacement (W/D) ra- 
tio, an ellipse is second, and right circular, 
cylindrical shell reinforced with frames is 
last. Two types of end closures have been 
used on cylindrical pressure hulls: A hemi- 
sphere and an ellipsoid. The most efficient 
from a strength-weight ratio standpoint is 



241 



TABLE 5.1 PRESSURE HULL SHAPES AND MATERIALS 





Depth 






Submersible 


(Ft) 


Hull Shape 


Hull Material 


HIKINO 


20 


Sphere 


Plastic 


GOLDFISH 


100 


Inverted wedge 


Steel 


NAUTILETTE (3 Vehicles) 


100 


Cylinder 


Steel 


ALL OCEAN INDUSTRIES 


150 


Cylinder 


Ashme steel (Jap.); Plastic conning tower dome 


PC3-X 


150 


Stacked cylinders 


A 285 steel 


PORPOISE 


150 


Shoe like cylinder 


Molded fiberglass and resin; Plastic canning tower dome 


STAR 1 


200 


Sphere 


A 212 Grade B steel 


SUBMANAUT(Helle) 


200 


Elliptical 


Plywood with G RP coating 


K-250 (12 Vehicles) 


250 


Cylinder 


Steel; Plastic conning tower dome 


MINI DIVER 


250 


Cylinder 


Welded steel 


SPORTSMAN 300 


300 


Cylinder 


Welded dimetcoted A-36 steel 


SUBMARAY 


300 


Cylinder 


Mild steel (boiler plate) 


KUMUKAHI 


300 


Sphere 


Plastic 


PC-3A1 &2 


300 


Stacked cylinders 


A 285 steel 


NEREID 330 


330 


Cylinder 


Steel 


SEA RANGER 


600 


Cylinder 


A 285 C steel 


SPORTSMAN 600 


600 


Cylinder 


Welded dimetcoted A-36 steel 


SUBMANAUT(Martine) 


600 


Cylinder 


Two 10/30 carbon steel shells with honeycombed reinforcement 


TECHDIVER (PC-3B) 


600 


Stacked cylinders 


A 212 steel 


ASHERAH 


600 


Sphere 


A 212 Grade B mild steel 


BENTHOS V 


600 


Sphere 


A 285 C steel 


MAKAKAI 


600 


Sphere 


Plastic 


NEMO 


600 


Sphere 


Plastic 


PAULO! 


600 


Cylinder 


A 212 B steel 


SURV 


600 


Cylinder 


Mild steel plate conforming to BS 1501/1518 (British) 


KUROSHIO 1 


650 


Sphere 


Steel 


KUROSHIO II 


650 


Cylinder 


Soft steel (SM41) (Japanese) 


NEREID 700 


700 


Cylinder 


Steel 


PC-8 


800 


Cylinder and Cone 


Low temperature carbon steel; Plastic bow dome 


SHELF DIVER 


800 


Cylinder 


SA 212 Grade B firebox quality steel 


YOMIURI 


972 


Cylinder 


High tensile (46 Hg/mm^) steel 


MERMAID 


984 


Cylinder 


High tensile steel (St 53.7) (West German) 


HAKUYO 


984 


Cylinder 


High tensile steel NS46 (Japan Defence Agency standard) 


TOURS 64 & 66 


984 


Cylinder 


Class G 36 high tensile steel (West German) 


GUPPY 


1000 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


NEKTON A 


1000 


Cylinder 


A 212 mild steel 


NEKTON B&C 


1000 


Cylinder 


A 515 mild steel 


SEARAY 


1000 


Cylinder 


Steel 


JOHNSON SEA LINK 


1000 


Sphere & Cylinder 


Plastic (sphere); Aluminum (cylinder) 


SNOOPER 


1000 


Cylinder 


A 212 mild steel 


PS-2 


1025 


Cylinder and Cone 


A 51 6 Grade 70 steel; Plastic bow dome 


PC-14 


1200 


Cylinder and Cone 


A 51 6 Grade 70 steel; Plastic bow dome 


STAR II 


1200 


Sphere 


HY-80 steel 


AQUARIUS 


1200 


Cylinder 


A 51 6 Grade 70 steel; Plastic bow dome 


PISCES 1 


1200 


Sphere 


Algoma 44 steel 


VOL-LI 


1200 


Cylinder 


SA 537 Grade A steel; Plastic bow dome 


VASSENA LECCO 


1335 


Cylinder 




SURVEY SUB 1 


1350 


Cylinder 


SA 537 Grade A normalized steel 



242 



TABLE 5.1 PRESSURE HULL SHAPES AND MATERIALS (Cont.) 





Depth 






Submersible 


(Ft) 


Hull Shape 


Hull Material 


DEEP DIVER 


1350 


Cylinder 


Rolled and Welded T-l steel; SA 212 Grade B steel 


SP-350 


1350 


Ellipse 


Forged mild steel 


SEA OTTER 


1500 


Cylinder 


A 212 B mild steel 


DEEP VIEW 


1500 


Cylinder 


HY-100 steel; Borosilicate glass endcap. 


SP-500 (2 Vehicles) 


1640 


Cylinder 


Steel 


SHINKAI 


1968 


Cylinder and Bi-Sphere 


High tensile steel 


ARGYRONETE 


1970 


Cylinder 


High yield strength (SMR-type) steel 


GRIFFON 


1970 


Cylinder 


Steel 


BEN FRANKLIN 


2000 


Cylinder 


Aldur steel and Welmonil steel (West German) 


OPSUB 


2000 


Sphere 


HY-80 steel 


SDL-I 


2000 


Cylinder and Bi-Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


BEAVER 


2000 


Cylinder and Bi-Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


DEEP JEEP 


2000 


Sphere 


A 225 B steel 


DEEPSTAR2000 


2000 


Cylinder 


HY-80 steel 


STAR III 


2000 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


AUGUSTEPICCARD 


2500 


Cylinder 


Aldur 55/68 cylinder; Aldur 55 end caps (West German) 


PISCES II & III 


3000 


Sphere 


A 242 steel 


DSRV-I 


3500 


Tri-Sphere 


HY-1 40 steel 


DEEPSTA R4000 


4000 


Sphere 


HY-80 steel 


DSRV-2 


5000 


Tri-Sphere 


HY140 steel 


TURTLE 


8500 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


SEA CLIFF 


6500 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


PISCES IV 


6500 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


PISCES V 


6500 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


PISCES VI 


6500 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


DOWB 


6500 


Sphere 


HY-100 steel 


DEEP QUEST 


8000 


Bi-Sphere 


18% Ni 200 KSI grade Maraging steel 


SP-3000 


10082 


Sphere 


Vascojet 90 steel 


ALVIN 


12000 


Sphere 


Titanium 621.08 


FI\IRS-2 


13500 


Sphere 


Ni-Cr-Mo cast steel 


FI\IRS-3 


13500 


Sphere 


Ni-Cr-Mo cast steel 


ALUMINAUT 


15000 


Cylinder 


Aluminum alloy 7079-T6 


DEEPSTAR 20000 


20000 


Sphere 


HY-1 40 steel 


TRIESTE II 


20000 


Sphere 


HY-1 20 steel 


TRIESTE 


36000 


Sphere 


Ni-Cr-Mo forged steel (Krupp) 


ARCHIMEDE 


36000 


Sphere 


Ni-Cr-Mo forged steel 



tlie hemisphere. Figure 5.1 shows the types 
of combination and constructions reportedly 
used to date. To a depth of 2,500 feet the 
cyhnder with hemi-heads dominates, and the 
sphere is secondary. The remaining vehicles 
in this depth range are a combination of 
cylinders and spheres and an inverted wedge 
and ellipse. Below 2,500 feet only one (ALU- 



MINAUT) out of 22 vehicles uses a cylinder 
with hemi-heads; the rest employ spheres. 

The spherical pressure hull is the most 
weight efficient geometry but is least amena- 
ble to efficient interior arrangements. The 
cylinder provides an efficient utilization of 
internal volume but is geometrically ineffi- 
cient with respect to W/D as is a sphere. As 



243 



SPHERE 
(STAR I) 



BI-SPHERE 
(DEEP QUEST) 




TRISPHERE 
(DSRV) 



SPHERE CYLINDER 
(BEAVER) 




CYLINDER 
(ALUMINAUT) 



ELLIPSE 
(SP-350) 





INVERTED 

WEDGE 
(GOLDFISH) 



CYLINDER/CONE 
(PC-14) 



Fig. 5.1 Basic pressure hull shapes. 



depth increases the cylinder must be 
strengthened by frames and thereby weight 
is added to the detriment of the W/D ratio. 
An example of W/D ratio as related to shape 
and sphericity (in this case SVs-inch devia- 
tion from the nominal radius) in an 8-ft-diam- 



eter sphere is presented in Table 5.2. Table 
5.3 lists the relative major advantages and 
disadvantages of three basic configurations. 
It is important to note that introduction of 
lightweight materials into pressure hulls 
permits greater operational depths while 



244 



TABLE 5.2 POTENTIAL PRESSURE HULL CONFIGURATIONS AND W/D RATIOS 
CONSIDERED FOR THE DSRV. [FROM REF. (1)] 



Material 



Shape 



Weight/Displacement 



Near Ag = 1.8 in. A^= 1.8 in. 

Perfect Stress-Relieved As Fabricated 



HY130(T) 




y^ — "—^ 



0.39 



0.40 



0.41 



0.42+ 



0.43 



0.42 



0.46 



0.48 



0.49+ 



0.51 



0.53 



0.54+ 



0.49 



0.47 



TABLE 5.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE HULL SHAPES 



Advantages 



Disadvantages 



Sphere 



Ellipse 



Cylinder 



1 . Most favorable weight to displacement ratio 

2. Thru hull penetrations easily made 

3. Stress analyses more accurate and less complex 

1. Favorable weight to displacement ratio 

2. More efficient interior arrangements 

3. Thru-hull penetrations easily incorporated 

1. Fabrication easiest 

2. Most efficient interior arrangements 

3. Low hydrodynamic drag 



1. Difficult interior arrangements 

2. Large hydrodynamic drag 

1. Fabrication expensive 

2. Structural analysis difficult 



1. Least efficient weight to displacement ratio 

2. Stiffeners (internal) required at great depths 
(1,000-ft) 

3. Structural analyses techniques difficult for 
cylinder thru-hull penetrations 



maintaining a lower or equal W/D ratio. Such 
is the case with the aluminum ALl/M/yVAt/T 
and ALVIN. The latter increased its operat- 
ing depth from 6,000 to 12,000 feet, and also 
decreased its W/D ratio by replacing its HY- 
100 steel hull with titanium. 



Two major factors controlling both pres- 
sure hull shape and material are the vehi- 
cle's projected maximum operating depth and 
payload. Both values are derived from the 
basic role the vehicle is expected to perform 
and within what range of ocean depths. Ar- 



245 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 

PERCENT OF OCEAN LESS THAN INDICATED DEPTH 



90 



100 



Fig. 5.2 Percent of ocean bottom at various depth levels. 



riving at an operating depth is not quite as 
easy as it may appear, especially if the vehi- 
cle is intended to be leased or used by a 
variety of customers. While this problem has 
somew^hat diminished owing to a lack of in- 
terest (funds) on the part of potential deep- 
diving customers, it still persists owing to 
varying depths of interest among scientific 
and commercial users, the relatively un- 
known location and quantity of potential ma- 
rine resources and the increasing vehicle 
cost with increasing depth capability. 

The owner must weigh all of the above 
factors to arrive at a useful, economic depth 
of operation. Unfortunately, the ocean bot- 
tom does not provide much assistance. Fig- 
ure 5.2 presents the percent of the ocean 
bottom vs. depth, as well as the number of 



submersibles within various depth ranges. 
Approximately 8 percent of the ocean bottom 
is located at continental shelf depths (0-600 
feet). From this depth downward the per- 
centage of bottom attainable increases 
slowly at the cost of greatly increased depth 
capability. For example, the 1,200-ft STAR II 
can reach 10 percent of the ocean bottom, 
while the far more complex and expensive 
8,000-ft DEEP QUEST does not quite double 
this percentage. Unquestionably, the least 
gain in percentage of accessible bottom is 
from 20,000 feet to 36,000 feet, where the 
percentage of increase is from 98 to 100, 
respectively. The depth decision was particu- 
larly difficult in the early sixties when the 
incipient field offered few clues to depth of 
interests; from the late sixties on a trend 



246 



towards shallower, continental shelf-capable 
vehicles was brought about by the newly 
emerging offshore oil customer. As this cus- 
tomer goes ever-deeper in his quest for pe- 
troleum, the problem of defining a depth 
limit to an oil industry-oriented vehicle be- 
comes increasingly difficult. In essence, the 
selection of an optimum depth is difficult, 
and to err on the side of excess may spell the 
difference between profit or loss for the com- 
mercial lessor. 

MATERIALS 

Pressure hull materials are metallic and 
non-metallic; regardless, all physical proper- 
ties must be characterized and taken into 
account during the process of material selec- 
tion in order to provide a design which will 
perform successfully in the ocean environ- 
ment. Such materials and their welds or 
bonding materials must be characterized to 
account for the following during the material 
selection phase: 
Corrosion: The deterioration of a metal by 
chemical or electrochemical action within 
its evironment, 

Stress-Corrosion Cracking: Failure by flow 
propagation under combined action of a 
flaw and tensile stress, 

Low Cycle Fatigue: Fracture under fluc- 
tuating stresses having a maximum value 
less than the tensile strength of the mate- 
rial. (Low cycle is less than 100,000 fluctua- 
tions in pressure). 

Creep: Time dependent plastic deformation 
(permanent change in size or shape of a 
body) occurring under stress, 

Stress Relief Embrittlement: Reduction in 
the normal ductility of a metal when it is 
heated to a suitable temperature and then 
slowly cooled to reduce residual stresses, 
Brittle Fracture: Fracture with little or no 
plastic deformation which occurs in some 
metals at low temperatures. 
High Strength to Density Ratio: (defined 
previously). 

High Ductility: The ability to deform plas- 
tically without fracturing. 
Fracture Toughness: The ability to deform 
plastically in the presence of a thru-hull 
crack without catastrophic propagation 
and failure. 



Weldability: Suitability of a metal for weld- 
ing under proper conditions, 
Fomiability: The relative ease with which 
a metal can be shaped through plastic 
deformation, and 

Reproducibility: The process of production 
being such that the material can be se- 
quentially produced to closely approximate 
its predecessor in all properties. 

Equally important are the developmental 
and fabrication cost and the availability of 
the candidate material. 

Submersible pressure hull materials con- 
sist of steel, aluminum, titanium, acrylic 
plastic, glass and wood (Table 5.1). Steel, at 
90 percent, constitutes the overwhelming 
majority of pressure hulls — primarily be- 
cause of the high degree of knowledge availa- 
ble to the designers and fabricators and the 
large amount of experience with respect to 
its performance in the ocean. 

The technical literature devoted to pres- 
sure hull material candidates and their char- 
acteristics is voluminous. Almost all deal 
with materials for deep (greater than 1,000 
ft) diving, with too little attention paid to 
shallow diving. This is unfortunate in view of 
the present trend toward shallow, rather 
than deep, submersibles. One might theorize 
that sufficient is known of materials for shal- 
low vehicles, but this is not always the 
case. For example, a portion of DEEP DI- 
VERTS pressure hull consists of a grade of T-1 
steel which, when a flaw is present in a 
tensile stress field, is subject to brittle frac- 
ture at low temperatures. While this steel 
might be acceptable in certain ocean areas, 
or by employing design and fabrication tech- 
niques which would preclude tensile stresses 
and minimize the flaw size, it was not accept- 
able to the U.S. Navy (2). They declined 
material certification because of the lack of 
material characterization (fracture mechan- 
ics properties) and the potential existence of 
flaws and residual tensile stresses in weld- 
ments. 

The reason for the trend toward high 
strength steels is their high yield stress, 
acceptable fatigue and fracture properties 
and fabricability. 

At the very least, submersible develop- 
ment and operations in the decade of the 



247 



COLLAPSE 

DEPTH IN 
FEET 



10,000 

20,000 

30,000 

40,000 

50,000 

60,000 



70,000 



::;;;;;;;;- 


- — . 






V 


■^ 






\v 




^ 

^^^ 


^^^ 




^\ 


V 


\^ 




\ 




N 




\ 










\grp 





0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 

WEIGHT OF SPHERE 

WEIGHT OF DISPLACEMENT 

IN SEAWATER 
a) [After Bernstein, Ref. (4)] 



STEEL 



ALUMINUM 



TITANIUM 



GLASS 



0.6 



QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF FACTORS INFLUENCING 
SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR HYDROSPACE VEHICLES 



S- STEEL 

AL - ALUMINUM 

TI-TITANIUM 

GP-GLASS-REINFORCED PLASTIC 

CG-CAST GLASS 



O 



STH£NGTH*OENSITV 



OESICNABILITV 



FABRICABIIITY 



S AL Tl GP CG 



PROOUCieiLITV 



b) [After Gross, Ref. (12)] 

Fig. 5.3 a) W/D ratio vs. collapse depth of five material candidates for spherical pressure hulls, 
b) Qualitative comparison of pressure hull materials. 



248 



sixties put to rest a number of "can'ts" and 
"undesirables" in regard to materials for 
pressure hulls. Let us look at two examples: 

1. Aluminum was considered by many to 
be unacceptable as a pressure hull ma- 
terial because it is unweldable and sub- 
ject to stress-corrosion cracking. How- 
ever, ALUMINAUT''s designers simply 
bolted its cylindrical sections and hemi- 
spherical endcaps together, and placed 
sacrifical anodes at various locations 
about the hull; ALVMINAUT performed 
successfully for several years before its 
retirement in 1970 (3). 

2. Bernstein (4) relates that tests at the 
Naval Applied Science Laboratory in 
early 1965 disclosed that the titanium 
alloy Ti-721 was also susceptible to 
stress-corrosion at high tensile stress 
levels, but in 1973 ALVIN was fitted 
with a titanium pressure hull using an 
alloy insensitive to this problem. 

A major innovation in pressure hull mate- 
rials grew out of the introduction of acrylic 
plastic viewports by Piccard, which has since 
led to complete pressure hulls of this mate- 
rial. Dr. Jerry Stachiw, the leader in the 
research and development efforts leading to 
the acceptance of acrylic plastic by the U. S. 
Navy, presents a quasi-technical account of 
the development and fabrication of acrylic 
pressure hulls from NEMO through to the 
JOHNSON SEA LINK (5). More technical and 
detailed accounts are presented in refer- 
ences (6-10). 



Equally innovative and promising is the 
introduction of glass as an endcap for DEEP 
VIEW. This application grew out of the early 
work with HIKINO under Mr. Will Forman 
at China Lake, California. Though DEEP 
VIEW is only certified to 100 feet, its design 
is experimental for the purpose of overcom- 
ing some of glass's shortcomings, such as its 
brittleness, high sensitivity to surface abra- 
sion, and considerable strength degradation 
at joints (11). The advantages of both acrylic 
plastic and glass are a low weight/displace- 
ment ratio and panoramic visibility. Figure 
5.3a shows the variations of collapse depth 
for spherical hulls of various materials 
against W/D ratio; the advantages in this 
area are clearly in favor of glass and glass 
reinforced plastic (GRP) for deep diving. 

While some materials are clearly favored 
in some areas, others offer advantages of 
their own which must be weighed against 
the favorite. Figure 5.3b compares five candi- 
date materials and their advantages and dis- 
advantages. 

While titanium, glass and GRP will un- 
doubtedly see a future in manned submers- 
ibles, provided the material development 
cost is not prohibitive, steel continues to be 
the prime candidate; according to Ballinger 
and Garland (13) the best of these steels are 
HY-100, HY-140, HP9-4-20 and 18 percent 
nickel maraging steel, the chemical analyses 
and mechanical properties for which are 
given in Table 5.4; both are taken from the 
same report. 



TABLE 5.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF STEELS 
FOR SUBMERSIBLE VEHICLE PRESSURE HULLS [FROM REF. (131) 



Uo 



Co 



HV 100 0,20 Ma> 10/0.40 0.25 Ma« 25 Ma, 0.15/0.35 2.25/3.50 100/180 20/0 60 0.03 Max -- 02 Max 

HY 140 1? Ma. 0.60/0.90 0.01 Ma> 0.01 Max 0.20/0.35 4.75/5.25 0,40/0 70 0.30/0.65 05/0 10 — 0.02 Max — 

HP94.20 0.17/0.23 0.20/0.30 0.01 Max 0.01 Max 10 Max 8 5/9.5 0.65/0.85 0.90/110 006/0 10 4 25/4 75 — — 

18%NI 003Max O.lOMax 0.01 Max 0.01 Max 10 Max 1750/1900 - 3 50/4 50 -.. 7 00/8 00 0,05/0 25 005/0,15 
Maraging 





TYPICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR STEELS FOR DEEP 






SUBMERSIBLE PRESSURE HULLS (FROM REF. 


(1311 






0.2% Offset 












Yield Strength 


Tensile Strength 


Charpv V-Notch 


KIC 


Modulus 


Material 


KSI 


KSI 


Ft/Lb 


KSI ^/l^. 


EX lO'psi 


HYIOO 


100 


120 


>50® 120°F 




30 


HY.I40 


140 


155 


60to«120®0°F 


>150 


30 


HP 9-4-20 


180 


215 


50 6iO°F 


>150 


29 


18% Nl 


175/200 


190/215 


35 @i Room Temp 


100/120 


20 


Maraging 













249 



Only one submersible is known with wood 
as a pressure hull material, the Helle SUB- 
MAISAUT. Stachiw (14) reported tests at the 
U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory 
with mahogany plywood cylinders and, by 
virtue of its low density (0.016 lb/in.) and a 
strength to weight ratio better than that of 
hot or cold rolled low carbon steels, found it 
to be quite suitable for depths less than 2,000 
feet. Remarking on its low cost and easy 
workability, Stachiw recommends it as a can- 
didate material for individuals or institu- 
tions where limited construction budgets 
prevail. 

An equally promising, and unexpected, ma- 
terial is concrete (Fig. 5.4). Using an espe- 
cially formulated concrete mix, Stachiw (15) 
tested 16-inch-diameter, 1-inch-thick con- 
crete spheres, with no reinforcement, to de- 
struction and subjected them to long-term 
pressure. Two hemispheres were joined with 
8288-A Epocast furane epoxy after curing for 
1 month in a 100 percent humidity room. One 
puzzling aspect of the tests was that while 
permeability of the concrete to seawater was 
low (5 ml/hr at 1,500 psi), the salinity of the 
water inside the sphere was less than that 
outside. Although more testing is required to 
man-rate such materials, Stachiw recom- 
mends its use for fixed installations to 3,500 
feet where positive buoyancy is required. 



to control moisture content which could gen- 
erate nascent hydrogen in the weld and 
thereby weaken it. The U.S. Navy has estab- 
lished MILSPECS which govern welding ma- 
terial and the storage thereof. The American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers has defined 
requirements for welding of various pressure 
vessels for use by the commercial sector. 

Similarly, both groups have requirements 
and tests which the welder must pass and 
efficiency levels he must maintain. Such 
tests include welding in different positions 
such as downhand and overhand, and sub- 
jecting the welds to various bending, pulling 
and impact tests, as well as to X-ray and 
ultrasonic inspection. In the case of BEN 
FRANKLIN, a dye penetrant system served 
as an additional test of the welders' effi- 
ciency (16). 

Fabrication of the BEN FRANKLIN hull 
(Fig. 5.5) employed both welding and bolting 
techniques, and the checks and treatment 
during fabrication incorporated the majority 
of procedures followed in all steel-hulled ve- 
hicles. Two European steels, Aldur (77,800 




FABRICATION 

The joining together of the pressure hull 
components — hemisphere-to-hemisphere cyl- 
inder-to-endcap, etc. — has been accomplished 
in several ways: Welding, bolting, adhesive 
bonding, clamping, and retaining rings. 
Though relatively straight-forward in a 
metal-to-metal bond, the problem becomes 
quite complex with bonds such as glass-to- 
metal. 

Welding: 

The majority of submersible pressure hulls 
are joined together by welding; both the 
welding material's physical properties and 
the welder himself are governed by well- 
defined military or civil (commercial) regula- 
tions. The welding material should be the 
equivalent of the parent (pressure hull) ma- 
terial and stored under exacting conditions 




Fig 5 4 Short cylindrical concrete hull shown prior to epoxy bonding of hemisphere 
caps onto cylinder section (NCEL) 



250 



psi yield) and Welmonil (71,500 psi yield) 
were used in the cylinder and hemispherical 
endcaps, respectively. These possess proper- 
ties quite similar to HY steels. The cylindri- 
cal portion of the hull was fashioned from six 
sections of rolled steel cold-formed to cylin- 
drical shape in a plane-rolling machine and 
the longitudinal joint hand-welded. Sixteen 
stiffener rings were fabricated of Aldur steel 
and, when finished, placed on a special jig 
where the cylinders were heated to 200°C 
and lowered over the ring stiffeners. The 
rings were welded to the cylinders at an 
ambient temperature of 150°C. The endcaps 
were formed of seven orange-peel sections 
cut out of plate steel and forged to the shape 
of a hemisphere at 900°C. The seven cylindri- 
cal sections and endcaps were tack welded 
together and then the main circumferential 
welds made automatically outside and by 



hand inside. Brackets and clips were welded 
at various locations outside the hull for later 
attachment of ballast tanks, motors and the 
like. Extra attachment points were included 
to provide for future growth or modifications 
of the vehicle. Welding such brackets or clips 
to the hull after it has been completed should 
be avoided as it introduces high local resid- 
ual stresses which, in general, are impracti- 
cal to stress relieve by heat treatment after 
the hull has been finished and outfitted. 

When all welds were completed and 
checked, the two sections were stress re- 
lieved, or heated, to remove residual stresses 
in both the parent and weld materials. This 
procedure consisted of heating the hull to 
525°C and holding it there for 3.5 hours (2 
minutes for each mm of thickness) and then 
slowly cooling it in still air. 

As described, BEN FRANKLIN's endcaps 




Fig 5 5 BEN FRANKLIN'S pressure hull (Grumman Aerospace) 



251 



were formed by the welding of orange pee! 
sections to form a hemisphere; not all hemi- 
spheres are formed in this manner. ALVIN's 
spherical pressure hull is composed of two 
hemispheres, both of which were originally 
flat, steel discs subsequently placed on a 
spinning table while a hydraulically-powered 
roller applied pressure over a form to shape 
the disc into the desired hemisphere (Fig. 
5.6). This same procedure, hot spinning, was 
used to form the hulls of DEEP QUEST, the 
DSRV's, GUPPY, and several other U.S. sub- 
mersibles. 
Following another complete inspection of 



the welds of BEN FRANKLIN, over 2,000 
measurements were made to check hull 
straightness and circularity. Radius toler- 
ance is ±5 mm of the theoretical radius at 
any point; straightness tolerance is ±2.5 mm 
from a straight line between any two adja- 
cent stiffeners. Both sections were sand- 
blasted and painted with two coats of zinc- 
based epoxy and one coat of paint. 

The two sections, flanges welded in each 
and machined to 1.25-inch thickness, were 
bolted together with 60 bolts. A shoulder 
projects from the aft section into the forward 
section to transfer shear loads at the joint. 




Fig 5 6 Hoi spinning ALVINs pressure hull Roller al lell ol picture applies pressure while the steel sphere is spun and maintained at a high temperature (WHOI) 



252 



An "O" ring groove was machined in the 
forward flange to hold a 9-mm-diameter neo- 
prene ring which provides a watertight seal 
at low pressure. Metal-to-metal contact of 
the flanges during deep submergence serves 
as a high pressure seal. BEN FRANKLIN 
was bolted together to accommodate future 
plans for a diver lock-out module which could 
replace the original aft section. The finished 
hull prior to bolting is shown in Figure 5.5. 

Bolting: 

Where the pressure hull material is essen- 
tially non-weldable it may be bolted to- 
gether. ALUMINAUT serves as an example. 
ALUMINAUT's pressure hull (Fig. 5.7) is com- 
posed of 11 cylinders and 2 hemispherical 
endcaps. Thirteen huge aluminum ingots 
(17,000 lb each) were cast as rectangles and 
then heated and forged under hydraulic 
presses into a cylindrical shape. The centers 
were then punched out and the partially 
shaped pieces transferred to a ring rolling- 
machine and rolled to their final contour; 
these and the endcaps were later machined 



to critical tolerances of 32-microinch finish 
on all joint faces (17). The pieces, after sand- 
blasting, received four coats of different col- 
ored polyurethane paint 0.002-inch thick to 
show surface scratches. Flanges were then 
bolted to each cylinder and then bolted to- 
gether. The selection of bolts and the bolting 
procedures were practically laboratory con- 
trolled. After initial jig drilling, bolt holes 
were reamed to tolerances of 0.0005 inch or 
better in roundness and 0.001 inch for size. 
Some 400 bolts are used in the hull; each bolt 
and bolt hole was measured individually and 
matched to each other for the best fit. Each 
bolt was then shrink-fitted by cooling it in 
liquid nitrogen at — 320°F prior to insertion 
and allowed to expand to a degree where no 
bolt diameter exceeded hole diameter by 
more than twelve ten-thousandths of an inch. 
In this case, there was no intention of later 
unbolting sections as with BEN FRANKLIN. 

Adhesive: 

On plastic-hulled vehicles neither bolting 
nor welding is feasible; hence, an adhesive or 




Fig. 5.7 ALUMfNAUTs pressure hull (Reynolds Submarine Services) 



253 



glue is used. In the case oi NEMO, 12 spheri- 
cal pentagons were made by first sawing 
discs from a flat sheet of Plexiglas G (Rohm 
& Haas), and then molding the flat disc to 
the desired spherical shape. Each sphere was 
then machined to a pentagonal shape. The 
pentagons were then placed in an assembly 
jig (six at a time) until two quasi-hemi- 
spheres were formed which were then 
bonded to each other (Fig. 5.8). In bonding 
operations the pentagons were spaced 0.125 
inch apart with plastic spacers and the joint 
on each side was covered with an adhesive 
backed aluminum foil (Scotch Brand No. 
425). Swedlow's proprietary casting material 
SS-6217 was used to bond the pentagons 
together (18). Bubbles, visible in the bonding 
cement, were removed by machining or drill- 
ing and, after an annealing process, the 
areas to be repaired were filled with SS-6217. 
Two conical steel (cadmium plated 4130 
steel) end plates are at the top and bottom of 
the sphere; the former is the hatch and the 
latter is for thru-hull penetrations. These 
are held in place by retaining rings. 

Clamping: 

The present TRIESTE II has two hemi- 
spheres, manufactured by Hahn and Clay, of 
a high yield steel (HY-120); the weldability of 
this material is unknown. Consequently, a 
circumferential flange was machined along 
the outer edge of each hemisphere; the two 
sections were aligned by means of an align- 
ment groove. Then a bolted "C" type clamp- 
ing ring was fitted over both flanges around 
the entire sphere to hold both halves to- 
gether (Fig. 5.9). An 0-ring outboard of the 
alignment groove serves as a low pressure 
seal. The original Krupp sphere was of three 
sections (two disk-like endcaps and a central 
cylinder-like section). The three sections 
were originally bonded together by epoxy 
resin, but this glue failed, and the sphere 
was subsequently held together by six metal 
bands gripping two metal rings top and bot- 
tom. 

Glass-lo-Metal: 

A special situation exists with joining 
glass to metal as in DEEP VIEW. The soft- 
ness of glass, its low Young's Modulus and 
high Poisson's ratio, makes it difficult to 
mate with metals which generally have the 




Fig. 5 8 The plastic hull of NEMO after bonding together of twelve spherical 
pentagons. (NCEL) 



ACCESS HATCH 



SIGHTING PORT 




PLEXIGLASS WINDOW 



CLAMPING RING 



Rg. 5 9 Centerline section of TRIESTE ;/s pressure hull. Note tapered reinforce- 
ment at viewport. 



254 



opposite characteristics (19). Following many 
trials and testing by W. R. Forman and his 
associates at NUC, the edge of the hemi- 
sphere joining the steel cylindrical pressure 
hull was ground round to a radius equal to 
one-half the shell thickness and a neoprene- 
coated nylon gasket was fitted between the 
two (Fig. 5.10). This configuration and very 
careful fitting eliminated edge failures. A 
titanium retaining ring holds both glass end- 
cap and steel cylinder together. 



HULL PENETRATIONS 

Unlike large military submarines, a sub- 
mersible's interior is quite limited, and items 
such as batteries and motors are frequently 
located outside the pressure hull. All sub- 
mersibles have one or more thru-hull pene- 
trations which serve as: Personnel access 
hatches, viewports, and hydraulic, electric, 
and mechanical penetrations. 

If such openings are small in comparison 
to the pressure hull dimensions, the stress 
level in the area adjacent to the opening is 
not significantly altered. If the opening is 
comparatively large, as are hatches and 
viewports, reinforcement of the area immedi- 
ately adjacent to the opening is required 
(Fig. 5.11). In general a tapered reinforce- 
ment is used, especially for viewport pene- 
trations. Such reinforcement can be of con- 
siderable thickness; for example, TRIESTE'S 
Terni sphere ran from a thickness of 3.5 
inches to 6 inches around the viewports. 
Stresses around viewports have been studied 
and results for the ALVIN viewports are 
presented in reference (20). In the case of 
hatches, it is possible to machine both hatch 
and hull mating surfaces to ensure that the 
hatch acts as an integral part of the hull and 
thereby minimizes the thickness of the rein- 
forcement (21); for this reason no reinforce- 
ments are seen around TRIESTE'S access 
hatch. 

The majority of penetrations in cylindrical 
pressure hulls are found in the endcap hemi- 
spheres, the reason being that most of the 
external equipment is located adjacent to 
the enclosures. When large penetrations are 
required and present major structural dis- 
continuities, such as the intersection of two 
spheres or two cylinders, the designer must 



employ generalized structural analysis com- 
puter programs, i.e., finite element or finite 
difference, to determine the configuration 
and size of the reinforcement. A final verifi- 
cation of the stress magnitude and displace- 
ment is obtained by placing the entire hull in 
a chamber where the pressure is raised to 
various levels and measuring the values ex- 
perimentally. However, large submersibles 
of the BEIS FRANKLIN variety are too large 
for this procedure; hence, experimental 
stress verification data is obtained during 
the submersible's sea trials. A standard rule 
of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code for exter- 
nally pressurized structures is that the rein- 
forcement shall consist of 100 percent of the 
material taken from the hull. For example, if 
2-inch-diameter pipe is to pass through a 1- 
inch-thick hull, then the 3.14 cubic inches of 
material must be replaced as reinforcement 



GLASS 



GASKET 




METAL 



Fig. 5.10 Cross section of glass to metal joint. [From Ref, (19H 



255 




Fig 5 1 1 Reinforcements and retainers for the pressure fiull of ALVIN showing window retainers (background), lift padeyes (center), penetrator shims (right and foreground) and 

release hooks (center foreground) (WHOI) 



with a taper of 4.1; viewport reinforcements 
in deep submersibles are slightly less than 
100 percent. 



Hatches: 

The majority of hatch or personnel access 
openings are circular and designed to fit as a 
cone in the pressure hull; the smallest of 
these is in the DEEP ST4K-series vehicles 
where 15.75-inch diameter prevails. Two ex- 
ceptions to the above generalization exist: 1) 
certain shallow-diving vehicles, e.g'.. PC-3A 1 
& 2, NEKTON A^,C, where the hatch is a 
circular dome disk and fits flush over a cylin- 
drical conning tower (Fig. 5.12) and 2) certain 



lock-out vehicles where the hatch may be 
oval shaped. The reason for an oval shape in 
the lock-out vehicles, though not immedi- 
ately apparent, is really quite simple and 
compelling. Within the lock-out portion of a 
submersible the internal pressure may not 
only equal, but may exceed, ambient (exter- 
nal) pressure during decompression on the 
surface. For this reason a double-acting 
hatch is required. This takes the form of an 
internal hatch and an external hatch. In 
order to initially install or remove the inter- 
nal hatch from the pressure hull the access 
opening must be other than circular, other- 
wise it would be impossible to insert the 
larger diameter circular hatch through a 
smaller diameter penetration. 



256 




Fig, 5 12 Hatch and cover ot NEKTON GAMMA 



Electrical: 

There is a wide variety of electrical hull 
penetrations (Chap. 7) which serve an 
equally wide variety of functions. Basically 
the penetrator is sealed by an 0-ring to 
prevent low pressure leakage and a hard 
metallic backup ring for a metal-to-metal 
seal at high pressure. Figure 5.13 presents 
the design of a penetrator for DEEP QUEST. 
By tightening the retaining nut the joint can 
be made to seal properly. 

Mechanical: 

Because of the tremendous pressures ex- 
erted on the hull of a deep-diving submers- 
ible, thru-hull rotating or reciprocating me- 
chanical shafts and linkages are generally 
avoided. If the propulsion motor, for exam- 
ple, was located within the hull and rotated a 
propeller-driven shaft which penetrated the 
hull, a dynamic seal capable of limiting the 
leakage of seawater into the hull at differen- 




HULL FITTING BODY 



-SPACER 

WASHER 

RETAINER NUT 

LOCKING NUT 



MOLDED BOOT 



Fig. 5.13 DEEP QUESTS electrical penetrator. 



257 



tial pressures of perhaps 7 or 8 thousand psi 
would be required; dynamic seals for these 
pressures are not available. To further com- 
plicate the problem, the pressure hull itself 
is not structurally stable and can be ex- 
pected to shrink as the vehicle goes deeper. 
ALUMINAUT is calculated to lose 1 inch in 
length and 0.1 inch in diameter at 15,000 feet 
(17). Such characteristics further complicate 
the difficulties of mechanical penetrations on 
deep submersibles (greater than 1,000-ft 
depth), and is a prime reason for their gen- 
eral absence. 

Nonetheless, mechanical penetrations are 
included on the shallow vehicles and in some 
cases on deep vehicles where their advan- 
tages are seen to outweigh their disadvan- 
tages. The following presents the functions 
of mechanical penetrators found on vehicles 
today. 

a) Propellers and Thrusters: In vehicles 
such as SEA OTTER, DEEP DIVER and the 

NEKTON series, the main propulsion motor 
is housed in a watertight box penetrated by 
a shaft to drive the main propulsion unit or a 
thruster. The motor container is separate 
from the hull as a safety precaution, and the 
shaft, in DEEP DIVER's case, is sealed by a 
shoulder bearing against two sleeves 
screwed into the penetration and an 0-ring 
for low pressure protection. 

b) Dive Planes and Rudders: Some shallow- 
diving vehicles include hull penetrations for 
manual control of diving planes and rudders. 

c) Hatch Shafts: Several vehicles include a 
mechanical penetration through the hatch 
which serves as a leverage or rotating point 
around which the hatch seals are closed or 
opened (Fig. 5.12). 

d) Weight Drop Shafts: The greatest num- 
ber of mechanical penetrations are for the 
purpose of dropping weights, generally in an 
emergency, to gain positive buoyancy. This 
type of penetration only rotates in one plane 
and is preferred over electric weight drop- 
ping actuators owing to the possibility of 
electrical failure. ALVIN incorporates such 
an arrangement to separate the sphere from 
the entire exostructure. 

e) Manipulators: The NEKTON-c\ass sub- 
mersibles provide a mechanical penetration 
for a 3-ft-long steel rod which is manually 



pushed out or pulled into the vehicle. The rod 
incorporates a claw at its outer end and can 
grasp samples as desired. According to Dr. R. 
F. Dill (NOAA, personal communication), at 
1,000 feet the pressure shrinkage of the hull 
causes the arm to come down with "arthri- 
tis," and considerable effort is required to 
manipulate the device. 

f) Hull Vents: Several submersibles con- 
tain penetrations for replenishing the pres- 
sure hull air or to equalize hull air pressure. 
In the first case snorkels are employed for 
surface cruising. In the latter case (BEA- 
VER) a valve is activated in an emergency 
which brings main ballast air into the hull 
and builds pressure up to ambient so that 
the passengers may open the hatch and exit. 
The All Ocean Industries' submersible has a 
curious arrangement whereby the main bal- 
last tanks vent into the pressure hull. To 
prevent a buildup of air pressure a second 
valve, connected to a snorkel, is opened and 
the air vents outboard. The operating in- 
structions for the submersible cautions the 
operator to secure the ballast tank vent 
valve as soon as a little water appears in- 
board. 

Viewports: 

In an extremely detailed and comprehen- 
sive paper, NCEL engineers Snoey and 
Stachiw (22) present the history, application, 
advantages and disadvantages of materials 
and shapes for submersible viewports. The 
basis for their report rests in a series of 
exhaustive tests and analyses of viewports 
and their materials at NCEL. The reader is 
referred to this report and its references for 
detailed aspects of viewport design and ma- 
terials capabilities. 

Three materials have been used for view- 
ports: fused quartz, acrylic plastic and glass. 
The first of these was used by Beebe in the 
BATHYSPHERE, but his difficulties with 
cracking and chipping persuaded the elder 
Piccard to look for an alternative, which 
proved to be acrylic plastic. Acrylic plastic is 
now the accepted viewport material for all 
but two submersibles; KUROSHIO II and 
YOMIURI both use glass. 

Table 5.5 presents the properties of glass 
and acrylic plastic. In essence, where one is 
strong, the other is weak. According to refer- 



258 



TABLE 5.5 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS [FROM REF. (22)] 





Acrylic Plastic 


Glass 




Property 


Rohm & Haas 


Corning PYREX 


Units 




PLEXIGLASG 


Code 7740 




Tensile Strength (Maximum) 


10,500 


10,000 


psi 


Modulus of Elasticity (Tensile) 


450,000 


9,100,000 


psi 


Compressive Strength (Maximum) 


18,000 


300,000 


psi 


Modulus of Elasticity (Compressive) 


450,000 


9,100,000 


psi 


Flexural Strength (Maximum) 


16,000 


35,000 


psi 


Shear Modulus 


166,000 


3,900,000 


psi 


Impact (Charpy) 


14.0 


Very low and 
Scattered 


ft-lb/in.2 


Poisson's Ratio 


0.35 


0.2 


- 


Hardness 


Rockwell M-g3 


Knoop481 


- 


Deformation Under Load 


0.5 

(4,000 psi@122''F, 24 hr) 





% 


Specific Gravity 


1.19 


2.23 


- 


Specific Heat 


0.35 


0.233 


Btu/lbOp 


Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity 


0.11 


0.92 


Btu/hrftOp 


Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 


40 X 10-6 


1.78 X 10-6 


in./in./op 


Water Absorption 


0.2 





% 


Corrosion Resistance 


Excellent 


Excellent 


- 


Refractive Index 


1.49 


1.47 


- 


Light Transmission 


92 


90 


% 



ence (22) there are three major disadvan- 
tages with glass as viewport material: 

1) Poor reproducibility in mechanical prop- 
erties from one manufactured specimen 
to another stemming from inadequate 
quality control. 

2) Occurrence of tensile stresses in designs 
for a material that has low tensile 
strength and no tolerance for localized 



yielding. The tensile stresses usually 
stem from glass/metal interfaces. 
3) Glasses fail catastrophically without 
any prior yielding or permanent defor- 
mation that might serve as warning. 
On the other hand, plastic offers the follow- 
ing advantages: 

1) Reproducibility in physical properties 
from one viewport to another is excel- 
lent. 



259 



2) The low modulus of elasticity and plas- 
tic flow characteristic permit localized 
yielding and redistribution of stresses. 

3) The plastic flow in the form of extrusion 
and extensive fracturing provides warn- 
ing of impending failure sufficiently in 
advance to terminate a dive without the 
viewport imploding. 

4) Another report (23) states that before 
failing plastic becomes translucent, but 
this was not reported in the NCEL stud- 
ies. 

For such reasons acrylic plastic is the 
prime viewport material in submersibles. 
That plastics will remain in this exclusive 
position is difficult to predict. According to 
Edgerton (24), glass has the advantage of 
less optical distortion than plastic, and from 
Figure 5.3, it is clear that glass offers the 
best W/D ratio. The present difficulty in 
working with glass primarily reflects its 
newness as a candidate for pressure hulls. 
Acrylic plastic also offered initial difficulties, 
but years of research and testing have 
brought it to the point where it will advance 
from a Category III to a Category II mate- 
rial (see Chap. 13) after long-term loading 
tests, now in progress, are completed to de- 
termine its creep and fatigue characteristics. 
If the need for glass as a pressure hull, 
viewport or other component material be- 



comes pressing, it is likely that the technol- 
ogy will evolve to overcome its present defi- 
ciencies. 

Three configurations are used to join 
acrylic plastic viewports to the pressure hull: 
Flat circular discs, truncated cones and wrap- 
around windows such as in Martine's SUB- 
MANAUT. Considerable testing and evalua- 
tion of the first two forms (Fig. 5.14 & 5.15) 
have been conducted on acrylic viewports at 
the U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory 
(25, 26). No studies are reported for the char- 
acteristics of the wrap-around variety. 

Flat Viewports: The results of the NCEL 
studies show that the windows should be 
sealed in a flange cavity by means of a 
radially compressed "O" ring contained in a 
circumferential groove midway between the 
viewport's parallel faces. The viewport may 
bear directly on the steel seat or on a V32- 
inch-thick neoprene gasket. If no gasket is 
used, a liberal coating of silicone grease ap- 
plied to the flange may suffice. To hold the 
viewport a retaining ring resting on a V4- 
inch rubber gasket of 60- to 100-durometer 
hardness is recommended. The viewport 
should have a maximum diameter to minor 
opening ratio of 1.5 and a radial clearance of 
0.005 inch or less between viewport edge and 
flange cavity (Fig. 5.14). Reference (25) rec- 
ommends that a safety factor of 4 be used at 



RETAINING 
RING 




NSERT 



VIEWPORT 



Fig. 5.14 Flat acrylic plastic viewport. 
260 



these conditions. It is impractical to con- 
struct the viewport flange or its housing out 
of the hull itself. For this reason, an insert is 
separately machined, then forged to the de- 
sired tapered thickness and subsequently 
welded into the hull with the insert in place. 
The inserts are also required to be of mate- 
rial similar to that of the hull. 

Conical Viewports: From its first inception, 
the 90 degree conical acrylic plastic viewport 



of Professor Piccard has been the mainstay 
of deep submersibles. The only reported inci- 
dent of failure was aboard ASHERAH when 
it struck an underwater object and cracked 
its viewport; however, no flooding resulted. 
Exhaustive testing (26) of plastic viewports 
of various thicknesses and angles produced 
sufficient knowledge to recommend dimen- 
sional constraints and viewport seal design. 
Figure 5.15 presents typical sealing on past 



RETAINING 
RING 



VIEWPORT 



\ ^ 




GASKET 



frx^. 



HULL 




(a) Lapped-Joint Seal. 



(b) Gasket Seal. 




^Q_ 




(c) 0-RingSeal No. 1 

Fig. 5.15 Current conical viewport seal designs. [From Ref. (26)] 

261 



(d) 0-ringSeal No. 2. 



and present submersibles; Figure 5.16 pre- 
sents a design recommended for habitats as 
well as for submersibles where long-term 
creep loading introduces more stringent re- 
quirements. 

All the current and proposed designs call 
for a retaining ring and either an "O" ring or 
gasket for low pressure seals. The high pres- 
sure seal is effected by making a lapped-joint 
seal between the viewport and insert. An 80- 
to 90-percent contact is achieved by surface 
finishing in the 8- to 32-rms range. Snoey 
and Katona (26) provide a step-by-step deri- 
vation of the formulas and curves related to 
conical viewport design and include test pro- 
cedures which preceded these data. 

Piping: 

Submersible piping systems serve several 
functions: 

Ballasting: Carrying compressed air from 
storage to ballast tanks for blowing. 

Trim: Transporting trim fluids fore or aft 
to their respective reservoirs. 

Hydraulics: Transporting fluid to activate 
a device such as a manipulator or weight 
dropper. 

Breathing Gasses: Supplying air or mixed 
gas from external reservoirs into the pres- 
sure hull or within the pressure hull itself. 



Four types of materials have been used to 
perform these functions: Cupro-nickel, mo- 
nel, stainless steel and flexible wire-braided 
plastic hose. 

Cupro-nickel (7030) is a universally ac- 
cepted piping material for the transfer of 
salt water. It is very corrosion resistant but 
costly. 

Monel has the same advantages as cupro- 
nickel and has been used primarily for oxy- 
gen systems. Its disadvantages are not only 
cost, it is difficult to obtain by virtue of its 
wide use and demand in military subma- 
rines. Strangely, according to Purcell and 
Kriedt (27), it is not clear why monel is the 
preferred material for oxygen systems in 
U.S. military submarines; indeed, after a 
thorough investigation into the advantages 
and disadvantages of other materials, they 
conclude that other materials would serve as 
well. 

Stainless steel piping finds wide applica- 
tion in submersibles of the private sector. 
Though not as corrosion resistant as cupro- 
nickel and monel, it is far less expensive and 
easily obtained. Standard aircraft ^/s-inch 
stainless steel is the most commonly used 
variety. 



0.226 




0-RING 



NOTE - 



PARKER 2 -457, N-183-9 
NITRILE (BUNA N) 
90DUROIV1ETER 

AFTER MACHINING, ANNEAL AT 
175°F FOR 22 HOURS; COOL AT 
5°F PER HOUR 



Fig. 5.16 Recommended viewport seal design. (From Ref. (26)] 



262 



Under conditions where the piping will 
serve vibrating or rotating devices, such as 
manipulators, flexible hosing is sometimes 
used to transport the hydraulic fluid. Several 
varieties of wire-braided plastic hosing are 
available to serve this function. 

EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 

External to the pressure hull are two ma- 
jor structural components: 1) An exostruc- 
ture consisting of a supporting framework to 
carry the pressure hull and operational de- 
vices; and 2) a fairing enclosing the exostruc- 
ture and, in some cases, streamlining the hull to 
reduce both hydrodynamic drag and the po- 
tential for fouling with underwater objects. 



EXOSTRUCTURE 

Penzias and Goodman (28) aptly describe a 



submersible's exostructure as ". . . the 
framework on which everything else hangs; 
the pressure hull being merely one of the 
'cargo units' suspended within or beneath 
it." The exostructure of DEEPSTAR 4000 in 
Figure 5.17 demonstrates their analogy. 

In several of the large, cylindrical vehicles, 
e.g., ALUMINAVT, BEN FRANKLIN, AU- 
GUSTE PICCARD, much of the equipment 
that would be external to a smaller spherical 
pressure-hulled vehicle is carried inside be- 
cause of the availability of greater interior 
volume. Consequently the need for an exo- 
structure is limited to propulsion mountings, 
rudders, diving planes and control sensors 
such as sonar and echo sounders. The major- 
ity of spherically hulled submersibles, how- 
ever, require an exostructure. 

Having decided on the shape, penetrations 
and materials for the pressure hull, design of 
the exostructure should be completed prior 




Fig 5 17 The exostructure of DEEPSTAR 4000. (Westinghouse Corp.) 

263 



to final stress relief of the hull. As explained 
above, if the exostructure is to be bolted to 
the hull, which many are (Fig. 5.17), the 
attachment points should be welded on be- 
fore final stress relieving in order that no 
residual stresses remain in the welds or 
heat-affected zones. If the exostructure is to 
be strapped to the hull, e.g., SDL-1, then 
such precautions are unnecessary. 

Design of the exostructure is preceded by a 
great deal of research into the vehicle's pro- 
jected components and subsystems; essen- 
tially, the submersible is virtually "sized" 
(see Chap. 6) by the time the exostructure is 



designed. Figure 5.18 provides an idea of the 
complexity involved in packaging the variety 
of necessary equipment. Some of the consid- 
erations that must be resolved before final 
design are as follows: 

1) Location of objects as they affect trim, 
buoyancy and their own ability to per- 
form. 

2) Volume of objects: Are they compatible 
with the dimensional constraints of the 
vehicle? 

3) Weight of objects both in air and in 
water. 



Kmsre 




Fig, 5 18 Stern view o( DEEPSTAR 4000 showing "packing" of the exostructure. (NAVOCEANO) 



264 



4) Displacement of objects as they affect 
buoyancy. 

5) Non-interference with hookup points if 
the vehicle is to be launched/retrieved. 

6) Strength of the exostructure. Clearly, 
the fully encumbered exostructure must 
be able to withstand the anticipated 
rigors of shock loading both at sea and 
during transport. 

7) Accessibility of components which may 
require routine removal and servicing 
without completely disassembling the 
framework. 

8) Shape of the exostructure — that it pro- 
vides a framework compatible with the 
final desired vehicle configuration. 

9) Method of attachment to the pressure 
hull must be such that no concentrated 
or restraining loads exist. 

When such questions are resolved, the se- 
lection of a material remains. In this case it 
is critical to ascertain the likelihood of corro- 
sion because of contact of dissimilar metals 
at the point of exostructure-to-pressure hull 
attachment, and where bolts or nuts of dis- 
similar metals may be used to join the exo- 
structure together. Finally, the material se- 
lected must be lightweight in order to main- 
tain a favorable W/D ratio and must lend 
itself to easy fabrication and assembly. Alu- 
minum is a prime candidate because of its 
low density. However, some aluminum alloys 
are susceptible to crevice corrosion. The dan- 
ger of galvanic corrosion requires that alu- 
minum must be insulated from steel compo- 
nents. Both steel and aluminum are used in 
present submersibles because of their availa- 
bility, ease of fabrication, maintenance, long 
useful life and cost. 

While all submersible pressure hulls, as far 
as is known, are securely and quasi-perma- 
nently affixed to their exostructures, there 
are exceptions. In the case of ALVIN, SEA 
CLIFF and TURTLE, the pressure hulls are 
attached to their exostructures by one steel 
shaft which penetrates the bottom of the 
pressure hull and affixes to the framework. 
In the event of an emergency, such as foul- 
ing or loss of positive buoyancy systems, the 
thru-hull shaft may be manually rotated 
from within the hull to activate a cam and 
release the pressure sphere and sail from the 
main body. Being positively buoyant, the 



sphere is capable of ascending to the surface. 
Electrical connections are the quick discon- 
nect variety which break away as the sphere 
ascends. 

FAIRINGS 

The fairings of submersibles serve three 
purposes: 1) Reduce hydrodynamic drag; 2) 
minimize the potential for fouling with sub- 
merged ropes, cables or other objects and 3) 
allow the vehicle's hatch to be opened on the 
surface without swamping. On the other 
hand, three opposing arguments may be ad- 
vanced against fairings: 1) Submersibles op- 
erate at such low speeds that reduction of 
hydrodynamic drag is unnecessary; 2) if the 
submersible offers sufficient visibility, such 
as an acrylic plastic hull, the operator can 
see all potential hazards and avoid them; 
and 3) opening the hatch before the vehicle is 
safely aboard its support ship is inherently 
dangerous and should be avoided. The count- 
ering arguments are quite valid and would 
suffice but for one obstacle: There is nothing 
predictable about diving or the ocean. Chap- 
ter 14 deals with the fatal and near-fatal 
hazards experienced to date, and it would 
suffice here to present two incidents to show 
the danger of not having fairings: 1) On 17 
June 1973, the acrylic plastic-hulled JOHN- 
SOI\ SEA LINK became entangled in the 
debris of a scuttled destroyer at 360 feet off 
Key West, Florida. The unfaired SEA LINK 
was held 31 hours until pulled free of its 
restraint. Two men in the aft aluminum 
pressure cylinder perished as a result. 2) 
Diving in the Gulf Stream, the submersible 
DEEPSTAR 4000 became separated from its 
support ship SEARCH TIDE while sub- 
merged. Upon surfacing, neither the ship's 
radar nor radio direction finder could locate 
the submersible. As a final resort, a trunk 
surrounding the hatch was inflated and the 
hatch opened, thereupon allowing the opera- 
tor to fire off flares which were seen by the 
surface ship and allowed recovery. No per- 
sonnel perished. 

It is debatable that reduction of hydrody- 
namic drag is necessary. If the vehicle is 
towed, however, some protection against 
drag and wave slap must be provided for its 
cables and external instruments. There is no 
question of the need to reduce fouling poten- 



265 



tial (Fig. 5.19), or to be able to open the hatch 
on the surface. 

The most used fairing material is fiber- 
glass molded and cut to the desired shape, 
and bolted or screwed to the exostructure. 
An aluminum alloy, Alcad 5083, constitutes 
ALUMINAUT's fairing, while plain sheet 
metal serves the purpose on small, privately 
owned submersibles of the SEA OTTER vari- 
ety. Though fiberglass offers a wider variety 
of advantages than metal, e.g., non-corro- 
sive, greater formability, the process of de- 
signing and fabricating a mold is costly, and, 
for one-of-a-kind vehicles, may be excessively 
expensive where sheet metal serves almost 
as well. In vehicles where an echo sounder 
transducer is located within the fairing, it is 
necessary to cut out the fiberglass portion 
the transducer will insonify and install a 
rubber-based section to serve as an "acoustic 
window." 

The overall design of the fairing is an 
individual matter. Obviously it must be so 
configured as to permit the submersible to be 



handled, especially during launch and re- 
trieval. It should also permit easy removal 
for access to external components. For exam- 
ple, DEEPSTAR 4000's fairing (Fig. 5.20a) is 
attached in sections sufficiently small to al- 
low hand-removal and access to any compo- 
nent. On the other hand, the fairing on the 
Navy's DSRV (Fig. 5.20b) may be removed, 
but requires a lifting device which may be 
quite difficult to manage in high seas. 

PRESSURE TESTING 

When the pressure hull is completed, and 
thru-hull penetrators are in place or 
blanked, it is customary to subject the struc- 
ture to pressure tests. For submersibles of 
the BEN FRANKLIN variety, there are no 
options on the choice of test tanks; only the 
ocean is sufficiently large. Hence, pressure 
testing of the hull must be deferred until the 
vehicle is in actual service. For smaller vehi- 
cles, e.g., up to ALVIN-size, there are several 
test facilities throughout the country where 




Fig. 5.19 STAR III approaching an undereiraler structure off Nassau, Bahamas. (Gen. Dyn. Corp.) 

266 



ii^ 




Fig. 5.20 DEEPSTAR 4000 (above) and DSRV-1 (below) with fairings removed. (NAVOCEANO, LMSC) 




267 



TABLE 5.6 U.S. PRESSURE TANK FACILITIES GREATER 
THAN FIVE FEET DIAMETER [FROM REF. (28)] 



Internal Length 
Diam. (ft) (ft) 



Static 

Pressure 

(psi) 



Boston Naval Shipyard 
Boston, Mass 

Elec. Boat Oiv., Gen. Dynamics 
Groton, Conn. 

Mare Island Naval Shipyard 
Vallejo, Calif. 

Naval Civil Engineering Lab. 
Port Hueneme, Calif. 

Naval Mine Engineering Facility 
Yorktown, Pa. 

Naval Ordnance Lab. 
White Oak, Md. 

Naval Research Lab. 
Orlando, Fla. 

Naval Ship Research & Devi. Ctr.^ 
Carderock, Md. 



Naval Ship Research & Devi. Ctr. 
Annapolis, Md. 

Naval Undersea Res. & Devi. Ctr. 
San Diego, Calif. 

Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. 
Newport News, Va. 

Ordnance Research Lab. 
University Park, Pa. 

Perry Submarine Builders 
Riviera Beach, Fla. 

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 
Portsmouth, N.H. 

Puget Sound Naval Shipyard 

Bremerton, Wash. 

Southwest Research Institute 
San Antonio, Texas 



5.0 
8.0 

7.5 



11.5 



8.0 



6.0 



5.0 
5.0 

14.75 



6.0 


12.0 


9.0 


10.0 


2.0 


15.0 


7.0 


13.0 


8.33 


36.5 


8.3 


26.0 


5.0 


9.0 


10 (sphere) 




6.0 


21.0 



30.0 



10.0 


27.0 


5.0 


10.0 


5.0 


23.0 


5.0 


13.75 


8.0 


29.0 


30.0 


75.0 



14.0 



12.0 



1,500 
500 

1,000 

1,000 
550 

3,500 

600 

1,250 

1,000 
20,000 

10,000 

6,000 

1,000 

12,000 

10,000 

1,000 

16,000 

1,300 
600 

600 
1,500 



Cyclic 

Pressure 

(psi) 



None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

0-2,750 

None 



1 CPM 

None 



None 



Pressure 
Medium 



FW/SW' 
FW/SW 

FW 

FW/SW 
FW/SW 

FW/SW 

FW 



FW/SW 



FW 



Temp. 
Control 



None 
None 

None 

None 
None 

None 

None 



0-1,250 






0.2 CPH 


FW 


None 


1,000 






10 CPH 


FW 


12-40OF 


0-10,000 


FW/Oil 


None 


1 CPM 






0-10,000 


Oil/FW/SW 


37-70''F 


0.5 CPM 






0-5,600 


Oil/FW/SW 


None 


1 CPM 






0-1,000 


Oil/FW/SW 


None 


1 CPM 






0-4,000 


SW/FW 


30-100OF 


None 


FW/SW 


28-75''F 


None 


FW/SW 


None 


0-16,000 






1/8 CPH 


FW 


None 


None 


FW 


None 


0-600 


SW 


None 



None 



None 



7.5 19.17 


4,000 


02,000 


FW/SW/Oil 


None 


7.58 (sphere) 


1,200 


0-1,200 


FW/SW 


32-850F 



FW = Fresh water; SW = Seawater 

All tanks to be replaced by one 13.0-ft-diam., 40-ft-long, 3,000-psi tank. 



268 



the entire vehicle can be accommodated (see 
Table 5.6). 

Historically, pressure testing programs 
proceeded along lines which started from 
unmanned, tethered or untethered dives and 
grew progressively deeper to the vehicle's 
maximum operating depth and to some point 
beyond (test depth). Beebe's BATHY- 
SPHERE was lowered on a cable; Auguste 
Piccard's FNRS-2 was equipped with a depth 
gage that dropped ballast at a pre-set depth, 
and a timer that performed the same task if 
the depth gage failed to function. In the 
event that Fl\RS-2 drifted into shallow 
water, an antenna-like object was affixed to 



strike the bottom first and dump ballast 
before the vehicle struck the bottom. In both 
BATHYSPHERE and FNRS-2, the ability of 
the pressure hull to withstand the deep pres- 
sures was observed merely by the presence 
or absence of seawater inside the sphere. 

When large vehicles of the ALUMINAUT 
variety appeared, pressure tests began with 
the finished vehicle making progressively 
deeper, manned dives and conducting strain 
gage readings on each dive. ALVIN, on the 
other hand, was sent down initially un- 
manned to 7,500 feet on a tether before 
manned dives to 6,000 feet were conducted. 

Vehicles of the PAULO I variety (Fig. 5.21) 




Fig 5,21 PAULO I (now SEA OTTER) entering a test tank for pressure testing (Anautics Inc.) 

269 



are amenable, by virtue of their small size, to 
options other than the deep sea. Test tanks 
offer the advantage of being far less expen- 
sive and troublesome than open-ocean test- 
ing; pressures can be better controlled, and 
the test can be monitored more precisely. A 
great advantage lies in the fact that the 
pressure hull alone may be tested prior to 
completion of the entire vehicle. Invariably, 
when the vehicle must be tested as an oper- 
ating unit, failure of operational compo- 
nents, such as motors, depth gages, sonars, 
etc., or inclement weather, results in delayed 
test programs. In a test tank the vehicle may 
be tested component-by-component, then as- 
sembled and tested in its entirety. In the 
event of hull failure, an obvious advantage 
with such testing is that no personnel are 
required in the vehicle. Another advantage 
resides in the speed with which the pressure 
may be relieved or the tank emptied of 



water. If, for example, an electrical penetra- 
tor failed and water began entering the hull, 
the test tank could be emptied in a few 
minutes. 

While unmanned open-sea tests on a tether 
may be as conclusive as tank tests, they 
include the risk that the object being tested 
may be lost. As previously noted, both SP- 
350 and SP-3000 pressure hulls were lost 
when the tethers gave way. 

PRESSURE TEST FACILITIES 

According to reference (29), at least 23 test 
tanks in the U.S. are sufficiently large to 
accommodate submersible pressure hulls of 
5-ft diameter and greater (Table 5.6). With 
the advent of the Ocean Pressure Labora- 
tory at the Annapolis, Maryland-based Na- 
val Ship Research and Development Center, 
whole vehicles such as DEEPSTAR 2000 
(and larger) may be tested in their entirety. 




Fig. 5-22 (a) DEEPSTAR 2000 prepares to enter the US- Naval Ship Research and Development Center s 12.000 psi pressure tank (US Navy) 

270 



Such installations provide thru-chamber con- 
nections from the test specimen to data mon- 
itoring equipment on the outside. Tempera- 
tures may be lowered to those values antici- 
pated w^ithin the vehicle's diving range and 
scope of operations, and some, though not all, 
can use seawater as the pressurizing me- 
dium. 

Other pressure testing facilities are availa- 
ble at private industry and academic institu- 
tions, but the only two reportedly used to 
date for submersible hulls are those of the 
Southwest Research Institute and Perry 
Submarine Builders (Fig. 5.22). Constructed 
primarily for government test programs, 
Navy test facilities may be used by private 
industry at a cost dependent on time and 
effort required, and on a not-to-interfere ba- 
sis. 



PRESSURE HULL 
MEASUREMENTS AND TESTS 

The variety and quantity of pressure hull 
tests are quite numerous. Accompanying 
such tests is the need for documentation and 
recording the results. Although it is not a 
legal requirement, most private American 
submersible owners strive to attain classifi- 
cation by the American Bureau of Shipping. 
Naval submersibles have quite stringent cer- 
tification requirements of their own. Hence, 
the certifying or classifying authorities must 
have written documentation of the tests and 
their results. Prior to 1968, the submersible 
builder had few if any guidelines to follow 
regarding tests and documentation. In 1968 
the Marine Technology Society published 
Safety and Operational Guidelines for Un- 
dersea Vehicles (3) which outlines in detail 



H)iMi!ll!lill|)!|{l^ 




Fig. 5 22 (b) A Perry-built pressure hull entering their test tank (Perry Submarine Builders) 



271 



the many tests and documenting procedures 
their Undersea Vehicle Safety Standards 
Committee feels are necessary to assure a 
safe submersible. 

An indication of the myriad tests followed 
in submersible construction can be attained 
from the fabrication steps and tests for AL- 
VIlS's pressure hull in Table 5.7. At the con- 
clusion of the tests shown in this table, the 
pressure hull was considered a part of the 
vehicle system and tested as such. 

In the course of the pressure test (step 12 
of Table 5.7) on ALVIN's hull, strain gages 
were employed, but another technique is 
used by Perry Submarine Builders which 
follows a volumetric change in the hull. Both 
techniques will be briefly discussed. 

Strain Gage Measurements 

As outlined previously, many known dis- 
continuities are built into the submersible 
hull, e.g., hatches, viewports, electrical pene- 



trations, welds, etc. Such discontinuities are 
calculable. To a great degree, verifying the 
analytical stresses calculated at these dis- 
continuities is measured by strain gages. 
Strain gages consist basically of finely- 
wound wire (the most modern and sensitive 
employ printed circuit techniques) attached 
to the hull where changes in their electrical 
resistance are measured as pressure strains 
the hull. The resistance change in the gage is 
subsequently translated to a change in wire 
length measured in microinches. The final 
results are then compared with the calcu- 
lated results to assure that the latter were 
not exceeded. Placement of the gages is ex- 
tremely critical to assure that the tests are 
valid, and all likely stress areas are meas- 
ured. 

In general, the pressure hull is pressurized 
externally by some medium (seawater, fresh 
water) to a proof test pressure (a value calcu- 
lated in the early stages of design and is 



TABLE 5.7 FABRICATION AND TEST STEPS FOR ALVIN'S PRESSURE HULL [FROM REF. (30)] 



Step 



Inspection and Test 



1. Ingot melt 

2. Roll into slab and flame cut 

3. Spin into hemisphere 

4. Machine internally and mating surface 

5. Weld to form sphere 

6. Machine externally 

7. Cut insert openings 

8. Weld inserts into hull 

9. Clean welds, add hatch, viewports, etc. 

10. Paint to prevent corrosion 

11. Prepare for pressure test 

12. Pressure test 

13. Rework and repaint 

14. Mount into exostructure 



Visual, chemical 

Visual, ultrasonic 

Visual, ultrasonic, temperature 

Dimensional 

XRay, ultrasonic 

Visual, dimensional 

Dimensional 

Visual, XRay, ultrasonic Cocq 

Dimensional 

Visual 

Visual, dimensional 

Visual monitoring of instrumentation 

Visual 

Visual, dimensional fit 



272 



from 1.1 to 1.125 of the vehicle's maximum 
operating depth). Because the submersible 
will be subjected to cyclic pressures, a model 
of it may be subject to cyclic testing where 
the external pressure in the test chamber 
usually is held constant, and the pressure is 
varied within the vehicle's hull. This avoids 
cycling the test chamber. In submersibles 



too large for test chambers strain gages are 
utilized and read by the occupants during 
dives. In some cases a few gages may be left 
on at critical positions and monitored period- 
ically during the vehicle's operations. An 
example of a strain gage reading and its 
location is provided in Figure 5.23 from 
DSRV-2 tests (37). 



STRAIN GAGE LOCATIONS 



237 235 




2600 



SYMBOLS ON PLOTS: 




2400 


• POINTS OF INCREASING 






PRESSURE 




2200 


O POINTS OF RETURN TO 






ZERO PRESSURE 


a. 


2000 




1800 




LU 

a: 


1600 




CO 

(/) 

LLI 

a. 


1400 




O 

1- 
< 
1- 
co 
O 
ir 

Q 

>- 
I 


1200 

1000 

800 









T 
















4 
















\ 


















































i 






























































j 


• 














J 














/ 


/ 




G/ 


VGE i: 


i5 


l^.....^ 


^ 


y 













^ EQUIV. 
5,000-FT. 
DEPTH IN 
SEAWATER 



600 
400 
200 



200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 

STRAIN /ulN. /IN. ( + ) 
Fig. 5.23 Strain gage readings and location on viewport of DSRV-2. 



273 



Volumetric Measurements 

An approach has been taken by Perry Sub- 
marine Builders adopted from the Com- 
pressed Gas Association which tests gas stor- 
age vessels throughout the United States, as 
well as other internally pressurized systems 
such as pipelines. In this procedure (31) the 
pressure hull is filled with water, each com- 



partment is sealed pressure tight, and the 
hull is placed in a pressure tank (Fig. 5.24) 
which is then flooded and pressurized. Each 
vehicle compartment contains an efflux line 
leading through the test tank to a bank of 
graduated cylinders called volumeters. Small 
preliminary pressure is applied to force out 
pockets of air and shake down the system. 



UJ 

z 
< 
I 
o 
m 



O 
> 




VOLUMETER 



TEST TANK 



INELASTIC REGION 



PROPORTIONAL 
LIMIT 

OPERATIONAL PRESSURE 




ELASTIC REGION 



-INITIAL TAKE-UP 



-^»- 



PRESSURE INCREASING 



Fig. 5.24 Chart showing pressure-volume change during hydrostatic tank test. (From Perry Submarine Builders) 



274 



The pressure is then built up incrementally 
while the change in volume in the volume- 
ters is recorded. At a pressure point where 
critical behavior is predicted, the pressure 
increments are decreased and the test pro- 
ceeds very slowly while watching for the first 
sign of a non-linear volume change. When 
this occurs it is taken to be the onset of a 
transition from elastic to plastic yield in the 
hull structure. In the initial development of 
this technique, strain gages are attached to 
compare the test results, and to assist in 
locating the local effects which caused test 
termination. Without the assistance of strain 
gages, it would be virtually impossible to tell 
precisely where the critical stress occurred. 

For larger vehicles some measure of the 
pressure hull behavior is attained through 
model testing. In this procedure a scale 
model is constructed in the same fashion and 
of the same materials as the hull; the model 
is then subjected to pressure testing in a 
tank as if it were the full scale hull. Such 
scale models are occasionally tested to fail- 
ure as a means of verifying calculations. 

Pressure tanks themselves can be ex- 
tremely complex, sensitive and potentially 
dangerous. Mavor (32) reported a tank fail- 
ure at 4,300 psi, with one of ALVIN's hulls 
inside, which blew off a hatch but left the 
windows undamaged and tight. 

Endo and Yamaguchi (33) present an excel- 
lent description of pressure and materials 
testing facilities at Mitsubishi Heavy Indus- 
tries. The paper is not only a good summari- 
zation of the devices available, but includes 
requirements for deep submergence mate- 
rials as well. 

CORROSION AND ITS 
CONTROL 

As will become evident in later sections, a 
great quantity of dissimilar metals are 
joined and juxtaposed within the exostruc- 
ture and the pressure hull. Corrosion protec- 
tion and control is another concern of past 
and present submersible builders. 

Corrosion control on submersibles which 
are routinely launched/retrieved for each 
dive is somewhat less complicated than those 
continuously in the water — mainly because 
vehicles removed from the sea may be 



washed with fresh water and will dry. On the 
other hand, availability of components and 
cost result in a situation where less than 
optimum corrosion resistance and galvani- 
cally incompatible materials must be used. 
Likewise, cathodic protection as a general 
method often is impractical and difficult ow- 
ing to the geometrical complexity of compo- 
nents. Though procedures for corrosion con- 
trol vary from vehicle-to-vehicle, certain 
problems are common to all. Consequently, 
the procedures followed in the DEEPSTAR 
submersibles fairly well represent a number 
of common problems and solutions. Symonds 
and Woodland (34) present the steps taken to 
prevent corrosion on DEEPSTAR 20000 
based on 4 years of operational experience 
with DEEPSTAR 4000. These are summa- 
rized below. 

Four areas of potential corrosion were rec- 
ognized on the DS-20000: General corrosion, 
galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion and 
stress corrosion. 

General Corrosion 

Two protective measures were foreseen to 
prevent general corrosion: Painting and 
cathodic protection. 

Painting: 

According to DS-20000''s specifications al- 
most all metallic vehicle components would 
be painted by a polyurethane paint system 
known as Magna Laminar X-500. On the 
pressure sphere, four layers are applied: 
Wash primer, primer, primer surface and a 
finish coat. On other components the primer- 
surface layer is omitted. Where viewports, 
hatch and electrical penetrators join the 
hull, two priming layers of the Magna Lami- 
nar X-500 are applied and, subsequently, sili- 
cone grease is applied during assembly. 

Cathodic Protection: 

A comprehensive cathodic protection sys- 
tem would be impractical owing to the com- 
plex geometry which requires placement of a 
large number of anodes at the sacrifice of 
weight and space. Because of coating defects, 
zinc anodes in the form of flexible steel-cored 
line known as Diamond Line was proposed 
because its flexibility permits adaptation to 
a number of complex geometrical situations. 
Lengths of Diamond Line would be attached 



275 



to the four exostructure mounting lugs and 
at the hatch hinge mounting. 

Galvanic Corrosion 

To prevent corrosion caused by the electro- 
chemical reaction between two dissimilar 
metals in electrical contact with one another, 
a great deal of effort was made to minimize 
the area of exposed surfaces by painting 
them. To prevent galvanic attack on the 
pressure hull, electrical insulation between 
it and adjacent titanium alloy structural 
members was provided in the design. Small 
lead weights (dropped individually to attain 
positive buoyancy) are held by steel hooks 
cast in the top of each weight. To prevent 
galvanic attack between hook and weight, a 
plastic sleeve covers each hook. 

Crevice Corrosion 

To minimize crevice corrosion, non-drain- 
ing crevices are kept to a minimum and a 
thorough fresh water wash down after each 
dive is specified. Protection of areas impossi- 
ble to wash is called for as follows: a) Be- 
cause contact between fairing and metallic 
exostructure members would be too snug to 
permit washing, such members would be fab- 
ricated from a titanium alloy (Ti-6%, Al-4% 
V) which is immune from corrosion under 
such conditions, b) The 0-ring groove in an 
aluminum propulsion controller housing 
forms a perfect crevice in a corrosion-suscep- 
tible material. Hard coat anodizing and scal- 
ing of the aluminum and a coating of silicone 
grease is specified, based on experience with 
DEEPSTAR 4000. 

Stress Corrosion 

Components of DEEPSTAR 20000 which 
could be stressed under tension were de- 
signed so that failure would not occur from 
stress corrosion crack propagation or corro- 
sion fatigue. Fracture mechanics methods 
were applied to safeguard against such envi- 
ronmental effects. Fracture mechanics anal- 
ysis determines if stress corrosion will occur 
at flaws, e.g., welds, and if such flaws will 
grow under cyclic loading to a point where 
stress corrosion will occur. The method 
works in the following manner: A defect of a 
particular maximum size is assumed in the 
component (the limitation of this maximum 
size is attained from non-destructive testing 



of the component) and if, through cyclic load- 
ing, this defect will grow to a size where 
stress corrosion can occur, then the compo- 
nent is unacceptable. DEEPSTAR 20000's 
variable ballast tanks are composed of tita- 
nium (in which crack propagation can pro- 
ceed at rates of inches/hour), and fracture 
mechanics showed that 4,000 cycles of load- 
ing were required before cracks would grow 
to a critical depth at which stress corrosion 
would occur. Similar calculations were made 
on the pressure hull weldments; they, too, 
show acceptable limits. 

The corrosion control program on DEEP- 
STAR 20000 was based primarily on the fact 
that the vehicle would be taken out of the 
water following each dive, thus permitting 
easy field maintenance and repair to chipped 
paint (the first line of defense against corro- 
sion), etc. Components considered most sus- 
ceptible to corrosion, and least protectable 
were designed for easy removal, and spares 
would be carried for replacement. Such was 
the case with the cast aluminum alloy pro- 
peller blades. 

Protective painting, a thorough fresh 
water washdown, inspection and an onboard 
inventory of replacement parts constitute 
the major corrosion control program in sub- 
mersibles today. 

In large, complex vehicles where all compo- 
nents are not situated for easy routine main- 
tenance and repair, considerable effort must 
be expended to combat corrosion. Rynewicz 
(35) outlines the corrosion control methods in 
the DSRV and the results of test programs 
leading to these methods. A number of these 
methods were gained from operating experi- 
ence (45 dives) with DEEP QUEST. 

For a thorough and rigorous treatment of 
the entire scope of materials for ocean engi- 
neering, the reader is referred to the work of 
Koichi Masubuchi (36) who has left no stone 
unturned in treating materials, fabrication, 
selection, testing and protection of pressure 
hulls and associated structures. 

REFERENCES 

1. Shankman, A. D. 1968 Materials for 
pressure hulls — present and future. Na- 
val Eng. Jour., v. 80, n. 6, p. 972-979. 

2. Link, M. C. 1973 Windows In The Sea. 

Smithsonian Inst., Wash., D.C. 



276 



3. Lindberg, R. I. 1968 ALVMINAUT— 
Three years later. Amer. Soc. for Testing 
and Materials, Sp. Tech. Pub. 445, p. 88- 
92. 

4. Bernstein, H. 1965 Materials for deep 
submergence in ocean science and 
ocean engineering. Trans. Mar. Tech. 
Soc, 14-17 June 1965, Wash., D.C., v. 1. 

5. Stachiw, J. D. 1971 Window In The Sea. 
Smithsonian Institution Press, Wash., 
DC, 31 pp. 

6. Ottsen, H. 1970 The Spherical Acrylic 
Pressure Hull for Hydrospace Applica- 
tion; Part III — Comparison of Experi- 
mental and Analytical Stress Evalua- 
tions for Prototype NEMO Capsule. 
Tech. Note N-1094, Naval Civil Engineer- 
ing Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif. 

7. Stachiw, J. D. 1970 Development of 
Spherical Acrylic Plastic Pressure Hull 
for Hydrospace Application. Tech. Rept. 
R 676, Naval Civil Engineering Labora- 
tory, Port Hueneme, Calif. 

8. Stachiw, J. D. 1970 The Spherical 
Acrylic Pressure Hull for Hydrospace 
Application; Part IV — Cyclic Fatigue of 
NEMO Capsule #3. Tech. Note N-1134, 
Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, 
Port Hueneme, Calif. 

9. Stachiw, J. D. 1971 Spherical Acrylic 
Pressure Hull for Undersea Explora- 
tion. Amer. Soc. of Mech. Engineers, Pa- 
per 70-WA/Unt-3. 

10. Stachiw, J. D. and Mick, K. L. 1970 The 
Spherical Acrylic Pressure Hull for Hy- 
drospace Application; Part II — Experi- 
mental Stress Evaluation of Prototype 
NEMO Capsule. Tech. Note N-1113, Na- 
val Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port 
Hueneme, Calif. 

11. Kiernan, T. J. and Krenske, M. A. 1968 
Future pressure hulls for deep submer- 
gence. SPE Jour., v. 24, n. 12, p. 56-62. 

12. Gross, J. 1969 Hydrospace steels. Sci. & 
Tech., n. 95, p. 4-11. 

13. Ballinger, J. M. and Garland, C. (no date) 
Some R&D Considerations for Sub- 
mersible Materials. Sun Shipbuilding 
and Dry Dock Co., Rept., Chester, Pa. 

14. Stachiw, J. D. 1968 Plywood hulls for 
underwater vehicles. Undersea Tech., 
Sept., p. 44-45. 



15. Stachiw, J. D. 1967 Concrete pressure 
hulls for ocean floor installations. Jour. 
Ocn. Tech., v. 1, p. 19-28. 

16. Opsahl, R. and Terrana, D. B. 1967 How 
the PX-15 hull tvas constructed. Ocn. 
Ind., Oct. 

17. Covey, C. W. 1964 ALUMINAUT. Under- 
sea Tech., Sept., p. 15-23. 

18. Rockwell, P. K., Elliott, R. E. and Snoey, 
M. R. 1971 NEMO A New Concept in 
Submersibles. Naval Civil Engineering 
Laboratory, Tech. Rept. R. 749, 68 pp. 

19. Forman, W. R. 1969 Submersibles with 
transparent structural hulls. Astronau- 
tics & Aeronautics, Apr., p. 38-43. 

20. Bynum, D. J. and DeHart, R. C. 1963 
Experimental Stress Analysis of a Model 
of the ALVIN Hull. Southwest Res. Inst. 
Rept. 

21. DeHart, R. C. 1969 External-pressure 
structures. Handbook of Ocean and Un- 
derwater Engineering. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York, p. 9.1-9.20. 

22. Snoey, M. R. and Stachiw, J. D. 1968 
Windoivs and transparent hulls for man 
in hydrospace. Mar. Tech. Soc. Trans., 
4th Ann. Conf. Exhibit, 8-10 July, p. 419- 
463. 

23. Lankes, L. R. 1970 Vietving Systems for 
Submersibles. Optical Spectra, May, p. 
62-67. 

24. Edgerton, H. E. 1967 The instruments of 
deep-sea photography. Deep-Sea Photog- 
raphy, The Johns Hopkins Press, Balti- 
more, Md., p. 47-54. 

25. Dunn, G. M. and Stachiw, J. D. 1966 
Acrylic windows for underwater struc- 
tures. Photo-Optics Seminar at Santa 
Barbara, Calif., Oct. 11, Soc. of Photo- 
Optical Instrumentation Engineers. 

26. Snoey, M. R. and Katona, M. G. 1970 
Structurtil Design of Conical Acrylic 
Viewports. Naval Civil Engineering Lab- 
oratory Tech. Rept. R. 686, 57 pp. 

27. Purcell, J. and Kriedt, F. 1969 Oxygen 
systems monel vs. stainless steel. Paper 
presented at the 6th Ann. Tech. Sym. of 
the Assoc, of Senior Engineers, Naval 
Ship Systems Command, Wash., D.C. 

28. Penzias, W. and Goodman, M. W. 1973 
Man Beneath the Sea. Wiley and Son, 
Inc., New York, 831 pp. 



277 



29. AUnutt, R. B. 1972 Deep Sea Simulation 
Facilities. Naval Ship Research & Devel- 
opment Center, Bethesda, Md., Rept. 
3825 (unpub. manuscript). 

30. Marine Technology Society 1968 Safety 
and Operational Guidelines for Under- 
sea Vehicles. Mar. Tech. See, Wash., D.C. 

31. Crawford, B. 1971 A volumetric tech- 
nique for evaluating pressure vessels. 
Mar. Tech. Soc. Jour., v. 5, n. 5, p. 7-13. 

32. Mavor, J. W., Jr. 1966 Observation win- 
dons of the deep submersible ALVIN. 
Jour. Ocn. Tech., v. 1, n. 1, p. 2-16. 

33. Endo, M. and Yamaguchi, T. 1972 Testing 
facilities for research and of deep sub- 
mergence vessels. Reprints The 2nd In- 
ternational Ocn. Dev. Conf., Tokyo, v. 1, 
p. 870-894. 



34. Symonds, J. and Woodland, B. T. 1970 
Corrosion protection on DEEPSTAR 
submersibles. Reprints of the 6th Ann. 
Conf. and Expo., Mar. Tech. Soc, June 
29^uly 1, Wash., D.C, v. 2, p. 1233-1245. 

35. Rynewicz, J. F. 1970 Corrosion control 
for the DEEP SUBMERGENCE RESCUE 
VEHICLE. Reprints of the 6th Ann. Conf. 
and Expo., Mar. Tech. Soc, June 29^uly 
1, Wash., D.C, v. 2, p. 1247-1263. 

36. Masubuchi, K. 1970 Materials for Ocean 
Engineering. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, 
Mass., 496 pp., 1 Appendix. 

37. Senos, J. J. 1971 V2 Scale Model Test of 
DSRV Pressure Hull. Naval Ship Re- 
search & Development Center Rept. No. 
352B, Jan. 



278 




BALLASTING AND TRIM SYSTEMS 



In addition to descending to the bottom, 
ascending to the surface and running hither 
and yon, submersibles must make small ad- 
justments in buoyancy and trim when sub- 
merged. Such changes serve the following 
purposes: To follow a sloping bottom, to han- 
dle additional weight in the form of water or 
biological/geological samples, and to surface 
with sufficient freeboard for safe transfer of 
personnel and equipment. All of these func- 
tions are performed by changes in the vehi- 
cle's buoyancy or trim. The approaches to 
buoyancy and trim control are many, and 
most are successful. In some cases trim 
changes are accomplished dynamically with 
the vehicle's thrusters and dive planes. But 
use of thrusters calls for electrical power 



which is limited, and attitude changes using 
dive planes require that the submersible be 
underway, a condition not always compatible 
with the mission. 

The nature and capacity of a ballasting 
system depend upon several factors, but the 
total submerged displacement of the vehicle 
and the desired payload assume primary im- 
portance. Other considerations might include 
desired reaction time of buoyancy changes 
and the anticipated number of cycles such 
changes may require on one dive. 

WEIGHT AND VOLUME 
ESTIMATES 

As a first approximation, the designer may 



279 



prepare a form which groups together: 
Structures: Pressure hull, exostructure, fair- 
ings; 

Propulsion and Electrical Plants: Propellers, 
thrusters, batteries; 

Communication and Control: Underwater 
telephone, steering controls, radio; 
Auxiliary Systems: High pressure air, ballast- 
ing, life support; 

Outfit and Furnishings: Hull fitting, chairs, 
paint; 

Crew and Instrumentation: Crew, scientific 
and operational instruments, tools. 

An estimate is made of the weight, dis- 
placement volume and centers of gravity and 
buoyancy of each item within the preceding 
group. When such calculations are made, the 
elements of the vehicle must be adjusted in 
size and placement until two conditions are 



nearly met: 1) The sum of all weights must 
be equal to the weight of the water displaced 
by all buoyant volumes; and 2) the resultant 
center of gravity of all weights must be 
below and in a vertical line with the result- 
ant center of buoyancy. 

Rechnitzer and Gorman (1) treat in detail 
the procedures for calculating submerged 
displacement of various components and 
housings used in submersibles. Final adjust- 
ment to attain neutral submerged buoyancy 
is made with fixed, positive (e.g., syntactic 
foam) ballast or fixed negative (e.g., lead 
weights) ballast either inside or outside the 
pressure hull. 

Vincent and Stavovy (2) present figures for 
the average weight of components within the 
preceding list; these are as follows: 

Structures 65% 



TABLE 6.1 PRELIMINARY WEIGHT AND BUOYANCY ESTIMATES 





Weight 


Vert Ref = B.L. 


Long 
LCG 


Ref = F.P. 
Moment 


Buoyancy 
(Pounds) 


Vert Ref = B.L. 
VCB Moment 


Long 1 
LCB 


=ief = F.P. 




VCG 


Moment 


Moment 


Description 


Pounds 


(In.) 


(In. -Lb) 


(In.) 


(In.- Lb) 


Seawater 


(In.) 


(In.- Lb) 


(In.) 


(In. -Lb) 


Main Sphere (Steel) 


2,590 


55 


142,450 


58 


150,220 


9,210 


55 


506,550 


58 


534,180 


Main Sphere (Acrylic) 


2,280 


55 


125,400 


58 


132,240 


9,210 


55 


506,550 


58 


534,180 


L - Sphere 


1,960 


61 


119,560 


178.5 


349,860 


5,870 


61 


358,070 


178.5 


1,047,795 


Variable Ballast Sphere 


330 


53 


17,490 


118 


38,940 


640 


53 


33,920 


118 


75,520 


Ballast Air Bottles 


680 


62 


42,160 


140 


95,200 


535 


62 


33,200 


140 


75,000 


Breathing Air Bottles 


680 


61 


41,480 


153 


104,040 


535 


61 


32,620 


153 


81,900 


Battery Box Top 


2,590 


86 


222,740 


119 


308,210 


1,000 


86 


86,000 


119 


119,000 


Battery Box Bottom 


2,550 


25 


63,750 


121 


308,550 


1,000 


25 


25,000 


121 


121,000 


Prop Pods 


900 


60 


54,000 


116 


104,400 


130 


60 


7,800 


116 


15,080 


Drop Weight 


550 


13 


7,150 


58 


31,900 


50 


13 


650 


58 


2,900 


Fairing 


1,200 


54 


64,800 


112 


134,400 


480 


54 


25,900 


112 


53,800 


Framing 


1,250 


54 


67,500 


112 


140,000 


20 


54 


1,080 


112 


2,240 


Int. Equipment (Mn Sph) 


1,200 


55 


66,000 


58 


69,600 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Int. Equipment (L-OSph.) 300 


61 


18,300 


178.5 


53,550 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hatches & Inserts (L- 0) 


800 


32 


25,600 


178.5 


142,800 


40 


32 


1,280 


178.5 


71,400 


Payload 






















Steel Sphere 


2,100 


51.5 


108,000 


89.5 


2,219,670 


170 


51.5 


8,750 


89.5 


15,200 


Acrylic Sphere 


1,450 


45 


65,300 


100 


2,220,180 


120 


45 


5,400 


100 


12,000 


Totals 






















Steel Sphere 


19,680 


54 


1,060,980 


112.5 


2,219,670 


19,680 


57 


1,120,820 


112.5 


2,215,015 


Acrylic Sphere 


19,630 


54 


1,060,110 


112.5 


2,220,180 


19,630 


57 


1,117,470 


112.5 


2,211,815 



B.L. - Base Line 

F.P. - Forward Perpendicular 



VCG - Vertical Center of Gravity 
LCG - Longitudinal Center of Gravity 



VCB - Vertical Center of Buoyancy 
LCB - Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy 
L.O. - Lockout 



280 



Propulsion and Electrical 

Plants 

Communication and Control 

Auxiliary Systems 

Outfit and Furnishings 

Crew and Instrumentation 



13% 
3% 

14% 
1% 

4% 



Obviously, these percentages are generali- 
ties and cannot be applied to a specific vehi- 
cle. The most perplexing values to attain are 
those for instruments which vary widely 



from one manufacturer to the next. Chapter 
11 presents weight and size data for selected 
scientific instrumentation and essentially re- 
flects curi'ent state-of-the-art. Table 6.1 pre- 
sents calculations prepared for a vehicle pro- 
posed by International Hydrodynamics and 
serves as an example of the data needed for 
weight, volume and buoyancy calculations. 

A further example of the complexity in- 
volved in building and "sizing" a submers- 



TABLE6.2 ALUMINAUT CONTRACTORS 



Southwest Research 


Initial feasibility study 


Curtis Manufac- 


Steering and diving 


Modern Metals 


Fabrication and manu- 


Institute 


in 1958-1959, with 


turing Co. 


mechanisms and special 


Manufacturing Co. 


facturing of electrical 


San Antonio, Texas 


Reynolds. 


Bunnell Division 


tools. 


New York, NY. 


panels and boxes. 


Electric Boat Division, 


Prime contractor for 


Cleveland, Ohio 




Marotta Valve Corp 


Water ballast valves. 


General Dynamics 


design and building ves- 


Danko-Arlington, Inc. 


Castings. 


Boonlon, New Jersey 




Gfoton, Conn 


sel. 


Baltimore, Md. 




Northrop Nortronics 


Speed and distance 


Reynolds Metals Co. 


Cast aluminum ingots 


DeLackner Helicop 


Precision hull studs. 


Precision Products 


navigation equipment. 


Sheet and Plate Works 


for hull sections. 


tors. Inc. 


propulsion gear boxes 


Norwood, Mass. 




McCook, Illinois 




Mt. Vernon, NY. 


and emergency drop 


Oceanographic 


Pan and tilt control 


Ladish Company 


Forging and shaping of 


Edgerton, Germes- 


Underwater lights and 


Engineering Corp. 


system. 


Cudahy, Wise. 


hull sections. 


hausen & Grier, Inc. 


TV equipment. 


La Jolla, Calif. 




Nordberg Manufac- 


Precision machining 


Boston, Mass. 




Ocean Research 


High pressure testing. 


turing Co. 


and assembly of hull 


Exide Industrial Div. 


Silver-zinc batteries. 


Equipment, Inc. 




Milwaukee, Wise. 


sections. 


Electric Storage 




Falmouth, Mass. 








Battery 

Philadelphia, Pa. 




Bhss-Portland 
Division of E. W. 


Fabrication of keel, 
ballast tanks, stern and 


Equipment and Service Suppliers 


Feedback Controls, Inc. 


Dead reckoning an 


BhssCo. 


superstructure. 






Natuck, Mass. 


alyzer. 


South Portland, Me. 




Acme Electric Corp. 


Electrical transformers 


General Electric Co. 


Propulsion and steering 


Sangamo Electric Co 


Amp-hour meters. 


Cuba, New York 




Erie, Pa. 


motors and manipu- 


Springfield, III. 




Aero Industries, Inc. 


Pilot's chair. 




lator. 


Sperry Piedmont Co. 


Gyrocompass. 


Greenwich, Conn. 




International 


Remote indicating 


Charlottesville, Va. 




Alloy Flange & 
Fitting Corp. 


Flanges and fittings. 


Resistance Co. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


systems. 


Stevens Institute 
of Technology 


Hydrodynamic studies. 


Brooklyn, New York 




Kaar Engineering Corp. 


Radio-telephone com- 


Hoboken, New Jersey 




Amchien Products, Inc. 


Special finish for alu- 


Palo Alto, Calif. 


munications. 


Straza Industries 


CTFM scanning sonar. 


Bristol, Conn. 


minum. 


G. W. Lisk Company 


Ballast control sole- 


ElCaion, Cahf. 


and underwater phone. 


Bonney, Forge & 


Fittings. 


Clifton-Springs, N.Y. 


noids. 


Trident Engineering 


Engineering study of 


Tool Works 




Lord Manufacturing Co. 


Vibration and shock 


Associates 


sea support systems. 


Allentown, Pa. 




Erie, Pa. 


isolation equipment. 


Annapolis, Md. 




Clearfloat, Inc. 


Viewing port windows. 


Magna Coating & 


Special finish for alu 


Triton Marine Products 


Depth sounder-receiver. 


Attleboro, Mass. 




Chemicals Corp. 


minum. 


Port Washington, 


transmitter, recorder. 


Cohu Electronics, Inc. 


Miniaturized TV cam- 


Los Angeles, Calif. 




New York 




Kintel Division 


era and monitors. 


Marsh & Marine 


ffull penetrating con 


Westinghouse Electric 


Bottom scanning sonar. 


San Diego, Calif. 




Manufacturing Co. 


nectors and underwater 


Undersea Division 




Cosmos Industries, Inc. 


Navigation equipment. 


Houston, Texas 


cable. 


Baltimore, Md. 




Long Island City, 




Michigan Wheel Co. 


Propellers. 






New York 




Grand Rapids, Mich. 









281 



ible is seen in Table 6.2, taken from reference 
(3), which shows the numerous subcontrac- 
tors the prime contractor dealt with at var- 
ious stages in development and fabrication of 
ALUMINAUT. 

COMPRESSED AIR AND 
DEBALLASTING 

The most universally applied power source 
on submersibles to empty the main or varia- 
ble ballast tanks of water is compressed air. 
However, compressed air is useful only to 
certain depths where the volume and pres- 
sure required to store it is practical, and 
where its density under pressure provides 
effective buoyancy. In many vehicles varia- 
ble ballast tanks are pumped dry; in this 
case, the tanks must be able to withstand 
ambient pressures. The following discusses 
the application of compressed air for water 
deballasting. 

A discussion of compressed air is virtually 
impossible without defining certain terms. 
The following are taken from the U.S. Navy 
Diving Manual. 

Gage Pressure (psig): The difference between 
the pressure being measured and the sur- 
rounding atmospheric pressure. The zero on 
ordinary gages indicates atmospheric pres- 
sure and, except where otherwise specified, 
almost all pressure readings are gage pres- 
sure. When the pressure in a tank is given as 
1,000 psi, this means it is 1,000 psi above 
atmospheric pressure. When it is desirable to 
indicate that a pressure is gage, it is custom- 
ary to express it as pounds per square inch, 
gage (psig). Gage pressure is a commonly 
used expression in the submersible field, al- 
though many manufacturers do not state 
psig. 

Absolute Pressure (psia): The true or total 
pressure being exerted, consisting of the 
gage pressure plus 1 atmosphere of pressure 
(14.7). Absolute pressure is commonly 
expressed as pounds per square inch, abso- 
lute (psia) and this value is always used in 
equations describing gas behavor. 
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP): 
The volume a gas occupies at 14.7 psia and 
32°F (760 mm Hg absolute; °C). Under these 
conditions is derived a Standartl Cubic Foot 
(SCF). 



Normal Temperature and Pressure (INTP): 

The volume occupied by a gas at 14.7 psia 
and 68°F. "Normal" is a relative term and 
can also be taken at 70° or 72°F. 

In addition to the above terms are two gas 
laws which describe the behavior of air un- 
der varying conditions: 

Boyle's Law states that if the temperature 
is kept constant, the volume of gas will vary- 
inversely as the absolute pressure ivhile the 
density will vary directly fts the pressure. 

Charles's Law states that if the pressure is 
kept constant, the volume of a gas ivill vary 
directly as the absolute temperature. 

These two laws are combined to relate 
pressure, volume and temperature in a gen- 
eral gas law expressed as: 



Pi V, 



P,V, 



where: T, ~ Tj 

Pi = initial pressure (absolute) 

V, = initial volume 

Ti = initial temperature (absolute) 
and 

Pj = final pressure (absolute) 

Vj = final volume 

Tj = final temperature (absolute) 

The air supply for blowing water ballast is 
carried aboard submersibles in cylindrical 
containers referred to as either tanks, flasks 
or bottles. These tanks may be made of an- 
aluminum alloy, steel or other special mate- 
rials. The capacity (generally expressed in 
cubic feet) of such tanks is the amount of air 
or gas the tank holds when charged to its 
rated pressure. The rated pressure (also 
called "service pressure" or "working pres- 
sure") is the internal pressure to which the 
tank can be repeatedly filled without causing 
abnormal metal fatigue. In the U.S., the 
Department of Transportation maintains 
regulations for design and manufacture of 
high pressure cylinders, and, if made of steel, 
their pressure rating is stamped on the cylin- 
der. Cylinders with pressure ratings of 1,800 
to 5,000 psig are available, but 2,400 psig and 
3,000 psig are most common. A 70-ft^ tank, 
for example, filled to its rated 2,250 psig 
would contain sufficient air to fill an enclo- 
sure of 70-ft3 volume at a pressure of 14.7 psi; 
the actual physical volume of the tank would 
be about 2 ft^. 



282 



High pressure gas (air) cylinders are gen- 
erally hydrostatically tested at 1.5 or 1.66 
times their rated pressure and may have a 
burst pressure of 2 to 4 times the rated. A 
safety release device is usually required in 
these tanks. 

Another safety precaution in the handling 
of compressed air, or any gas, is color coding 
the tank. Although submersible owners are 
not required to abide by any particular cod- 
ing system, and few do, both the American 
Bureau of Shipping and the U.S. Naval Ma- 
terial Command recommend that a color code 
be followed as presented in Table 6.3. 

The amount and service pressure of air 
carried aboard submersibles varies consider- 
ably and depends upon the depth from which 
the water ballast is to be operated and the 
volume of the ballast tanks. 

Virtually all vehicles diving to 2,000 feet or 
less use compressed air to blow main and 
variable ballast. Quite frequently both a 
high and low pressure system are employed: 
The low pressure to blow main ballast at the 
surface, and the high pressure to blow main 
ballast in an emergency or the variable bal- 
last tanks when submerged. For example, 
BEN FRANKLIN uses a 1,422-psi low pres- 
sure system to blow main ballast on the 
surface and a 2,874-psi system to blow main 
ballast at 2,000 feet in an emergency. 



As mentioned, the service pressure of bal- 
last blow tanks varies widely from vehicle-to- 
vehicle. The 150-ft depth vehicle of All Ocean 
Industries carries 40 ft^ of compressed air in 
two diver-type scuba tanks at 2,250 psi; the 
15,000-ft ALUMINAUT carries a 4,500-psi 
supply of air which is used to blow water 
ballast to 4,000 feet in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

When air is used to force water ballast out 
of a tank in open communication with am- 
bient seawater, its effectiveness as both a 
deballasting and buoyant force is a function 
of depth (pressure) and temperature. It is in 
this context that air shall be considered in 
the following. From Chapter 2 it was seen 
that pressure increases at a rate of 14.7 psi 
with every 33 feet of depth. Temperature, on 
the other hand, decreased with depth at a 
rate dependent upon geographic location and 
time of year. To force water out of a ballast 
tank into the sea with compressed air, the 
air must exert a pressure exceeding that of 
the surrounding water. Having removed this 
water, the weight of the vehicle is now much 
less and the vehicle attains a buoyant up- 
ward force, but air under seawater pressure 
is of greater density than air at atmospheric 
pressure and this density must be taken into 
account when employing an air deb allasting 
scheme. 



TABLE 6.3 RECOMMENDED COLOR CODING IN PIPING AND COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS 







Designation 








Color 


Paini 


t 


Gas 


ABS 




USN 


ABS 










USN 


Air (low or high pressure) 


ALP, AHP 




ALP, AHP 


Black 










Black 


Helium 


He 




He 


Buff 










Buff 


Oxygen 










Green 










Green 


Helium-Oxygen Mix 


HeO 




HeO 


Orange 










Buff and Green 


Nitrogen 


N 




l\l 


Light Gi 


ray 








Light Gray 


Exhaust 


E 




E 


Silver 










Silver 


Hydrogen 


H 




H 


Yellow 










Brown 



283 



Examining- Table 6.4, it is seen that air 
under a pressure of 4,498 psia (10,000 ft) and 
70°F has a density of 20.59 pcf (pounds per 
cubic foot), and at 2,246 psia (5,000 ft) and 
70°F its density is almost half this or 11.43 
pcf. Seawater has an average density of 64.4 
pcf; air at 4,498 psia is approximately Vs as 
dense as seawater, whereas air at 2,246 psia 
is about Ve its density; hence, air's ability to 
provide a buoyant force decreases with in- 
creased depth or pressure. At much greater 
depths the density of air can reach that of 
seawater where it supplies no lift whatever. 

Boyle's law states, in part, that the volume 
of €1 g€is will vfMry inversely as the absolute 
pressure; in other words, the greater the 
pressure the less the volume. This is another 
major factor influencing the use of com- 
pressed air for water deballasting. For exam- 
ple. Fig. 6.1 shows the interior of the AU- 
GUSTE PICCARD with the tanks holding 
compressed air for blowing main ballast af- 
fixed port and starboard to the top of the 



hull. There are 42 air tanks of 1.67-ft'' volume 
each which are charged to a working pres- 
sure of 3,570 psia. The main ballast tanks on 
this vehicle, of which there are 12, have a 
total capacity of 842.5 ft^. If the entire air 
supply was used to blow ballast at 2,500 feet 
(1,127.5 psia), 221.6 ft^ of water would be 
displaced; in order to completely empty the 
main ballast tanks, almost four times the 
number of air tanks now carried would be 
required. In short, the mere physical re- 
quirements of the air tanks to blow water 
ballast at great depths would be unaccepta- 
ble on a weight and volume basis alone in 
present submersibles. Additionally, the air 
itself in these tanks would weigh in the 
neighborhood of 1,206 pounds (70°F; 3,570 
psia), which is in excess of the payload in 
most currently operating vehicles. In spite of 
the disadvantages noted, compressed air re- 
mains the chief source of water deballasting 
and buoyancy in the majority of shallow- 
diving vehicles. 



TABLE 6.4 AIR DENSITY (PCF) AS A FUNCTION OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE^ 



Depth 


Pressure 








Temperature ("Fl 








(Ft) 


PSIA 


ATM 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


100 





14.70 


1.00 


00.08, 


00.08 


00.08 


00.08 


00.08 


00.07 


00.07 


00.07 


100 


59.14 


4.02 


00.33 


00.32 


00.31 


00.31 


00.30 


00.30 


00.29 


00.29 


200 


103.58 


7.05 


00.57 


00.56 


00.55 


00.54 


00.53 


00.52 


00.51 


00.50 


300 


148.03 


10.07 


00.82 


00.80 


00.79 


00.77 


00.76 


00.74 


00.73 


00.72 


400 


192.47 


13.10 


1.07 


1.05 


1.03 


1.01 


00.99 


00.97 


00.95 


00.93 


500 


236.92 


16.12 


1.32 


1.29 


1.26 


1.24 


1.21 


1.19 


1.17 


1.15 


600 


281.36 


19.15 


1.57 


1.54 


1.50 


1.47 


1.44 


1.42 


1.39 


1.36 


700 


325.80 


22.17 


1.82 


1.78 


1.74 


1.70 


1.67 


1.64 


1.61 


1.58 


800 


370.25 


25.19 


2.07 


2.03 


1.98 


1.94 


1.90 


1.86 


1.83 


1.79 


900 


414.69 


28.22 


2.32 


2.27 


2.22 


2.17 


2.13 


2.09 


2.04 


2.01 


1000 


459.14 


31.24 


2.58 


2.52 


2.46 


2.41 


2.36 


2.32 


2.27 


2.23 


1500 


681.36 


46.36 


3.85 


3.76 


3.67 


3.59 


3.52 


3.44 


3.37 


3.31 


2000 


905 


61.58 


5.14 


5.01 


4.90 


4.79 


4.68 


4.58 


4.49 


4.39 


3000 


1351 


91.86 


7.70 


7.50 


7.32 


7.15 


6.98 


6.82 


6.68 


6.53 


4000 


1798 


122.47 


10.24 


9.97 


9.72 


9.48 


9.25 


9.03 


8.83 


8.64 


5000 


2244 


152.83 


12.71 


12.34 


12.02 


11.72 


11.43 


11.16 


10.91 


10.67 


6000 


2695 


180.32 


14.99 


14.58 


14.20 


13.85 


13.51 


13.19 


12.89 


12.61 


7000 


3144 


213.93 


17.14 


16.67 


16.25 


15.89 


15.46 


15.10 


14.76 


14.43 


8000 


3594 


244.62 


19.11 


18.62 


18.16 


17.71 


17.30 


16.90 


16.53 


16.17 


9000 


4046 


275.30 


20.94 


20.41 


19.92 


19.44 


19.00 


18.57 


18.17 


17.92 


10,000 


4498 


306.08 


22.62 


22.07 


21.53 


21,06 


20.59 


20,14 


19.71 


19.31 



•Taken, in part and extrapolated, from the U.S. Navy Diving-Gas Manual, U.S.N. Supervisor of Diving, Research Rept. No. 3-69, 1 Oct., 1969, 
by Bateele Mem. Inst. 



284 



BALLASTING SYSTEMS 

At least 13 systems can be identified which 
are used to provide positive, negative and 
neutral buoyancy in submersibles. These 
range from venting and blowing steel tanks 
to merely hanging a cable on the vehicle and 
letting it drag along the bottom. Three meth- 
ods of buoyancy control common to almost 
half of the past and present submersibles 
consist of a positively buoyant pressure hull; 
a main ballast (MBT) system to attain sur- 
face buoyancy and possibly negative descent 
buoyancy; and a variable ballast (VBT) sys- 
tem to attain small changes in buoyancy 
when submerged. In addition to these three 
methods there are a number of others de- 
signed to accomplish the same results but in 
different ways (Table 6.5). 



One method used to gain negative buoy- 
ancy is the addition of lead or steel ballast to 
the vehicle based on post-construction calcu- 
lations and/or sea trials. Although normally 
used for minor weight adjustments, such 
weight may be made jettisonable and thus 
serves an emergency role. 

Ballasting systems are classified herein as 
Reversible and Irreversible — the distinction 
being that reversible systems are capable of 
providing at least one positive and negative 
cycle during a dive and Irreversible systems 
provide only a one-time, one-way function. 
For example, ascent and descent ballasting 
systems assist the vehicle to dive and then 
ascend and, therefore, provide both negative 
and positive buoyancy. Syntactic foam pro- 
vides the vehicle with positive buoyancy 
only. The problem with this classification can 




Fig 6 1 Interior of AUGUSTE PICCARD Overhead rows of cylindrical tanks port and starboard hold a total of 842,5 cubic feet of compressed air for blowing main and variable 

ballast. 



285 



TABLE 6.5 SUBMERSIBLE BALLAST AND BUOYANCY METHODS 



Submersible 



Depth 
(ft) MBT 



VBT' 



Ascent/ 
Descent 
VBT' Weights Anchor 



Cable 



Pres- 


Syn- 


Inflat- 


Small 






sure 


tactic Hard 


able 


Weight 


Steel 


Gaso 


Hull 


Foam Tanks 


Bag 


Drop 


Shot 


line 



HIKINO 20 < 
GOLDFISH 100 
NAUTILETTE 100 • 
ALL OCEAN INDUSTRIES 150 
PC3-X 150 • 
PORPOISE 150 
STAR 1 200 
SUBMANAUT(Helle) 200 
K-250 250 
MINI DIVER 250 • 


• • 


SPORTSMAN 300 300 « 
SUBMARAY 300 « 
KUMUKAHI 300 
PC-3A1 300 
PC-3A2 300 « 
NEREID 330 330 • 
SEA RANGER 600 
SPORTSMAN 600 600 




SUBMANAUT(Martine) 600 
TECHDIVER 600 
ASHERAH 600 
BENTHOS V 600 
MAKAKAI 600 
NEMO 600 
PAULO 1 600 < 
SURV 600 < 
KUROSHIOII 650 < 
NEREID 700 700 


• • • 
• • 


PC-8 800 
SHELF DIVER 800 
YOMIURI 972 
MERMAID l/ll 984 
MERMAID lll/IV 984 < 
HAKUYO 984 < 
TOURS 64 984 
TOURS 66 984 
GUPPY 1000 
NEKTON ALPHA 1000 
NEKTON BETA 1000 
NEKTON GAMMA 1000 


• • 


SEA-RAY 1000 
SEA LINK 1000 
SNOOPER 1000 
PS-2 1025 
PISCES 1 

STAR II 1200 
AQUARIUS 1200 
V0L-L1 1200 


• • • • 

• • • 



286 



TABLE 6.5 SUBMERSIBLE BALLAST AND BUOYANCY METHODS (Cont.) 



Submersible 



Depth 
(ft) 



MBT VBT' VBT- 



Ascent/ 
Descent 
Weights Anchor 



Cable 



Pres- 


Syn- 




Inflat- 


Small 




sure 


tactic 


Hard 


able 


Weight Steel 


Gaso 


Hull 


Foam 


Tanks 


Bag 


Drop Shot 


line 



PC5C 


1335 


• 


• 




















SURVEY SUB 1 


1350 


• 


• 




















DEEPDIVER 


1350 


• 


• 




















SP350 


1350 




• 




• 
















SEA OTTER 


1500 


• 


• 




















DEEPVIEW 


1500 














• • 




• 






SP-500 


1640 




• 




• 










• 






SP-500 


1640 




• 




• 










• 






PISCES 1 


1200 






• 


















SHINKAI 


1968 




• 




















ARGYRONETE 


1970 




• 




















GRIFFON 


1970 




• 






• 














BEN FRANKLIN 


2000 




• 








• 


• • 






• 




SDL-I 


2000 
























BEAVER 


2000 




• 






• 














DEEP JEEP 


2000 














• • 


•(-) 


• 






DEEP STAR 2000 


2000 






• 




•{-) 




• • 


H-^) 








STAR III 


2000 




• 










• • 










AUGUSTEPICCARD 


2500 




• 
















• 




PISCES II 


3000 






• 


















PISCES III 


3000 






• 


















DSRV-I 


3500 




• 












• • 








DEEPSTAR4000 


4000 






• 


• 






• • 


•(-) 


• 






DSRV-2 


5000 




• 












• • 








TURTLE 


6500 






• 


















SEACLIFF 


6500 






• 


















PISCES IV 


6500 






• 


















PISCES V 


6500 






• 


















PISCES VI 


6500 






• 


















DOWB 


6500 






• 














• 




DEEP QUEST 


8000 




• 










• • 






• 




SP-3000 


10082 








• 








•(-) 


• 






ALVIN 


12000 






• 


• 






• • 


• 








FNRS-2 


13500 












• 








• 


• 


FNRS-3 


13500 












• 








• 


• 


ALUMINAUT 


15000 


• 












• 






• 




DEEPSTAR 20000 


20000 


• 




• 


• 






• • 














ARCHIMEDE 



36000 



VBT' =Hard Tanks and Seawater 
VBT^=Hard/Soft Tanks (Oil) 
(-) = Negative Buoyancy 
(-^)=Positive Buoyancy 



287 



be seen with the dropping of small weights 
which serve, primarily, to make the submers- 
ible lighter, but also served, initially, to pro- 
vide sufficient negative buoyancy to allow it 
to descend; the same may be said of iron 
shot. A further distinction, then, between 
the two systems is that they are grouped 
according to their primary ballasting func- 
tion. 

Chapter 14 deals with other ballasting de- 
vices in the form of an emergency weight 
which is dropped to provide positive buoy- 
ancy. Because these methods are not rou- 
tinely employed, it will suffice to note that 
they constitute another means of gaining 
positive buoyancy. 

The following descriptions of various bal- 
lasting/deballasting devices are brief by ne- 
cessity, for only a handful of vehicles, e.g., 
the PISCES series, use similar procedures 
and components. Individual descriptions of 
each vehicle's ballasting system is provided 
in Chapter 4. Most of the systems perform 
essentially the same function from vehicle to 
vehicle. Consequently, a general description 
of the system's function, location, configura- 
tion, etc., where it is amenable to this for- 
mat, is presented. The examples cited are 
selected to include one system which is fairly 
representative of all, or one that represents 
an advancement over or significant depar- 
ture from the general field. 

The capacity of main ballast tanks varies 
from vehicle-to-vehicle and is not controlled 
by any standards. The Marine Technology 
Society recommends that main ballast tank 
capacity should not be less than 10 percent of 
the vehicle's displacement at normal diving 
trim. The American Bureau of Shipping, on 
the other hand, does not require a minimum 
capacity, but must be satisfied that the vehi- 
cle can stay on the surface without endan- 
gering the safety of the vessel under normal 
sea conditions (Sea State 3 or as defined by 
the designer) and with adequate freeboard. 
In most vehicles the 10-percent displacement 
margin is generally attained or exceeded. 

Reversible Systems 

Main Ballast Tanks: 

Function: To provide large changes in posi- 
tive and negative buoyancy and provide ade- 



quate freeboard for maneuvering and for the 
ingress/egress of personnel to the pressure 
hull. 

Operation: On the surface the MBT's are 
empty. Vent valves are located at the top of 
the tanks and flood valves at the bottom; the 
latter may or may not be free flooding. To 
dive the vent valves are opened by the opera- 
tor and seawater flows in through the flood 
openings forcing air out through the top. In 
the majority of vehicles an indicator light or 
dial warns when the MBT's ai-e fully flooded, 
at which time the vent valves are closed. 
When the MBT's are full, the submersible 
may be at neutral buoyancy or slightly nega- 
tive and begins to descend. If the former is 
the case, smaller capacity variable ballast 
tanks are flooded or releasable weights are 
added to provide negative descent buoyancy. 
In a few submersibles, the MBT's can be 
fully blown at operating depth; in the major- 
ity, the MBT's are not blown until the vehi- 
cle reaches the surface where additional 
freeboard is required. In all vehicles, com- 
pressed air is used to blow the MBT's when 
surfaced. 

Location: MBT's generally straddle the pres- 
sure hull and are located as high on the 
vehicle as practical to provide stability when 
surfaced by raising the center of buoyancy in 
respect to the center of gravity. 

Configuration: Virtually any configuration is 
acceptable which is compatible with the pres- 
sure hull shape and offers least hydrody- 
namic drag. 

Material: Steel of various compositions, fi- 
berglass, aluminum. Material whose 
strength is sufficient to withstand wave slap 
and the rigors of shock during transport and 
at-sea handling. 

Exfimple: 

a) The submersible BEN FRANKLIN 

has four MBT's which straddle the pressure 
hull fore and aft (Fig. 6.2) and provide ap- 
proximately 18 inches of freeboard when dry. 
The tanks are constructed of laminated- 
polyester and fiberglass, V4 to ^/s inch thick, 
and contain 11 fiberglass ribs (filled with 
syntactic foam) spaced within each tank to 
provide additional strength. Each tank has a 
capacity of 162 ft^ and all four provide ap- 
proximately 41,500 pounds of positive buoy- 



288 



ancy when dry. The tanks are designed to 
withstand 1,000-psf wave slap with a safety 
factor of 2. At 2,000-ft depth 50 percent of the 
flooded tank can be blown for emergency 
ascent only. Six free-flooding openings are in 
the bottom of each tank and a solenoid- 
operated vent valve is located on the top and 
at the rear of each tank. To dive, the sole- 
noids are activated and open the vent valves; 
this allows water to enter the bottom and an 
indicator light informs the operator when 
the tanks are full. The valves shut at any 
time the operator releases the vent switch. 
With the MBT's fully flooded, the vehicle is 
at approximate neutral buoyancy and addi- 



tional ballast causes it to descend. To blow 
the tanks dry, high pressure air (2,844 psi) is 
used and stored in six flasks mounted port 
and starboard between the deck and MBT's. 
Each side has a flask of 21-, 7- and 5-ft^ 
capacity each holding 262, 125 and 88 pounds 
of air, respectively. Each flask is piped 
through its own hull valve, pressure gage 
and control valve and then grouped near the 
operator's console where they are mani- 
folded together and fed through a single 
pressure reducer (1,422 psi) for normal blow- 
ing operations. In the event of an emer- 
gency, the relief valve can be bypassed and 
high pressure air (2,844 psi) fed directly to 




Fig 6 2 Mam ballast tanks of BEN FRANKLIN straddle its pressure tiull Cylinder between sail and IVIBT tiolds compressed air to blow water ballast (Grumman Aerospace Corp ) 



289 



the MBT. Passing through a hull valve each 
line runs through a check valve, a pressure- 
restricting diaphragm and into a blow valve 
aft and just below the vent valves. 

b) The All Ocean Industries submers- 
ible employs compressed air to blow the 
MBT's, but in a manner distinctly different 
from BEN FRANKLIlS's and apparently from 
all other vehicles. It operates in the follow- 
ing manner: Two MBT's vent directly into 
the pressure hull; to dive, the operator opens 
a vent valve which allows water into the 
tanks and forces entrapped air from the 
tanks into the pressure hull. Because pres- 
sure will build up in the hull, a second valve, 
called a snorkel valve, is opened to allow the 
escape of air outside the hull. When a little 
water appears at the vent valve, it is se- 
cured, as are three flood valves leading to 
the MBT's. The snorkel valve is also closed 
after the MBT and flood valves are secured. 
With the MBT's full, the vehicle is still 
slightly positive and VBT's must be flooded 
to attain negative buoyancy. To blow the 
MBT's on the surface, the two MBT flood 
valves are opened and air from one of two 
scuba tanks outside the hull is introduced 
into the MBT. When bubbles can be observed 
coming out of the MBT's, the tanks are as- 
sumed empty, and the hatch (dome) may be 
opened. 

Variable Ballast Tanks: 

Function: To provide small scale buoyancy 
adjustments. 

Operation: Two approaches are used to at- 
tain variable ballasting systems. In the most 
generally used approach there is a hard tank 
into which seawater is introduced by means 
of the ambient pressure differential to attain 
negative buoyancy and then expelled by 
either compressed air or a pump to attain 
positive buoyancy. In the second case, gener- 
ally on the deep vehicles, a system is used 
which employs a pressure-resistant tank con- 
nected to collapsible (flexible) oil-filled bags. 
When surfaced, the spheres are partially 
filled with oil and air at atmospheric pres- 
sure; the bags are fully collapsed. To gain 
positive buoyancy when submerged, the oil is 
pumped into the bags which expand and 
displace seawater, thus, providing positive 
buoyancy. To gain negative buoyancy, the oil 



is permitted to flow back into the rigid tank. 
More accurately, this hard/soft tank system 
is termed a variable displacement system 
since the vehicle weight remains constant. 
Evident from Table 6.6 is the absence of air- 
blown VBT's below 2,500 feet for reasons 
given earlier. When hard tanks and water 
are employed as the variable ballast system 
on present submersibles, high pressure 
pumps are used to expel water from the 
tanks below 5,000 feet. 

Location on Vehicle: As is evident from Table 
6.6, there is no standard location for variable 
ballast systems. In some vehicles the sys- 
tems are in the pressure hull (this arrange- 
ment saves the expense accompanying a sys- 
tem exposed to seawater and ambient pres- 
sure), and in others the system is external to 
the pressure hull, thereby saving limited in- 
ternal space in the pressure hull. Those vehi- 
cles using variable displacement (hard and 
soft tanks) systems must locate at least the 
soft part of the system external to the hull. 
As a general rule, most VBT's are situated 
below the vehicle's center of gravity to keep 
the center of gravity low. This is the case 
with AUGVSTE PICCARD and BEIS FRANK- 
LIN, where the VBT's are in the vessels' 
keels. When two or more tanks are used, they 
are balanced port and starboard or fore and 
aft; in the latter situation the system may 
also serve as a trim system by differentially 
filling the tanks. 

Configuration: Systems external to the pres- 
sure hull employing only air and hard tanks 
have no particular geometrical configuration 
on the shallow submersibles, but are gener- 
ally spheres or cylinders on the deep vehi- 
cles. Where the tank is external to the pres- 
sure hull it must withstand the same forces 
as the pressure hull. Because the tank may 
be pressurized above ambient during ascent, 
tensile stress is a factor. Where the VBT is 
within the hull at atmospheric pressure, ten- 
sile stresses are the overriding considera- 
tion. 

Soft/hard tank systems are required to 
withstand ambient pressures and for this 
reason the hard tank component is always 
spherical. Being either pressure-compen- 
sated or collapsed, the soft tank component 
can be any shape. 



290 



TABLE 6.6 VARIABLE BALLAST SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS 





Fill/Empty 
Procedure 


Air 
Blow 


Total 

Capacity 
(lbs) 


System 


Location 

on 

Submersible' 


Ouan 






Soft/ Hard 
Hard Tanks 
Tanks Only 


lity 


Submersible 


Pump 
Out In 


Hard 
Tanks 


Soft 
Tanks 


PC3-X 






320 




F/A (ex.) 






STARI 






NA 




(in) 






SUBIVIANAUT (Helle) 


• 




110 




(in) 






K-250 


• 




NA 




NA 






SPORTSMAN^ 






NA 




(in) 






SUBMARAY 






68 




(in) 






PC-3A 1&2 






320 




F/A (ex.) 






KUMUKAHI 


• • 




93 




(in) 






SUBIVIANAUT (Marline) 


• 




4280 




(in) and Keel 






TECHDIVER 






400 




F/A (ex.) 






ASHERAH 






340 




(ex.) 






BENTHOS V 






NA 




(in) 


2 




MAKAKAI 


• • 




400 




each corner 


4 




KUROSHIO II 






888 




F/A (in) 


2 




SURV 






80 




Aft (ex.) 


2 




SHELF DIVER 


• • 




780 




F/A (ex) 


2 




MERMAID2 






NA 




(in) 


2 




HAKUYO 






NA 




(in) 


2 




NEKT0N2 






30 




(in) 


1 




SEARAY 






NA 




F/A (ex.) 


2 




SEA LINK 






170 




P/S (ex.) 


2 




STAR II 






130 




(ex.) 


1 




V0LL1 


• 




715 




F/A (in) 


2 




PC5C 






120 




P/S (ex.) 


2 




SURVEY SUB 1 






440 




F/A (in) 


2 




DEEPDIVER 


• 


•(aft) 


731 




F/A (m) 


6 


2 


SP-350 


• 




96 




(m) 


1 




SEA OTTER 






125 




(ex.) Fore 


2 




SP500 


• 




44 




(in) 


1 




SHINKAI 






660 




(ex.) amidship 


1 




ARGYRONETE 






2620 




F/A 


2/2 




BEN FRANKLIN 






6800 




P/S (ex.) 


1/1 




BEAVER 






1474 




P/S/Aft (ex.) 


1/1/1 




PISCES^ 


• 




300 


• 


Aft (ex.) 


1 


2 


DS-2000 


• 




300 




P/S (ex.) 


2/2 




STAR III 






270 




(ex.) 


1 




AUGUSTEPICCARD 






4315 




(in) (ex.) 


2/1 




DSRV-1&2 


• 




1060 




F/A 


1/1 




DS-4000 


• • 




NA 


• 


P/S 


2 


1 


TURTLE 


• • 




600 


• 


P/S 


6 


2 


SEACLIFF 


• • 




600 


• 


P/S 


6 


2 


DOWB 


• • 




512 


• 


F/A (ex.) 


2 


2 


DEEP QUEST 


• • 




1828 


• 


P/S (ex.) 


2 




ALVIN 


• 




600 


• 


(ex.) 


6 


2 


DS-20000 


• 


•(He) 


NA 


• 


NA 


NA 


NA 



' F/A = Fore/Aft; (in) = inside pressure hull; (ex.) = external to pressure hull; P/S = port/starboard 
2 
All classes of the submersible. 



291 



Materials: Hard tank systems employ the 
same material for the VBT as they do for the 
hull, though in some cases a stainless steel is 
used. Soft/hard tank systems vary in the 
nature of the material used for the hard 
component. ALVIN, SEA CLIFF and TUR- 
TLE use titanium spheres, while PISCES IV 
and V use HY-100 steel, the same material as 
found in the pressure hull. The flexible bags 
in the hard/soft tank system of TURTLE and 
SEA CLIFF are composed of reinforced rub- 
ber. 

Example: 

(a) The variable ballast system of 
MAKAKAI provides not only positive and 
negative buoyancy changes, but changes in 
trim and roll (or heel) as well. From refer- 
ence (4), ballast tanks are mounted on each 
corner of the vehicle (Fig. 6.3), and each tank 
has a capacity of 199 pounds of seawater. 
Two ballast pumps (one supplying each side) 



pump water in or out of the tanks to provide 
buoyancy changes. The non-water volume of 
the ballast tanks is pressure-compensated to 
10 to 20 psi above ambient by air stored in 
four high pressure cylinders (thereby negat- 
ing the need for pressure-resistant VBT's). 
The high pressure air is reduced to ambient 
pressure by a differential pressure-regulat- 
ing system, and the ballast tanks are pro- 
vided with relief valves to vent air on ascent. 
To attain fore or aft trim, water may be 
pumped fore or aft between tanks, and taken 
onboard on one side of the vehicle and over- 
boarded on the other side to attain roll an- 
gles. 

(b) Although now converted to a hard 
tank system, ALVIIS's original variable dis- 
placement system was typical of other vehi- 
cles and worked in the following manner (5). 
Two large, flexible oil-tight bags were de- 
signed to fit into floodable fiberglass com- 



TRIM TANK 



STARBOARD BALLAST 
PUMPAND-VALVE UNIT 




PORT BALLAST 

PUMP-AND- 

VALVE UNIT 



BALLAST AIR 
STORAGE 



BALLAST WATER LINES 
COMPENSATING AIR LINES 



Fig. 6.3 MAKAKAI's ballast control schematic. (From Ref. (4)] 
292 



partments and six pressure-resistant alumi- 
num spheres were located in the center por- 
tion of the vehicle. A high-pressure gear 
pump pumped automatic transmission fluid 
from the spheres to the flexible containers 
(Fig. 6.4). Air at atmospheric pressure filled 
the spheres when emptied of working fluid. 
Since the flexible containers were exposed to 
sea pressure, the pump had to move the 



working fluid against sea pressure. A revers- 
ible DC motor provided power for the pump. 
To control the system, a positive-seating 
(leak-free) ball valve was incorporated into 
the circuit. The ball valve was opened and 
closed by a suitable gear train and electric 
motor. The two motors were under the direct 
control of the pilot who could control the 
buoyancy of the vehicle from a heavy condi- 



VARIABLE BALLAST SPHERES 




FILL- 
BLEED 



VARIABLE BALLAST BAGS 



Fig. 6.4 ALVIN's variable-ballast system diagram. [From Ref. (5)1 



293 



tion of 600 pounds to a light condition of 600 
pounds. A float switch was included to open 
the electric motor circuit when the working 
fluid was exhausted from the spheres. A 
pressure transducer sensed absolute pres- 
sure in the spheres. The readout from this 
pressure was calibrated to show the quantity 
of oil in the spheres. Relief valves were in- 
cluded to protect the pump motor in case of 
valve failure and a filter was provided to 
capture any stray particles in the fluid. Fluid 
was filtered whenever it was allowed to flow 
back into the sphere. A check valve system 
was employed to bypass the filter in the 
reverse direction. 

DEEPSTAR 4000 used its variable dis- 
placement system in a somewhat different 
fashion than the designers intended when 
the need for more rapid buoyancy changes 
arose. In conjunction with its small weight 
drop system (described below) the system 
worked as follows: At neutral buoyancy, the 
flexible bag was full; if positive buoyancy 
was needed, a 3.4-pound weight was dropped; 
if negative buoyancy was necessary, fluid 
was pumped from the flexible bag. Hence, a 
round trip from negative-to-positive-to-nega- 
tive was reduced by half that required if the 
total variable displacement system was em- 
ployed. 

Ascent/Descent Weights: 

Funciion: To assist the submersible in de- 
scending and ascending to and from the bot- 
tom while conserving electrical power. 

Operation: Generally one weight is hung fore 
and another aft; both are attached prior to 
launching. When the MBT's and VBT's are 
full, the vehicle descends to some depth short 
of the bottom, and the descent weight is 
dropped to give the vehicle approximate neu- 
tral buoyancy. At dive termination, the as- 
cent weight is dropped allowing the vehicle 
to surface. On some vehicles, e.g., ALVIN, a 
descent weight only is used to hasten the 
initial descent and, at the same time, con- 
serve electrical power which might otherwise 
be required to run the vertical thrusters 
during descent. 

Location on Vehicle: On the French vehicles 
SP-350 and SP-3000 and on DS-4000, the 
descent weight is on the stern centerline and 
the ascent is forward on the brow. 



Configuration: Any Compatible to the vehicle. 
Material: Lead or cast iron. 
Example: 

(a) DEEPSTAR 4000 dives with 220- 
pound cast iron descent weight aft which 
causes the vehicle to descend bow high. At 
some predetermined depth, the descent 
weight is hydraulically jettisoned, and the 
vehicle comes to the near-horizontal posi- 
tion. At dive termination, a 187-pound ascent 
weight mounted forward is dropped, and 
DEEPSTAR 4000 ascends (Fig. 6.5). A nega- 
tive feature of this system lies in the fact 
that once the ascent weight is dropped, the 
vehicle cannot descend again without addi- 
tional negative buoyancy. In the event of the 
submersible ascending into an overhanging 
cliff or obstruction, it would be unable to 
descend again without external assistance. 

(b) DEEPSTAR 4000's sister submers- 
ible DS-2000 combines both a descent weight 
and a hard tank. The descent weight per- 
forms the same function as in DS-4000, but 
instead of an ascent weight, a 120-pound- 
capacity tank (which is flooded at the start of 
the dive) has been substituted. When the 
dive is terminated, the seawater is blown 
from the hard tank and the vehicle rises. 
This allows an increase of 120 pounds in 
payload owing to the absence of the ascent 
weight. 

Anchor: 

Function: To provide static stability while 
working on the bottom or hovering. It also 
may serve as a kedge to assist in pulling 
large devices on the bottom. 

Operation: A hydraulically driven winch, ca- 
ble, and anchor can be employed by the 
operator as desired. 
Example: 

Two submersibles routinely carrying 
anchoring devices are BEAVER and NEMO. 
While both vehicles are quite different, their 
anchoring systems are essentially similar. 
Hence, NEMO will serve as an example of 
both and its description is taken from refer- 
ence (6). 

NEMO^s primary vertical mobility and 
station-keeping modes are provided by the 
winch/motor system housed in the main bal- 
last tank. The winch drive motor is a Vickers 
fixed-displacement, reversible hydraulic mo- 



294 



tor and is located in a housing directly be- 
neath the bottom plate of the pressure hull, 
with pressure compensation being provided 
by reference to the hydraulic distribution 
housing. The winch motor drives a drum 
which holds 1,200 feet of V4-inch non-rotating 
wire rope. The winch features a barrel gear 
level wind assembly and cable guide to as- 
sure proper cable laying. The guide also 
houses a hydraulic cable cutter, pyrotechnic 
cable cutter and an interlock sensing assem- 
bly to override the winch control. This inter- 
lock arrangement automatically slows and 
stops the winch as the anchor approaches 
NEMO. 

Winch operations are controlled by 
four switches on a control console. The winch 
motor switch and the winch jog switch sup- 
ply power to the winch speed and direction 
switches, which in turn actuate hydraulic 



solenoid valves. The winch motor switch is 
used for continuous operation, and the jog 
switch is used for momentary operation. If 
the hydraulic generator is on and either the 
jog or the run switch is actuated, the winch 
will start operating in the direction selected 
by the direction switch ("reel in" or "reel 
out") and at the speed selected on the speed 
switch ("fast" or "slow"). The winch lock 
switch actuates a solenoid valve which pro- 
vides a hydraulic lock on the winch motor. 
This lock is automatically overridden when 
either the run or jog switch is used. In 
addition, the winch has four ways in which it 
may be free-wheeled. To reset the interlock 
system (which automatically slows and then 
stops the incoming anchor before it reaches 
the winch), the jog switch is operated twice. 
A 25-in.^ accumulator is incorporated in the 
winch motor hydraulic loop to cushion sud- 




/ 



/ 



/ 



\ 



\ 



SUPPORT 
SHIP 



N 

DESCENT WEIGHT (220-lb) 
PRODUCES NEGATIVE 
BUOYANCY FOR 
POWER-FREE DESCENT 



HELICAL DESCENT PATH DUE TO 
FREE DESCENT DYNAMICS 








/ 



\ 



ASCENT WEIGHT (187-lb) RELEASED AT 

CONCLUSION OF MISSION 

DEEPSTAR IS NOW POSITIVELY 

BUOYANT AND RISES 



PITCH CONTROLLED BY 
SHIFTING OF MERCURY 
\ FORWARD AND AFT 



\ 



\ 



\ 




AT DESIRED OPERATING DEPTH 

DESCENT WEIGHT IS RELEASED 

TO MAKE DEEPSTAR NEUTRALLY 

BUOYANT 



ASCENT WEIGHT 



MOVEMENT FORWARD AND 
AFT USING PROPELLERS 



~~^1 



DESCENT WEIGHT 



Fig. 6.5 DEEPSTAR 4000's descent/ascent weight system. 
295 



den anchor stops. Although a variety of an- 
chors may be used, a 380-pound clump was 
employed. A manually operated hydraulic 
system located inside the pressure hull 
serves as a means of cutting the anchor 
cable and controlling the mechanical winch 
brake. 

Cables: 

Function: To provide a means of maintaining 
constant altitude within range of bottom 
viewing. 

Operation: Consists merely of a cable (wire 
rope or chain) of desired length and weight 
which is attached to the vehicle on or near 
the keel. During descent, the submersible 
slowly nears the bottom with the cable arriv- 
ing first and accumulating there until its 
weight loss puts the vehicle at neutral buoy- 
ancy. At this point, the vehicle is essentially 
anchored in the vertical, but is free to move 
in the horizontal. 
Ex€iniple: 

All of the bathyscaphs employed a ca- 
ble for altitude control at one time or an- 
other. The only submersible to extensively 
use such a device was BEN FRANIH,IN on its 
30-day drift in the Gulf Stream. This system 
is described below. 

A 40-foot-long 100-pound chain, housed 
in a flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hose, 
was attached to BEN FRANKLIN's stern. A 
weak link stood between the chain and vessel 
which would break before the vehicle 
reached its capacity to attain full positive 
buoyancy in the event of the chain fouling. 

In operation, the submersible bottomed 
and then blew its VBT's enough to ascend 
slightly to a point some 20 feet off of the 
bottom where the chain restrained it. The 
current then caused the vehicle to move and 
drag the chain behind. With the chain at the 
stern providing drag, the submersible was 
oriented with its bow pointed downstream 
and it proceeded along as if under power. 
When a mound or other minor relief feature 
was encountered, the excess chain accumu- 
lating on the feature decreased the vehicle's 
weight and it ascended accordingly; in the 
event of a depression, the excess chain hang- 
ing suspended caused the vehicle to descend. 
While there are drawbacks to this method of 
buoyancy control, for near-bottom cruising 



at a specific altitude and over relatively 
smooth terrain, the system is virtually un- 
beatable. According to the elder Piccard in 
In Bdlloon antl BathYsc€iphe, this technique 
was first used by the balloonist for cruising 
at low altitudes over land. 

Irreversible Systems 

Pressure Hulls: 

In most submersibles (excluding the bathy- 
scaphs) the pressure hull exerts a positively 
buoyant force, the extent of which depends 
on the W/D ratio. This force is not constant 
at all depths owing to the compressibility of 
the hull which reduces its displacement. The 
SP-3000, for example, carries two jettisona- 
ble 33-pound weights which are released to 
compensate for loss of positive buoyancy 
through hull shrinkage. The bathyscaphs are 
a different situation wherein the pressure 
hull is negatively buoyant and the problem is 
one of getting it to ascend rather than de- 
scend. 

Syntactic Foam: 

For great depths syntactic foam is one of 
the most promising positive buoyancy mate- 
rials. The foam consists of a mixture of hol- 
low microspheres embedded in a resin ma- 
trix. Some foams use plastic or glass micro- 
spheres, and matrix materials of polyesters, 
phenolics, polyethylenes or vinyls (7). Sev- 
eral factors make syntactic foam an attrac- 
tive buoyancy material: 

Low density 

High hydrostatic strength 

Low water absorption 

Immunity to catastrophic failure 

Bulk modulus equal to or slightly higher 
than seawater 

Fabricability to irregular shapes by cast- 
ing or machining 

One of its greatest features is the relative 
ease with which it can be machined or cast to 
fill small, large, and irregularly shaped voids 
within the exostructure. In some cases, it is 
merely attached as blocks to the vehicle or 
strapped into an existing cavity to provide 
greater payload for a specific dive. At times, 
syntactic foam performs more than one func- 
tion. Figure 6.6 demonstrates its uniqueness 
by serving both as positive buoyancy mate- 
rial and a stabilizing rudder on TURTLE. 



296 



Considerable effort is being expended by 
both government and industry to decrease 
the foam's density and, correspondingly, its 
cost. Present efforts at NSRDC are aimed at 
developing a 34-pcf syntactic foam for depths 
of 20,000 feet (8). Both the DSRV's and DEEP 
QUEST employ syntactic foam of 36-pcf us- 
ing glass microspheres. Standard 42- to 44- 
pound foams cost in the neighborhood of $10 
to $15/pound; 34-pound foam is projected to 
be some $40/pound in orders of 40,000 
pounds. An indication of the expense in- 
volved is gained by considering that DS- 
20000 would carry some 13,060 pounds of 42- 
pound syntactic foam. 

According to Rosenberg (7) a 30-pound 
foam for 20,000 feet should be possible, but 
considerable development in the glass mi- 



crosphere system is required before this goal 
can be realized. Owing to its wide application 
by the marine community — not only in sub- 
mersibles but in salvage and other areas as 
well — syntactic foam appears as promising 
today as did acrylic plastic in its infancy. 



Hard Tanks: 

Six submersibles can be identified that use 
pressure-resistant tanks as a means of at- 
taining positive or negative buoyancy. Three 
of these (SP-3000, DEEP JEEP, DS-2000) 
use pressure-resistant tanks as a component 
of a variable ballast system whereby the 
tank is either blown or flooded and played 
against an opposing system, such as a small 
weight drop. 




Fig 6 6 Syntactic Foam blocks cut to serve for stabilization and positive buoyancy on TURTLE- 



297 



In the DSRV's two 5,564-pound-capacity 
tanks are used to store water that is pumped 
out of the mating skirt after it has attached 
to a stricken submarine; in effect, these 
tanks work as both positive and negative 
buoyancy systems although their function- 
ing is strictly a by-product of the rescue 
mission. 

ALVIN, in its early design, incorporated 
nine aluminum (7178-T6) spheres within a 
syntactic foam (42 pcf) package to provide 
approximately 4,000 pounds of positive buoy- 
ancy (Fig. 6.7). To prevent corrosion and 
stress corrosion, oil surrounded each sphere. 
The spheres were later discarded and now 
the entire package consists solely of syntac- 
tic foam. 
Collapsible Bags: 

Carried within each sphere of the DSRV 



are four collapsible bags. Prior to a rescue 
dive, the bags are filled with water to pro- 
vide 4,080 pounds of negative buoyancy. 
When the rescuees are aboard the DSRV, the 
bags are drained into the stricken submarine 
to compensate for the weight of the rescuees. 

Small Weight Drop: 

A system common to all French and West- 
inghouse vehicles involves the dropping of 
small lead weights to incrementally attain 
positive buoyancy; DEEPSTAR 4000 may 
serve as an example. Located immediately 
aft of the pressure sphere 3.4-pound lead 
weights hang on a notched track trending 
port-starboard. When the pilot activates the 
command lever, hydraulic pressure shifts a 
double-ended piston to one side and rachet 
fingers attached to a sliding carriage engage 




Fig 6 7 ALVINs original buoyancy package consisled of synlaclic loam and aluminum spheres The total package provided 4.000-lb positive buoyancy (WHOI) 



298 



one of the rachets, moving it inboard ^/le of 
an inch. This movement removes the support 
for a weight and the weight falls free of the 
housing. The next time hydraulic pressure is 
applied, the piston and carriage move in the 
opposite direction. A rachet finger engages 
the other rachet bar and a weight is dropped 
as the bar moves inboard. 

DEEP JEEP incorporated the same princi- 
ple with thirty 4-pound steel plates sur- 
rounding its battery pod; in this case, each 
plate was held in place by an electromagnet 
which, when power ceased, dropped the 
weight. In the event of a total power failure 
all weights were automatically jettisoned. 

Iron Shot: 

Adopted from the FNRS-2, the dropping of 
iron shot to attain positive buoyancy has 
been incorporated into several contemporary 
submersibles and was used on all the bathy- 
scaphs (Table 6.5). The type of shot used 
resembles "BB's" and the only hard require- 
ment is that the shot have magnetic proper- 
ties. The younger Piccard, in Seven Miles 
Down, related the difficulty in attaining shot 
with sufficient residual magnetism in the 
U.S., thus necessitating ordering shot from 
Italy to accomplish TRIESTE'S early mission 
leading to the deep dive. 

In concert with the host of dissimilar pro- 
cedures to accomplish similar functions from 
submersible-to-submersible, no two shot sys- 
tems are identical in location of shot tanks or 
method of shot control, though all use "fail- 
safe" electromagnets to hold in the shot. 
BEN FRANKLIN is one example of this 
method of attaining positive buoyancy. 

The shot ballast system of BEN FRANK- 
LIN has two functions — to adjust the buoy- 
ancy of the boat by metering out shot 
through a specially designed electromagnetic 
valve, and to provide 6 tons of buoyancy 
(6,372 pounds per tank) in an emergency by 
rapidly dropping all of the shot (release of 
hydraulic pressure on a piston opens a large 
door at the bottom of the shot ballast tank). 

Separating the two main ballast tanks port 
and starboard, the shot ballast tanks are 
filled with iron shot (Globe Steel S-780(J) up 
to a point about 4 inches below the waterline. 
The tanks are free-flooding and are always 
open to the sea in order to pressure compen- 



sate the tanks and to prevent rusting of the 
shot into an unmanageable agglomeration. 
When completely immersed in seawater, the 
corrosive action on the shot is minimized and 
the granules remain free. 

Each shot ballast tank is fixed to the sides 
of the hull by attachments similar to those 
on the main ballast tanks but with elongated 
bolt holes designed to allow for any play 
which occurs during expansion or compres- 
sion of the pressure hull. The tanks are 
constructed of sheet steel supported inter- 
nally by steel truss frames. 

The shot dropping systems consist of two 
electromagnetic valves — one for each shot 
tank. Each valve has two sets of coils — 110 
VDC and 28 VDC. The 110-volt holding coils 
are made up of soft iron cores which can be 
permanently magnetized by coils when sup- 
plied by 110 volts. These "magnetic valves" 
are used to hold the soft iron shot in the 
ballast tanks when permanently magnetized 
and the power is removed. This is accom- 
plished when the shot ballast becomes mag- 
netized in the "throat" of the valve. The 
valve can be demagnetized to release its hold 
on the shot by cycling the 110-VDC voltage 
through progressing voltage dropping resis- 
tors. Dropping the voltage and cycling both 
the plus and minus values through the coils, 
the cores become totally demagnetized since 
any residual magnetic effects are erased in 
this manner. 

The 28-volt metering coils are essentially 
electromagnets which are used to control the 
flow of the soft iron shot through the valves. 
This is accomplished when the 110-volt coils 
are demagnetized and the 28-volt coils are 
de-energized. Flow of shot is stopped when 
the full 28 volts are used to energize the 
electromagnet and the soft iron shot in the 
valve's throat is magnetized. This condition 
can be maintained when the voltage is re- 
duced to 14 volts. 

The electric metering system, used to 
measure the amount of shot in each of the 
two tanks, consists of a transformer verti- 
cally oriented in each tank. The primary coils 
are excited by 20 VAC which has been 
stepped down via a transformer from the 
110- VAC bus. The secondaries of the meter- 
ing transformer are returned into the boat 
and terminated into voltmeters. The voltage 



299 



recorded on the meter is directly propor- 
tional to the amount of shot in the tank, 
since the level of shot represents the amount 
of mutual coupling between the two coils 
and, hence, the induced voltage on the sec- 
ondary. 

A specially constructed timer is installed 
in the pilot's console and consists of two stop 
watches each connected to one of the shot 
ballast circuits. The timer automatically 
starts and stops as shot ballast is metered 
out of each hopper. The quantity of shot 
jettisoned by the operator is simply calcu- 
lated by time units as 4.4 pounds of shot fall 
through the valve per second. 

An emergency shot ballast system was in- 
stalled to provide a quick release of ballast in 
case of flooding or some other emergency 
requiring rapid surfacing or extra buoyancy. 
Hydraulic pressure (140 kg/cm^) is built up in 
an accumulator which in turn holds a port 
and starboard hydraulic piston in a position 
that prevents a trap door at the bottom of 
each tank from opening. By opening a valve 
that allows the hydraulic fluid to return to 
the reservoir, hydraulic pressure is released 
on the piston which in turn allows the trap 
door to open. (The weight of the shot causes 
the piston to move to the opposite end of the 
cylinder when hydraulic pressure is re- 
leased.) The trap door, hinged on the oppo- 
site side, allows the shot to drop rapidly. If a 
piston fails to move due to corrosion or some 
other reason, hydraulic fluid can be forced to 
the opposite side of the piston to provide an 
additional force. By operating valves in rapid 
succession, the entire operation, including 
power to the opposite side of the piston, is 
accomplished very quickly. 

Seals at each end of the piston prevent 
seawater from entering the cylinder. Around 
the rod is fitted a stainless steel cylinder or 
sleeve capped with a rubber boot. The cylin- 
der is packed solid with grease and the boot 
can move in and out slightly with sea pres- 
sure. This end of the piston is untouched by 
seawater and cannot corrode. 

If the boat has been towed or in port for 
several days just prior to diving, the trap 
door/piston mechanism is tested by having a 
diver install a special screw fitting in each 
tank that holds the trap door in place. The 
piston is then moved by applying power in 



the opposite side of the cylinder and a diver 
can observe whether or not the piston re- 
tracts. 

The logistics involved with steel shot bal- 
last can be somewhat restrictive on open-sea 
operations. Because the majority of sub- 
mersibles using this method are too large to 
be launched and retrieved for each dive, they 
must be replenished while in the water. Gen- 
erally, this is accomplished in a harbor or 
protected area (Fig. 6.8) where the sea state 
is not a problem; however, on occasion it is 
necessary to transfer shot at sea. When this 
is the case, it can be quite difficult transfer- 
ring several thousand pounds of shot in 25- 
pound bags from the support ship to the 
vehicle. 

Gasoline: 

The positive buoyant force on all bathy- 
scaphs is derived from gasoline contained in 
a metallic float. Several factors enter into 
the selection of petroleum hydrocarbons for 
deep-water buoyancy applications: 
— Gasoline is readily available and at rela- 
tively low cost. 
— Although not as effective as air at shal- 
low depths, gasoline retains most of 
its buoyancy at any depth. 
— Petroleum hydrocarbons can reach a 
density of 0.66 gm/cm^, which is good 
relative to seawater (1.025 gm/cm^). 
On the other hand, there are several disad- 
vantages, the main one being flammability. 
Unfortunately, the hydrocarbons with the 
lowest density are the most flammable; for 
this reason, kerosene, in spite of its high 
density, is often used. 

The logistic and safety problems involved 
with gasoline flotation are quite complex. 
The U.S. Navy's TRIESTE 11 carries 75,000 
gallons of aviation gasoline (0.76 gm/cm^) in 
its float. The bathyscaph is first launched 
from its support ship and then filled with 
gasoline when clear, the entire process ac- 
counting for some 15 to 20 hours. To return 
to its support ship, the float is pumped dry of 
almost all gasoline and the pressure in the 
float is maintained by introducing gaseous 
nitrogen, which also serves to purge the float 
of fumes. When TRIESTE II is within its 
support ship C4/JD) the additional 1,000 to 
2,000 gallons of gasoline remaining in the 



300 



float is drained tiirough valves at the float 
bottom. The recovery procedure takes about 
the same time as launching. Some 300,000 
gallons of gasoline are carried aboard the 
ARD, and at 19^/gallon , the cost is not 
insignificant. Some savings are realized, 
however, because the unused gasoline can be 
turned back in and used for its original pur- 
pose. 

Controlling buoyancy when using gasoline 
is a fulltime job. As the bathyscaph de- 
scends, the gasoline loses some buoyancy 
because it is more compi'essible than seawa- 
ter and the ambient temperature causes it to 
cool. Consequently, the operator is required 
to drop shot ballast to compensate for the 
loss of positive buoyancy. On ascent, the 
reverse occurs and the operator is required 
to vent off gasoline to maintain a steady, 



controllable rate of ascent. Piccard (9) de- 
scribed in detail the complications involved 
with gasoline as a buoyant source. The con- 
clusion is easily reached that syntactic foam, 
in spite of its present high cost, is an ideal 
replacement for gasoline. 

TRIM SYSTEMS 

The ability to change a submersible's up or 
down bow angle solves two general opera- 
tional problems: 1) Instruments or equip- 
ment may be installed that cause the vehicle 
to be heavy in the bow or stern; this can be 
corrected by adding or subtracting weight or 
displacement at the opposite end, and 2) if a 
submersible is required to follow an upward 
or downward sloping bottom, its bow angle 
may be changed statically so that the vehicle 
"flies" parallel to the bottom. More special- 




Fig 6 8 ALUMINAUT's crew loading shot ballast at Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico (NAVOCEANO) 



301 



ized use of a trim (and roll) capability is 
found with the DSRV^s where a stricken sub- 
marine may lay on the bottom at an angle 
requiring the DSRV to attain both a down 
angle on the bow and a starboard or port list 
angle in order to mate with the submarine's 
escape hatch. A similar case may be made for 
lock-out submersibles mating with underwa- 
ter habitats at other than a level attitude. 

The methods used to gain trim in submers- 
ibles range from very simple to complex but 
they all involve one of two procedures: 1) The 
transferring of weight from one part of the 
vehicle to the other; or 2) the taking aboard 
or releasing weight at one location on the 
submersible or another. The transfer of 
weight, in the case of cylindrical, pressure- 
hulled vehicles, need be nothing more com- 
plicated than a passenger walking fore or aft 
to produce an angle on the bow. In ALUMI- 
NAUT, if one of the crew desired to walk fore 
or aft, while the vehicle was underway, his 
movement had to be countered with a con- 
current movement of another member from 
the opposite end to take his place. If this 
procedure was not followed, the vehicle's 
trim was substantially affected. The spheri- 
cal-hulled DS-4000 (BG— 3 in.) experienced 
the same effect if the aft crew member 
leaned forward to join the operator and sci- 
entist at the viewports. The "tenderness" of 
submersibles toward such trim changes re- 
sides in the small longitudinal metacentric 
height (Table 6.7) which makes the vehicle 
vulnerable to quite small weight shifts. BEN 
FRAISKLIN is an exception to such vulnera- 
bility. During the Gulf Stream Drift, the six 
crew members ran fore and aft together in 
an attempt to produce instability and could 
do no more than produce a dive angle of 10 
degrees from which the submersible immedi- 
ately recovered although the crew remained 
in the bow. 

While many submersibles do not have a 
trim system per se, the manual placing of 
lead or iron weights fore and aft during the 
dive can, to a degree, produce the desired 
results. On a mission off Vieques Island, 
Puerto Rico, in 1968, ALUMIISAUT was able 
to parallel a 30-degree sloping bottom by the 
crew transferring ballast weights from for- 
ward to aft. Such procedures are generally 



impractical in the single, spherical pressure 
hulled submersibles as sufficient moment 
cannot be gained in the small sphere, and 
payload, which the lead takes up, is at a 
premium. 

Trim systems may be located external to 
the pressure hull or within it (Table 6.7). 
Several factors affect the locating decision, 
the most significant being limited internal 
volume and effective moment. Submersibles 
incorporating internal trim systems are 
those with cylindrical pressure hulls where a 
large moment arm can be attained and inter- 
nal volume is available. Systems external to 
the pressure hull are generally found in 
spherical-hulled vehicles. The following is a 
description of each type of trim system from 
a selected vehicle in the groups shown in 
Table 6.7. 

Internal Trim Systems 

Water Transfer Systems: 

The submersible BEN FRANIO^IN has one 

trim tank forward and one tank aft inside 
the bottom of the end closures at each end of 
the pressure hull (Fig. 6.9). Each tank has a 
capacity of 50 ft^ (3,100 lb of fresh water), and 
the base of each is formed by the inside 
contour of the hull. Steel plate sections are 
welded to form the upper surface of the trim 
tanks. A vertical wall at the aft end of the 
forward tank and forward of the aft tank is 
made of one 3-mm steel plate welded flush to 
the interior edge of the hull stiffeners; in 
this wall is an inspection manhole. 

Enough water to fill one tank completely is 
carried during a mission and is sufficient to 
produce approximately a 10-degi'ee up/down 
bow angle. 

The forward trim tank has a filling hole in 
the top, closed by a threaded plug. Both 
tanks are linked by a polyethylene pipe 
joined to metal tubes located on the top of 
each trim tank. Each metal tube has a valve 
for air release. 

When water is pumped from either tank it 
vents through the overhead pipe into the 
opposite tank, and moves through two poly- 
ethylene pipes, running fore and aft down 
the port side of the boat, which are con- 
nected to trim pumps. 



302 



The trim pumps— JABSCO Model 10490, 
ball-bearing, self-priming pumps — are 
mounted on brackets bolted to blocks welded 
to the hull. The pumps are turned by electric 
motors and controlled at the pilot's station. 
Each pump operates in one direction only. 



They are connected to the 110-VDC bus and 
run at 1,750 rpm (2 hp) with a capacity of 84 
gal/min. 

The forward trim tank has a manometer 
connection for reading the percentage of 
water. The gage is located at the pilot's 



TABLE 6.7 SUBMERSIBLE TRIM SYSTEMS 





Metacentric 


Weight 


Bow 


Internal 






External 








Mechanical 


VBT 


MBT 


Shot 








Height 


Shift 


Angle 


H2O Weight 


Mercury Diff. 


Diff. 


Diff. Battery 


H2O 


Oil 


Submersible 


(in.) 


(lb) 


(± degrees) 


Transfer Shift 


Transfer Fill 


Fill 


Fill Shift 


Transfer 


Transfer 


ALUMINAUT 


9.7 


300 


30 














AUGUSTEPICCARD 


8.4 


4020 


NA 














BEN FRANKLIN 


10.3 


3100 


10 














SHINKAI 


7.2 


















PC-3B 




















YOMIURI 




















HAKUYO 


6.0 




10 


• 












PC5C 








• 












TOURS 64/66 








• 












ALVIN 




540 


25 














DEEP QUEST 


3.0 


1400 


30 














DS-2000 




1250 


30 














DS-4000 


3.0 


225 


30 














DS20000 




630 


30 














DSRV-1&2 




1428 


45 














SEA CLIFF/TURTLE 


3.6 


620 


30 














SP350 




















SP500 




















SP-3000 




















STAR III 


2.7 


270 


15 














AQUARIUS 1 




















DEEPDIVER 




730 
















DEEP VIEW 


2.4 


















KUROSHIOII 




















PAULO 1 




















PC-3A 1&2 




















MAKAKAI 


12.0 


400 
















SHELF DIVER 




















SURVEY-SUB 1 




















V0LL1 




















BENTHOS V 












• 








SEA OTTER 












• 








GUPPY 














• 






MERMAID 






20 








• 






NEREID 330 




4800 


30 








• 






PISCES 1 


3.0 




15 








• 






SDL-1 






30 








• 






BEAVER 


3.6 


1474 


27 










• 




DOWB 


5.0 




2.5 












• 


PISCES II, III, IV, V 


3.0 
















' • 



303 



AFT 





FWD 



TRIM PUMP 



TRIM TANK 



Fig. 6.9 BEN FRANKLIN's trim system. 



console and connected by tubing to the tank. 
A small plunger next to the gage is pulled 
out to let air into a cylinder. The plunger is 
then pushed in, forcing air into the manome- 
ter and bottom of the ti"im tank. The amount 
of back pressure forced into the manometer 
depends on how deep the water level is in the 
tank. 
Mechanical Weight Shift: 

The simplest of all trim systems is dis- 
played by submersibles which merely shift a 
cast iron or lead weight fore and aft inside 
the pressure hull. The Japanese HAKUYO 
has adopted a lead weight moving system 
which is described as the simplest, safest and 
most accurate method of trim control (10). 
The system (Fig. 6.10) consists of a lead 
weight moved along a rail by means of a 
hydraulic motor controlled by solenoid 
valves. The trim may be changed ±10 de- 
grees. 

External Trim Systems 

Mercury Transfer: 

To achieve relatively large trim angles, 
several vehicles employ a fore and aft weight 
shift in the form of mercury; ALVIN is one. 
According to Mavor et al. (5), available space 
on ALVIIS precluded the shifting of items 
such as batteries for trim purposes, and fluid 
was required for flexibility in geometric 
shape. Several fluids were analyzed for their 
suitability. Some of the less dense fluids 



would have added less to the gross weight of 
the vehicle, but the space problem was so 
critical that a fluid with a density approach- 
ing mercury was required. 

Mercury, however, is a difficult fluid to use 
and has a corrosive effect on many metals. 
This problem was solved by using a hydro- 
carbon fluid in the pumping system. The 
fluid in the system thus became half mer- 
cury and half oil. The two fluids were found 
to separate adequately if a settling stand- 
pipe was provided for this purpose — oil on 
top, mercury on the bottom. 

The fluid is contained in three small fiber- 
glass spheres, two forward and one aft. An 
electrically driven pump is utilized to trans- 
fer the mercury by displacing the oil in the 
closed system. Two blocking valves and a 
reversing valve are incorporated in the cir- 
cuit to control fluid displacement. The valves 
are electrically operated by solenoids. The 
valves and pump motor are wired to a single 
control for convenient operation. Filters and 
relief valves are used for system protection 
in the conventional manner. 

Angles of approximately ±25 degrees are 
achieved by transferring 540 pounds of mer- 
cury with the system as shown in Figure 
6.11. 

VBT Differential Fill: 

The DEEP DIVER trim system can change 
trim or overall buoyancy by using a seawater 
medium which functions all the way from the 



304 




Fig, 6 10 HAKUYO's mechanciaJ weight trim system, 

surface to DEEP DIVERTS maximum operat- 
ing depth. The system consists of an electric 
motor, pump, selector valves and fore and aft 
tanks. It is designed to pump water to or 



from the sea as well as transfer water fore 
and aft. 

The trim tank in the pilot's compartment is 
split into six sections. The diver's compart- 
ment trim tank is split into two sections. 
Under normal submarine operations both 
fore and aft tanks are used to maintain trim. 
During lock-out dives the aft trim tank pro- 
vides negative buoyancy to partially compen- 
sate for the weight of the departing divers. 

The trim tanks located in the diver's com- 
partment can be flooded through the com- 
partment vent valve or blown dry in 1 min- 
ute through the same valve by increasing 
compartment pressure 5 psi over ambient. 

The trim pump is a positive displacement 
piston type capable of delivering 4 gallons 



OIL 
PUMP 



4-WAY 

SOLENOID 

VALVE 



AFT TANK 




SOLENOID 
VALVE 



OIL FILL & 
BLEED 




OIL 
RESERVOIR 



FILTER 



RELIEF 
VALVE, 200 psI 



SOLENOID 
VALVE 



EXPLOSIVE 
DUMP VALVE 



EXPLOSIVE 
DUMP VALVE 



pMERCURY FILL 




y'>_ 



FORWARD 
TANKS 




EXPLOSIVE 
DUMP VALVE 



MERCURY DRAIN 
OR FILL 



EXPLOSIVE 
DUMP VALVE 



Fig. 6,1 1 Mercury trim system of ALVIN, [From Ref. (5) 

305 



per minute against a head of 700 psi. A 3-hp, 
shunt-wound, 120-VDC motor drives the 
pump. 

The trim tanks, constructed to fit the hull's 
inside contour, have a total capacity of 356 
pounds in the forward tanks and 375 pounds 
in the aft tanks. 

The system is designed for working pres- 
sure of 700 psi and is protected by the use of 
a relief valve. A strainer is located at the 
pump inlet to remove suspended matter from 
the seawater or the system to protect the 
pump from damage. 

MBT Differential Fill: 
Two vehicles, SEA OTTER and BENTHOS 

V, attain trim by differentially filling their 
MBT's. The system is operationally similar 
to differential filling of the VBT's as de- 
scribed above. When partially full the MBT's, 
which are not pressure-resistant tanks, must 
be pressure compensated; in the case of SEA 
OTTER, internal pressurization is accom- 
plished by high pressure air. 

Shot Hopper Differential Fill: 

Vehicles that include fore and aft iron shot 
containers for jettisonable ballast have the 
option of differentially dropping shot to at- 
tain a variety of up or down bow angles. 
However, the general operational procedure 
is to drop shot equally from both hoppers to 
retain horizontal trim. Only one submersible, 
the tethered GUPPY, operationally employs 
its droppable shot to attain trim (11). 

Shot ballast in GUPPY is provided in a 
single cannister on the fore-and-aft axis of 
the sphere and forward of the sphere center. 
Shot can be released from inside the sphere 
by manipulating the shot valve. The location 
of the shot ballast is such that by dropping 
shot, the vessel's trim can be corrected after 
picking up bottom samples or other material 
while submerged and carrying them at the 
forward part of the vehicle. The total capac- 
ity of shot ballast is 175 pounds. 

Since the single-shot hopper provides the 
only ballast affecting trim that can be re- 
leased under water, the vehicle will go down 
by the stern when shot is released. Trimming 
or heeling in other directions while sub- 
merged can only be done by moving weights 
inside the pressure hull. 



Battery Shift: 

Similar in operation and effect to the inter- 
nal weight-shift trim system described 
above, several vehicles employ a trim system 
composed of movable batteries. The MER- 
MAID-class vehicle is typical. 

To compensate for changes in weight dis- 
tribution in the longitudinal direction — 
which could occur either when equipment is 
moved or when the operator moves forward 
from his seat to a lying position — MERMAID 
is equipped with a battery shifting system. 

When the central hydraulic power supply 
is working, trimming is affected via the hy- 
draulic network and is hand controlled. The 
system permits the longitudinal inclination 
to be adjusted approximately ±20 degrees. 

The U.S. Navy's MAKAIiAI also employs a 
battery-shift trim system, but it is used only 
on the surface to attain gross trim before the 
dive and cannot be adjusted again until the 
vehicle surfaces. 



Ballast Weight Drop: 

The submersible DEEP VIEW, in addition 
to internal movable ballast, has twenty 5- 
pound steel plates attached to its keel for- 
ward and aft. By individually dropping a fore 
or aft weight the vehicle can attain up/down 
bow angles. Because the application of this 
system results in an overall loss of negative 
buoyancy, 16 buoyancy blocks weighing 3 
pounds each are located atop the hull. They 
are individually jettisonable and may be re- 
leased to counteract any undesired gain in 
positive buoyancy attained through use of 
the trim system. 

Water Transfer: 

Similar in effect to fore/aft water transfer 
within the pressure huU, BEAVER's external 
system consists of three spherical titanium 
tanks, one mounted aft (1,238-lb capacity) 
and two mounted port/starboard amidships 
of 943-pound capacity each (Fig. 6.12). A hy- 
draulically driven pump transfers water be- 
tween these tanks at 200 pounds/minute to 
gain ±27-degree up/down bow angles. This 
same system can also transfer seawater be- 
tween the port/starboard tanks to attain list 
or roll angles of ±12 degrees. 



306 



VARIABLE 

BALLAST 

PUMP 




TRIM (AND V B T) 
TANKS 



MAIN 
BALLAST 



Fig. 6.12 Trim system components of BEAVER (top view). 



Oil Transfer: 

The trim system of DOWB is not so much a 
transfer of weight function as it is a displace- 
ment function. It consists of a central trim 
tank within the pressure hull, a fore and aft 
trim bladder and a hydraulic trim pump with 
associated valves, piping and fittings (Fig. 
6.13). By transferring oil between the blad- 



ders, to decrease or increase fore and aft 
displacement, an up/down bow angle of 2.5 
degrees can be obtained. 

With such ballast and trim systems at his 
disposal, the operator of a submersible at- 
tempts to carry out his mission. Some mis- 
sions, however, provide options to frequent 
adjustments in ballast or trim. When a vehi- 



PRESSURE HULL 



AFT 

TRIM 

BLADDER 




FWD 

TRIM 

BLADDER 



HYDRAULIC 
TRIM PUMP 



Fig. 6.13 Trim system components of DOWB (starboard side view) 

307 



cle is required to traverse or search the 
bottom over a large area, the pilot may elect 
to use some of these options; ALVMINAVT is 
an example. In its early operations, ALUMI- 
NAVT was fitted with three water- filled air- 
craft wheels enabling the vehicle literally to 
"taxi" along the bottom by first attaining 
very slight negative buoyancy and then pro- 
pelling itself along with the wheels in con- 
tact with the sea floor. The procedure freed 
the pilot of making frequent trim or ballast 
changes as the bottom topography varied or 
as the crew moved about. The wheels were 
later replaced by iron skids which served the 
same purpose and were less troublesome. 
Obviously, this procedure can be applied only 
where the bottom is sufficiently smooth. One 
disadvantage to this procedure is that a sedi- 
ment cloud, caused by disturbing the bottom, 
follows the submersible, and, if the current is 
following also, valuable bottom time is ex- 
pended while waiting for the visibility-ob- 
scuring cloud to drift off or settle out of the 
water. 

REFERENCES 

1. Rechnitzer, A. B. and Gorman, F. T. 1969 
Submersibles. in Handbook of Ocean 
and Underwater Engineering, McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., New York, p. 9-63 thru 9- 
80. 

2. Vincent, M. and Stavovy, A. B. 1963 The 
promising aspects of deejt-sea vehicles. 
Paper No. 3 presented at the Annual 
Meeting of the Society of Naval Ai'chi- 
tects and Marine Engineers, 14-15 Nov. 
1963, 16 pp. 

3. Covey, C. W. 1964 ALLfMINAUT. Under- 
sea Tech., v. 5, n. 9, p. 16-23. 



5. 



6. 



4. Talkington, H. R. and Murphy, D. W. 
1972 Transparent Hull Submersibles 
find the MAKAIiAI. Naval Undersea Re- 
search and Development Center, Report 
TP-283. 

Mavor, J. W., Frochlich, H. E., Marquet, 
W. M. and Rainnie, W. 0. 1966 ALVIIX, 
6000- ft. submergence research vehicle. 
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting, 
New York, N.Y., Nov. 10-11, 1966 of the 
Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers, n. 3, 32 pp. 
Rockwell, P. K., Elliott, R. E. and Snoey, 
M. R. 1971 NEMO. A Netv Concept in 
Submersibles. NCEL TR-749, 68 pp. 

7. Rosenberg, M. A. 1970 Buoyancy mate- 
rials for deep submergence applica- 
tions. Oceanology International, Mar. 
1970, p. 30-32. 

Dudt, P., Tinley, T. and Weishanr, F. 1973 
Lower-cost 34-LB Syntactic Foam for 
20,000 ft. Depth Applications. NSRDC 
Interim Report No. 1, SD Tech. Note SD- 
172-163, Bethesda, Md., 19 pp. 

9. Piccard, A. 1956 Earth, Sky and Sea. 
Oxford University Press, New York, 192 
pp. 

Araki, A. 1972 The operation by the 
HAKUYO. Reprints from the Second In- 
ternational Ocean Development Confer- 
ence, Tokyo, Japan, 1972, v. 1, p. 821-828. 
Watson, W. 1971 The design, construc- 
tion, testing and operation of a deep- 
diving submersible for ocean floor ex- 
ploration. Paper presented in the Trans- 
actions of the Annual Meeting of the 
Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers, Nov. 11-12, New York, p. 405- 
433. 



8 



10. 



11. 



308 




POWER AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 



Four types of power are used to perform 
work in manned submersibles: Electric, 
pneumatic, muscular and hydrostatic. Other 
forces also assist the vehicle through its 
mission, e.g., gravity and buoyancy, but the 
discussion of these is beyond the scope of this 
chapter. 

Electric power is the workhorse of the sub- 
mersible fleet and batteries constitute the 
most commonly used on-board electrical 
source. Consequently, the major topic of this 
chapter is batteries and the transfer of their 
power to components and systems of a sub- 
mersible. Pneumatic power, in the form of 
compressed air, is used primarily to empty 
ballast tanks of seawater; other uses are in 
pressure compensation systems and lock-out 



chambers. Human muscle power is a signifi- 
cant source in shallow diving submersibles 
but less so in deeper vehicles. Hydrostatic 
power is used in the operation of pressure 
depth gages (Chapter 10) and in the pressure 
compensation of batteries and other compo- 
nents; its application is discussed under 
Pressure Compensation of batteries. 

MANUAL POWER 

According to Cohn and Wetch (1), an aver- 
age man can generate 50 to 100 watts of 
power for several hours before he is ex- 
hausted; this averages to 1 watt-hour/pound, 
and defines man as a low energy source. In 
spite of his shortcomings, with the help of 



309 



mechanical advantages he supplies the 
power required for many critical vehicle 
functions. In small, shallow vehicles man- 
power supplies many needs which can be 
grouped under such functions as push, pull, 
twist, turn and crank. In some vehicles, the 
application of manpower is direct and in- 
volves the following: 

— Orientation of propulsion motors (All 
Ocean Industries), 

— Control of dive planes and rudders (PC- 
3 A), 

—Dropping of emergency weights (PISCES 
II), 

— Water deballasting with hand pump 
(NALTILETTE), 

—Control of manipulator (ISEKTOIS , SEA 
OTTER), and 

— Water sampling with hand pump (BEN 
FRANKLIN). 
In the majority of deep vehicles, these func- 
tions are accomplished by pushing a button 
which activates a pump or motor to perform 
the same task, but electricity is always in 
short supply and wherever the opportunity 
exists to use a mechanical rather than elec- 
trical component the designer will do so. 
There are limits, however, to the practical 
and physical aspects of transferring manual 
power through a pressure hull by means of a 
shaft and stuffing box. At 1,000 feet, vir- 
tually all manually-operated external compo- 
nents or systems are replaced by electric or 
electro-hydraulic mechanisms, the only nota- 
ble exception being the mechanical dropping 
of emergency weights. In a few vehicles, S£A 
OTTER and the PISCES series, movement of 
a simple manipulator and jettisoning of var- 
ious components is accomplished by man- 
ually pumping fluid through the hull to at- 
tain the desired reaction hydraulically. 

PNEUMATIC POWER 

The section "Deballasting and Compressed 
Air" in Chapter 6 discusses the characteris- 
tics of compressed air as a power source in 
submersibles. It will suffice at this point to 
reiterate that in a great number of the shal- 
low diving vehicles compressed air is used 
exclusively as the primary power source to 
force seawater out of main ballast tanks on 



the surface and from both main and variable 
ballast tanks when submerged. 

ELECTRIC POWER 

Electric power in submersibles is much like 
the weather; everybody talks about it, but 
nobody does much about it. Table 7.1 shows 
the kinds of electric power sources in 100 
submersibles; 86 of these use lead-acid bat- 
teries, 1 uses a nuclear reactor, 2 derive their 
power from the surface, and the remaining 
vehicles use nickel-cadmium or silver-zinc 
batteries. On the other hand, the published 
literature on energy sources for undersea 
work abounds with accounts of the potential 
fuel cell applications. Yet, all subiiiersibles 
constructed in the seventies and now under 
construction specify lead-acid batteries. 

This literature imbalance is found in many 
other areas, e.g-., pressure hull materials and 
ballasting devices. The authors concentrate 
on the future, rather than the present. For 
example, as pointed out above, batteries con- 
stitute the major power source for all but 3 
out of 100 submersibles, and lead-acid batter- 
ies dominate. Yet few can be found which 
deal with means of improving the output or 
construction of lead-acid batteries for this 
type application. There is also a complete 
absence of reports detailing the means used 
to distribute this power and their successes 
or failures. Bits and pieces of advice can be 
found in a few papers, but a major work on 
this aspect (lead-acid batteries and power 
distribution) of submersibles is lacking. As a 
result, the private builder is left to his own 
devices in designing electrical circuitry and 
selecting reliable components. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that historically and cur- 
rently, electrical malfunctions turn out to be 
the most common cause of aborted submers- 
ible dives. 

In a 1970 presentation at the Offshore 
Technology Conference in Houston, Texas, J. 
F. Rynewicz (2) made the following state- 
ment regarding Lockheed's DEEP QUEST 
and the submersible field at large: 

^'Electrical problems, especially 
leakage in electrical cables, connec- 
tors, and circuit breakers, constitute 
the major area of need for improve- 



310 



TABLE 7.1 SUBMERSIBLE POWER SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS 

















Total 






Main 






Pressure 


Inside 


DC 


Power 






Power 


Type 


Pressure 


Resistant 


Pressure 


Voltage 


Capacity 




Submersible 


Source 


Battery 


Compensated 


Capsule 


Hull 


Output 


(kWh) 


Other 


All Ocean Industries 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


12 


NA 




ALUMINAUT 


B 


SZ 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


28,115,230 


300 




ALVIN 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


30,60 


40.5 




AQUARIUS 1 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 








ARCHIMEOE 


B 


NC 


Yes 


- 


- 


24,110 


100 


diesel sur- 


ARGYRONETE 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


NA 


1,200 


face power 


ASHERAH 


B 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


6,12 


21.6 




AUGUSTEPICCARD 


B 


LA 


No 


No 


Yes 


110,220 


625 




BEAVER 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


28,64,120 


55 


inverters for 


BEN FRANKLIN 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


28,112,168 


756 


AC power 


BENTHOS V 


B 


N-C 


No 


No 


Yes 


NA 
24,36 


NA 




DEEP DIVER 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


120,240 


23 




DEEP JEEP 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


NA 


7 


inverter for 


DEEP QUEST 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


28,120 


230 


AC power 


DEEPSTAR 2000 


B 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


28,120 


26.5 


inverter for 


DEEPSTAR4000 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 




49.6 


AC power 


DEEPSTAR 20000 


B 


SZ 


Yes 


- 


- 


28,112 


NA 




DEEP VIEW 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


12,24,48 


16 




DOSTAL&HAIR 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


NA 
120 inverted 


16.2 


inverters for 


DOWB 


B 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


dive Ex to AC 


40 


AC power 
inverter for 


DSRV-1 &2 


B 


SZ 


Yes 


- 


- 


112 


58 


AC power 


FNRS-2 


B 


LA 
LA 


Yes 
Yes 


— 


— 


NA 






FNRS-3 


B 


SZ 


No 


No 


Yes 


NA 


30 


gasoline engine 


GOLDFISH 


B 


LA 


No 


No 


Yes 


NA 


NA 


for surface 


GUPPY 


Surface 










440 








Generator 


- 


- 


- 


- 


110 


- 


tethered 


HAKUYO 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


24,120 


14.4 




HIKING 


B 


LA 


No 


No 


Yes 


18,24 


2.3 




JOHNSON SEA LINK 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


NA 


32 




KUMUKAHI 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


12 


5.1 


data incomplete 


KUROSHIO II 


Surface 


















Generator 


- 


- 


- 


— 


104 


- 


tethered 


MAKAKAI 


B 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


6,30,120 


36 




MERMAID 1 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 




36 





B = Battery LA = Lead-Acid N-C = Nickel-Cadmium SZ = Silver-Zinc NA = Data Not Available 

311 



TABLE 7.1 SUBMERSIBLE POWER SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.) 

















Total 






Main 






Pressure 


Inside 


DC 


Power 






Power 


Type 


Pressure 


Resistant 


Pressure 


Voltage 


Capacity 




Submersible 


Source 


Battery 


Compensated 


Capsule 


Hull 


Output 


(kWh) 


Other 


MINI DIVER 


B 


LA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 




NAUTILETTE 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


24 


4.4 




NEKTON A, B,C 


B 


LA 


No 


No 


Yes 


24,48 


4.5 




NEMO 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


24, 120 


15 




NEREID 330 & 700 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


24, 220 


40 




NRl 


Nuclear 


















Reactor 


- 


- 


- 


- 


NA 


NA 




PAULO 1 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


6,12,24 


5.2 




PC3X 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


11 




PC-3A(1 &2) 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


7.5 




PC5C 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


12,120 


16 




PC-3B 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


NA 


26 




PS-2 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


24,120 


17 




PISCES) 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 




66 




PISCES II, III, IV, V 


B 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


12,28 


70 


inverter tor 


SDLl 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


60, 120 


68 


AC power 


SEA CLIFFS TURTLE 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


30,60 


4.5 




SEA OTTER 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 




13.8 




SEA RANGER 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


NA 


43.5 




SEA-RAY 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


15 




SHELF DIVER 


6 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


NA 


37 


Inverter for 


SHINKAI 


B 


LA 
NC 


Yes 


— 


— 


NA 


200 


AC power 


SNOOPER 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


NA 


9.7 




SP-350 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


NA 


13 




SP500 


6 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


NA 


6.8 


inverter tor 


SP-3000 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


120,26 


47 


AC power 


SPORTSMAN 300 


B 


LA 














SPORTSMAN 600 


B 


S-Z 


No 


Yes 


Yes 




4.2 




STAR 1 


B 


LA 


Yes 


— 


— 


12,24 


4.7 


inverter tor 


STAR II 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


32,24, 115 


14.8 


AC power 
inverter tor 


STAR III 


B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


±12,24,115 


30 


AC power 


SUBMANAUT (Helle) 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


3.5 


diesel engine 


SUBMANAUT (Martine) 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


24,115,230 


91 


tor surtace 


SUBMARAY 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


4.5 


inverter tor 


SURV 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


- 


12 


AC power 


SURVEY SUB 1 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


24,120 


49.9 





B = Battery 



LA = Lead-Acid 



N-C = Nickel-Cadmium 



S-Z = Silver-Zinc 
312 



TABLE 7.1 SUBMERSIBLE POWER SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS (Cont.) 



















Total 








Main 






Pressure 


Inside 


DC 


Power 








Power 


Type 


Pressure 


Resistant 


Pressure 


Voltage 


Capacity 




Submersible 




Source 


Battery 


Compensated 


Capsule 


Hull 


Output 


(kWh) 


Other 


TECHDIVER 




B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


10 


diesel engine 


TOURS 64 & 66 




B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 




for surface 


TRIESTE II 




B 


LA 


Yes 


- 


- 


NA 


145 




TRIESTE III 




B 


SZ 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


145 




VAST MK II (K-250) 


B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


3.5 




VOL LI 




B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


No 


24,120 


52 


diesel for 


YOMIURI 




B 


LA 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


NA 


45 


surface power 


B = Battery 


LA = 


: Lead-Acid 


N-C = Ni 


ckel-Cadmlum 


S-Z = Silver-Zinc 











nient in deep submergence compo- 
nents. The time, energy and dollars 
lost flue to the malfunction of a conv- 
ponent are most certainly always sev- 
eral orders of magnitude greater than 
the original cost of the component. 
The lesson herein is that submersible 
designers must insist on the use of 
materials and combinations of mate- 
rials that ivill provide high reliftbility 
for many yetirs in the ocean's hostile, 
corrosive depths.^' 

In the 4 years since Rynewicz's statement, 
there has been some decrease in the "electri- 
cal problem." Rather than a concerted effort 
on the part of submersible builders to single- 
mindedly find reliable materials and compo- 
nents, the problem has been tackled individ- 
ually, e.g., by operators, and through the 
process of elimination suitable answers have 
been found in some cases, and "some times" 
answers in others. 

In one instance, the builder (International 
Hydrodynamics Ltd.) went to the extreme 
measure of abandoning all commercially- 
available connectors and now manufactures 
its own. 

Application 

The only task submersibles could accom- 
plish without electricity would be to descend 
and ascend, and this would be done in total 



darkness and incommunicado. To say electri- 
cal power is critical is a gross understate- 
ment; it is the lifeblood of undersea work as 
the following indicates: 

PropuUion: All subiiiersibles use electrically- 
powered motors for lateral or vertical ma- 
neuvering. 

Life Support: All submersibles but one, BEN 
FRANKLIN, use electrically-powered carbon 
dioxide scrubbers. 

Communicalions: All tWO-Way SUb-tO-SUrfaCe 

communication devices are electrically pow- 
ered. 

Illumination: All internal and external light- 
ing is electrically powered. 

Work and Operating Instruments: Virtually all 

scientific and engineering instruments, as 
well as those used to control and operate the 
vehicle, are driven by electricity. 

Ballast Drop: The majority of vehicles depend 
upon an electrical impulse or signal to acti- 
vate weight drops or jettison instruments. 

Maneuvering: The majority of Vehicles de- 
pend upon electricity to orient their propul- 
sion devices or dive planes and rudders. 

Sensors: Virtually all status sensors (trim 
tank level indicators, MBT and VBT level 
sensors, etc.) are electrically powered. 

Emergency Indicators: All seawater leak indi- 
cators depend upon the initiation or termina- 
tion of electrical current. 

Tracking/Navigation: All routine tracking and 
navigation systems depend upon electricity. 



313 



Hydraulics: Virtually all hydraulically-pow- 
ered devices require electricity to pump hy- 
draulic fluid. 

There are exceptions to the above, but 
they only accentuate the widespread and 
essential role electricity plays in deep sub- 
mergence, generally, and manned submers- 
ibles, specifically. It is not surprising, then, 
that the recent literature on submersibles 
contains an inordinate amount of discussion 
regarding electrical power and the means to 
increase its output and endurance. It is in- 
teresting to observe that the majority of 
early literature on submersible design dealt 
with pressure hull materials and later with 
power sources. Apparently the first order of 
business was to dive safely; the next item 
was to accomplish something once safety was 
attained. 

Terminology and General 
Considerations 

The only general statement which may be 
made regarding power supply and distribu- 
tion in submersibles is that they most often 
use lead-acid batteries which are usually re- 
charged from a surface support ship after 
each dive. While approaches to electrical 
power distribution vary widely, system re- 
quirements are similar, and it is around such 
requirements that basic submersible electri- 
cal terminology is defined. 

In many respects, electric power genera- 
tion and distribution aboard a submersible is 
similar to that aboard a surface ship, but the 
problems are compounded in a submersible 
by the operating environment: High pres- 
sure, low temperature and an operating me- 
dium which itself is an excellent electrical 
conductor, namely seawater. The character- 
istics of the operating environment and the 
constraints imposed by occupant safety com- 
bine to make problems of electric power gen- 
eration and distribution in submersibles and 
submarines quite unique. A basic definition 
of terms follows, while Figure 7.1 presents a 
graphical representation of the components 
cited: 

Power Generation: This requirement is met 
primarily by Secondary Batteries Consisting of 
lead-acid (Pb-acid), nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) 
or silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells which are re- 
chargeable to their rated capacity (measured 



in ampere-hours) for many cycles. In sub- 
mersibles the Pb-acid batteries are conven- 
tional and similar to automobile batteries. 

Power Distribution: Connectors and cables are 
used to carry the power from the batteries. 
Cables provide a waterproof, insulated cas- 
ing for the current-carrying conductor(s), 
and connectors are devices, generally 
molded to either end of a cable, consisting of 
a plug and receptacle which provide a water- 
proof attachment to the energy source or, 
more commonly, to a penetrator. An electri- 
cal hull penetrator is a specially designed 
receptacle which permits passage of current 
through the pressure hull or any other cas- 
ing containing an electrical component. 

Power Changers: Batteries generate direct 
current (DC). Many instruments and propul- 
sion systems however, operate on alternat- 
ing current (AC). Consequently, inverters are 
used to change DC power to AC. The invert- 
ers may be carried within or external to the 
pressure hull. Other components or sub-sys- 
tems may operate on DC voltages which are 
lower than that generated by the batteries. 
In this case a converter is used. Basically a 
converter provides the functions of a step- 
down transformer and an inverter — that is, 
it lowers the voltage and changes AC to DC. 
This is a more energy conserving approach 
than placing a series resistor in the circuit. 
In practice, then, an inverter first changes 
battery DC to AC which is then acted on by 
the converter to yield DC power at the re- 
quired voltage. 

Power Protection: Three approaches are used 
in protecting batteries from seawater and 
pressure: 1) pressure-compensation (Fig. 7.1) 
wherein the battery is placed within a sealed 
and vented case filled with a dielectric fluid 
(usually oil) and connected to a compensat- 
ing fluid reservoir which acts to maintain a 
zero or slightly positive pressure differential 
across the enclosed oil/seawater face; 2) pres- 
sure-protection wherein the battery is en- 
closed in a pressure-resistant pod outside the 
pressure hull and maintained in a dry, 1- 
atmosphere environment; 3) interior location 
where the battery is placed within the pres- 
sure-hull to protect it from seawater and 
pressure. No provisions are made to main- 



314 



tain a constant battery temperature in sub- 
mersibles, the consequences of which will be 
discussed later. 

Protection from the Power: Faulty COnductor 

protection may lead to short-circuits, while 
inappropriate cable routing or shielding may 
result in electromagnetic interference 
(EMI). In the former situation both the hu- 
man occupants and the electrical subsystems 
must be protected; in the latter, only the 
electrical subsystems must be protected. The 
causes and results of short-circuits are le- 
gion. To state the obvious, the ideal solution 
is prevention through sound circuit design 
and construction. Unfortunately, a perfect 
solution is not always attained and devices 
are required to still the rampaging current 
before it can cause critical damage. Fuses 
and circuit breakers provide this protection 
by interrupting the circuit when it reaches 
or exceeds a certain amperage level. In the 
small confines of a submersible, it is not 
uncommon to have high voltage cables (e.g., 

PRESSURE HULL 



propulsion power) immediately adjacent to 
cables carrying power or signals from an 
instrument. In this case the EMI from the 
high voltage cable may seriously interfere 
with the output on the signal cable. Shield- 
ing or adequate physical separation of the 
two cables prevents such interference. 

Power Monitors: To ascertain the state of the 
batteries, equipment inside the pressure hull 
may include one or all of the following: Am- 
pere Hour Meter to monitor and display the 
battery current used or remaining. Voltme- 
ter to read battery voltage or a Ground 
Measuring System to detect ground currents 
on the battery and a Megohm Meter to meas- 
ure ground resistance readings on other ex- 
ternal equipment. A few submersibles carry 
none of these measuring/monitoring devices, 
others carry one or two. Indicators may be 
included in the Battery Manifold Oil Reser- 
voir to indicate the level of salt water incur- 
sion, or in the Battery Vent Valve to indicate 
when salt water has entered the vent valve 
reservoir. 



ELECTRICAL 

HULL 
PENETRATOR 



MAIN POWER 

DISTRIBUTION 

BOX & CIRCUIT 

BREAKER 



POWER TO 

EXTERNAL 

SUBSYSTEM 

J_ 




RELIEF 
VALVE 
FOR H, 



COMPENSATION 
BLADDER 



BATTERY CASE 

HOLDING COMPENSATING 

OIL 



Fig. 7,1 Example of electrical power and distribution arrangements in a submersible. 

315 



Power Regeneration: The majority of submers- 
ibles recharge batteries after each dive. This 
is accompHshed with the vehicle aboard or 
alongside its support craft which carries a 
battery charger. A few submersibles carry 
their own diesel-electric motor to charge the 
batteries while they are surfaced. 

In an extremely simplified manner, such is 
the genesis, distribution and control of elec- 
trical power in manned submersibles. The 
variations on this theme equal the number of 
past, present and future vehicles. The reason 
for such diversity is found in the several 
factors which enter into the choice of a sub- 
mersible's power source. 

In a discussion of electrical power supplies 
to meet the needs of deep submersibles, Lou- 
zader and Turner (3) identify the following 
as considerations important in the evalua- 
tion of candidate power sources: 

Total Power Requirements 

Weight and Volume 

Operational Handling 

Maintainability and Repair 

Reliability 

Cost 

Total Power Requirements 

The total power required in a submersible 
depends upon the vehicle's primary mission 
and projected submerged endurance. These, 
in turn, are governed by the weight and 
volume available for the power package. The 
major power user is propulsion. Running a 
close second, and sometimes exceeding pro- 
pulsion are external lighting and scientific or 
work equipment requirements. Hotel load 
(life support, communications, avoidance 
sonar, monitoring instruments) is a con- 
sumer of power which must be dealt with on 
a continuing basis, and, finally, the prudent 
operator will maintain some amount (25%) of 
power in reserve. 

An examination of Table 7.1 reveals that 
the total power capacity (kWh) of submers- 
ibles ranges from 2.5 to 1,200 kWh. Of the 83 
vehicles for which there is information, 74 
carry less than 100 kWh while the remain- 
der, nine, exceed this value. Further exami- 
nation shows that 61 vehicles carry 50 kWh 
or less. The distribution and nature of this 
power varies from vehicle-to-vehicle. Some 



operate solely with 12 VDC (KUMUKAHI), 

while others operate with 12, 28, 60 and 120 
VDC and carry an inverter to supply AC 
power as well, e.g., SDL-1 . There are no hard 
and fast rules governing total power require- 
ments or rated voltages, but once the total 
power capacity is established, one can calcu- 
late how much will be available for various 
instrument or machinery functions and for 
what mission profiles. The ideal procedure, 
however, would be to determine the power 
requirements through power spectrum anal- 
ysis of the vehicle's intended mission(s) and 
then design the vehicle and its power system 
accordingly. Many builders have followed 
this latter procedure, but in several in- 
stances, it would appear that a more casual 
approach was taken. 

An example of a power spectrum analysis 
is presented in Figure 7.2 which was per- 
formed by Bodey and Friedland (4) for a 
small submersible on a "typical" mission. 
First, the authors divided the overall mission 
into categories (pre-dive, dive, etc.) where 
the operation of various electrical devices 
could be prognosticated. Then, an operating 
time for each device was assumed and multi- 
plied by the power it would require (time x 
amps X voltage) — based on manufacturer's 
specifications. Summing each column pro- 
vided the power for each category and, 
hence, the total power to complete the 6-hour 
mission. It is important to note that almost 
one-half of the total kWh was allocated for 
reserve power. Such power analysis is una- 
voidable when the owner plans to lease the 
vehicle's services to a user who desires to 
operate his own electronic equipment in ad- 
dition to that listed in Figure 7.2. 

Weight and Volume 

The small size of most submersibles places 
severe restraints on the weight and size of 
possible power systems. The decision to lo- 
cate the system inside or external to the 
pressure hull is critical in determining the 
total power a vehicle will carry. If the power 
system is located within the hull an increase 
in propulsion power is needed because of the 
added hull weight. This also decreases the 
vehicle's payload and submerged endurance 
and limits the volume available for internal 
instrumentation. Locating the system exter- 



316 



EOUIPMENT 


PREDIVE 


DIVE 


SEARCH 


SETUP 


STANDBY 


WORK 


EMERGENCY 


CLIMB 


DOCKING 


MECHARMS 

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 

WRENCH 

PROPULSION 

WINCH 

VEHICLE LIGHTS 

TV LIGHTS 

GYROCOMPASS 

SCANNING SONAR 

TRANSCEIVER 

PAN &TILT 

TV 

LIFE SUPPORT 


• 
• 

• 
• 
• 

• 


• 


• 


• 


• 

• 
• 

• 


• 
• 

• 
• 
• 
• 

• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 

• 

• 
• 

• 


• 


• 
• 

• 
• 


POWER (kW) 


3 


3 


5.1 


3.5 


0.9 


2.5 


7.7 


3.2 


2.5 


TIME HRMIN 


:30 


:10 


:30 


:15 


2:40 


1:00 


:30 


:10 


:15 



TIME (HR) 



6.0 
5.5 —I 

5.0 

4.5 H 
4.0 
3.5 
3.0 —\ 



2.5 
2.0 
1.5 — 
1.0 — 
.5 



DOCKING 



CLIMB 



EMERGENCY 



WORK 



-STANDBY 



WORK 



-STANDBY 



WORK 



PEAK LOAD 



kWh/6Hr = 15.3 kWh 
PEAK LOAD = 7,7 kW 
AVERAGE LOAD = 2.5 kW 
ENERGY AVAILABLE = 30 kWh 
RESERVE = 14.7 kWh = 1-6 Hr MISSION 



AVERAGE LOAD 



•STANDBY 



SETUP 



SEARCH 



DIVE 



-SURFACE (PREDIVE CHECK) 



3 4 5 6 7 8 9 

KILOWATTS 

Fig. 7.2 Power spectrum for a typical six-hour mission. [From Ref. (4)| 

317 



nal to the hull alleviates the internal volume 
problem and significantly eases the weight 
(or buoyancy) problem. The potential for 
short circuits or other failures due to leakage 
is virtually nil when the power system is 
inside the hull, but the gain is partially 
offset by occupant safety considerations. 

Operational Handling 

Recharging or turn-around time of bat- 
tery-type power systems and fuel cells is an 
important factor. Submersibles of the DEEP- 
STAR series require 6 to 8 hours for recharg- 
ing between each 4- to 6-hour dive. Vehicles 
of the BEN FRANKLIN and ALUMINAUT 
variety require 12 hours and longer. The 
only reported experience with fuel cells (4) 
indicates that very little time is required to 
place new fuel and oxidant aboard the vehi- 
cle. It is the practice with several vehicles 
simply to replace a used battery package 
with a charged one after each dive, thereby 
significantly decreasing turn-around time. 
This latter option assumes that the design of 
the vehicle permits such modular replace- 
ment. Short turn-around time is critical to 
the economic utilization of a submersible 
operating in areas where weather dictates 
the deployment of vehicles. In the North Sea, 
for example, periods of relative calm can be 
quite short, and the submersible requiring 6 
to 8 hours turn-around time works at a dis- 
advantage. 

Maintainability and Repairs 

Few submersibles are furnished with an 
enclosed area for repairs or maintenance 
aboard their support ship. Consequently, 
weather plays an important role in the time- 
ly correction of malfunctions or in routine 
maintenance. Where repairs to an internal 
power package are required the problem re- 
mains, but is less severe because the work 
may be performed within the shelter of the 
pressure hull and, depending upon the na- 
ture of the casualty, may be performed dur- 
ing the dive itself. External power systems 
are limited to repairs only when the vehicle 
is aboard ship or ashore. BEN FRANKLIN 
and ALUMINAUT present the advantages 
and disadvantages of the opposing power 
system location strategies. Both vehicles are 
generally towed to the operating site and 



remain in the water during the operation 
because their size and weight preclude 
launch/retrieval in a routine fashion, li BEN 
FRANKLIN undergoes a significant battery 
malfunction, the vehicle must be towed to a 
port where facilities are available to lift the 
142-ton vehicle out of the water. Conversely, 
ALUMINAUT, with silver-zinc batteries in- 
side the pressure hull, may be repaired in 
the water and on site — thereby negating a 
long tow and expensive lift to ascertain the 
nature of the problem. 

To digress for a moment, the future sub- 
mersible designer should note that while 4L- 
UMINAUT's internal batteries allow easier 
maintenance and repair than BEN FRANK- 
LIN^s external, keel-mounted, lead-acid bat- 
teries, ALUMINAUT's electrical penetrators 
are below its waterline. Hence, when ALUMI- 
NAUT's penetrators fail (as was the case in a 
1968 Puerto Rican operation) it must be 
lifted out of the water. BEN FRANKLIN, on 
the other hand, has all its electrical penetra- 
tors above the waterline, thereby allowing 
in-water repairs. 

Reliability 

There are a variety of candidate power 
systems which offer considerable advantages 
over lead-acid batteries, but the extreme in- 
hospitality of the deep sea, and the size and 
weight limitations imposed on the system by 
small submersibles precludes a number of 
redundant measures incorporated in most 
marine designs (3). For such reasons and the 
overriding need for a reliable power source, 
many potentially better power systems fail 
to make it through thelcompetitive selection 
process. 

Cost 

The U.S. Navy's NR-1 receives its power 
from a nuclear reactor and may remain sub- 
merged and cruising for 30 days or longer. 
NR-1 is acknowledged to have cost some $99 
million. What portion of this value repre- 
sents the power package is unknown, but is 
certainly at least an order of magnitude be- 
yond the budgets of present, private sub- 
mersible builders. Likewise, the increased 
size and weight of the vehicles needed to 
accommodate nuclear reactors would impose 
severe penalties on mobility and maneuvera- 



318 



bility for certain types of missions. In the 
simplest example, the All Ocean Industries'' 

vehicle employs two 12-volt lead-acid batter- 
ies inside its pressure hull; the total cost of 
this power package is somewhere around 
$70. Cost and reliability are so intertwined 
that it is impossible to evaluate one without 
the other using the present yardsticks of 
evaluation. Confidence or reliability in a 
power system is achieved through demon- 
strated performance. For this reason the 
lead-acid battery (in use since 1901 in U.S. 
Navy submarines) is irresistible. For other 
systems (fuel cells, thermoelectric genera- 
tors and other batteries) to attain this de- 
gree of confidence they must demonstrate 
their reliability, but without a concentrated 
research and development program which 
will both demonstrate reliability and de- 
crease purchase cost, it is difficult to foresee 
a near-future competitor to lead-acid batter- 
ies. 

In the final analysis, the nature, location 
and total power output of a submersible's 
power system are compromises of design and 
operational trade-offs. Without compromis- 
ing occupant safety, sound arguments can be 
advanced for systems internal to the pres- 
sure hull as well as external. Both solutions 
are accompanied by disadvantages for which 
there is no optimum solution in one submers- 
ible. Perhaps future developments will help 
to alleviate this problem, but for the present 
let us examine the power sources with which 
submersible builders have dealt: Batteries, 
fuel cells and nuclear reactors. Though not 
having a "self-contained" power source, sur- 
face-powered vehicles such as GUPPY and 
KUROSHIO II satisfy all other require- 
ments of a submersible; hence, aspects of 
their cable-supplied power systems are 
briefly described. 

BATTERIES 

Batteries generate power through the flow 
of electrons from a negative (anode) to a 
positive (cathode) electrode immersed in a 
conducting (electrolyte) medium (usually a 
liquid). The basic electrochemical unit (an- 
ode, cathode, electrolyte) is called a cell; the 
finished, boxed unit is the battery and it may 
consist of one or many cells. After a period of 



time, the flow of electrons from anode to 
cathode (discharging) will weaken, and, for 
further use, the electron flow must be re- 
versed by recharging to bring the cell back to 
its rated strength. Cells that can be re- 
charged for many cycles are called second- 
ary cells; cells that cannot normally be re- 
charged — e.g., where the electrodes are de- 
pleted — are called primary cells. Secondary 
cells are the major suppliers of power in 
submersibles. Primary cells are frequently 
used to furnish emergency power or power to 
ancillary components such as pingers or 
transponders. Our main concern here is with 
secondary cells or batteries, of which three 
types have been used in submersibles: Lead- 
acid, nickel-cadmium and silver-zinc. The 
classification of batteries is derived from the 
substance comprising the electrodes (silver- 
zinc, nickel-cadmium) or from the substance 
comprising the electrodes and electrolyte 
(lead-acid). The electrolyte in the silver-zinc 
and nickel-cadmium batteries is alkaline. 

While there is a lack of repoi'ted studies 
aimed at improving the performance and 
packaging of secondary batteries, there are 
several excellent reports detailing the char- 
acteristics of these power sources in the ma- 
rine environment and other analyses exist 
which compare the advantages and disad- 
vantages of one source against the other. 
The author has relied heavily on these stud- 
ies to provide a state-of-the-art summary of 
the characteristics and properties of second- 
ary batteries for deep submergence. A sec- 
ond topic — the means used to protect these 
sources from seawater and pressure — is 
dealt with under Protection and Pressure 
Compensation. 



Characteristics 

In 1968 the National Academy of Sciences 
published a report (5) on energy system re- 
quirements and technology for undersea ap- 
plications which cited the following advan- 
tages and disadvantages of conventional bat- 
teries relative to other energy sources. 

Advantages: 

a) Basically simple construction where all 
components are self-contained within 
the battery. 



319 



b) Operate at ambient deep-sea pressure 
and thereby conserve pressure hull 
weight. 

c) No moving parts preclude generation of 
noise or vibration. 

d) Operate at temperatures well below to 
well above those encountered within the 
sea. 

e) Highly reliable, and failure occurs one 
cell at a time such that battery opera- 
tion may continue with only slightly 
diminished output. 

f) Available commercially in a large vari- 
ety of types, sizes and configurations, 
and, for the most part, developmental 
costs have already been paid. 

Disadvantages: 

a) Energy densities (energy per unit 
weight) and specific energies (energy 
per unit volume) are low. 

b) Designed for operation at power levels 
of not more than a few tens of watts per 
pound and a few kilowatts per cubic foot 
(silver-zinc cells are an exception). 

The report concludes that, among the var- 
ious conventional batteries available, silver- 
zinc batteries appear most attractive for un- 
dersea application. It also presents a sum- 
mary of secondary battery characteristics 
which is shown in Table 7.2. An analysis of 
Table 7.2 reveals that silver-zinc cells 
achieve the highest energy density (watt 
hours/lb) and lead-acid the lowest with 



nickel-cadmium somewhat in between. Con- 
versely, initial costs are in the reverse order. 
Penzias and Goodman (6) point out that 
there is significant salvage value, however, 
in the silver of a silver-zinc cell while the 
lead in a lead-acid battery is hardly worth 
recovering. 

Discharge Rate and Temperature 

According to Cohn and Wetch (1), most 
battery manufacturers define standard con- 
ditions as room temperature and low dis- 
charge, and Howard (7) standardizes this 
condition as a 5-hour discharge at 80°F. Volt- 
age profiles of various secondary cells are 
shown in Figure 7.3 and clearly demonstrate 
the steady output of silver-zinc and nickel- 
cadmium cells. Curves presented by Kisinger 
(8) show that the highest energy per pound 
from secondary batteries (lead-acid; silver- 
zinc) is obtained at slow discharge rates. In 
short, to realize the most energy, batteries 
should be used under load conditions which 
will keep the drain on them to a minimum. 
Conversely, of course, a high discharge rate 
reduces the total amount of energy that can 
be taken from a battery. 

In general, as temperature decreases the 
withdrawal of current becomes more difficult 
because the increasing viscosity of the elec- 
trolyte hinders the passage of reactants and 
products to and from electrodes (9). High 
temperatures are only a problem if they are 



TABLE 7.2 SUMMARY OF SECONDARY BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS [FROM REF. (5)] 



Type 



Anode Cathode Electrolyte 



Theorel- Maximum 

Open Typical ical Actual energy power 

circuit operating energy density density Opera Typical 

Temp. voltage voltage density (W/ (W/ Cost* ting no. of 

'F IV) IVI (Wh/lbl (Wh/lb) (Wh/ln ') lb) in.') ($/kWh) Life cycles Remarks 



Conventional 
Lead-acid Pb 



PbO, H,SOj 



-40-140 2.2 T721 



80 116 5 20 04 1 2 15 30 1 2 



09(601 2 14yr 1500 conventional lead 

storage cell; presently 
used for submarines, 
automobiles, etc. 



Nickel- 


Cd 


Ni 


KOH 


cadmium 




oxides 




Silwer-zinc 


Zn 


Ago 


KOH.ZnO 



-40-140 1,36 1,01,3 



0140 1.8 13-1.6 



105 12 15 0710 15 15 0211700) 4 6 yr 1000 available as completely 

2000 sealed cell 

205 30-80+ 18 5,6 170 7.2 8.40(800) 6 18 mo 10200 high capacity and very 

high drain rales: low 
cycle life; expensive 



•First value is cost/kWh of energy drawn from battery during anticipated cycle life. Bracketed value is initial cost. 



320 



1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 

NOTE DISCHARGE TIME ISARBITRARILYCHOSEN ANY 
OF THE BATTERIESSHOWN CAN GIVE FULL OIS 


'^--'4< 


ARGE IN FROM 1 TO10HH 

StLVEH - ZINC 


- 


'■-,,,_^ NICKE 


. - CADMIUM 


\ 


^ : 


^ 


- 




■* \ 


- 


1 


I 


1 


1 



DISCHARGE TIME — ^ HOuHS 

Fig, 7 3 Voltage profile of tfiree secondary batteries 

high enough to boil off the electrolyte, deteri- 
orate the separators or distort the battery 
case. In deep submersible operations, consid- 
eration is generally given to low, rather than 
high temperatures because the operating en- 



vironment is on the low temperature side. 
Normal operating temperatures of most sec- 
ondary batteries are between 65° and 90°F. 
While water temperatures in excess of 90°F 
are quite unusual, deck temperatures in the 
tropics can exceed this value and should be 
considered when the submersible is out of 
the water. Water temperatures as low as 
30°F may be encountered in the ocean, and 
deck temperatures below 0°F can be antici- 
pated in the high latitudes. Performance 
data from various cells are presented in Ta- 
ble 7.3 and show the effects of temperature 
and discharge rate. The dashes in this table 
indicate the need for heaters to warm the 
cells. Cohn and Wetch (1), who present an 
excellent technical summary of all present 
and potential undersea power sources, rec- 
ommend heaters in extreme cold to assure a 
more normal voltage profile throughout the 
discharge, and they point out that it is possi- 
ble to have a higher voltage at cut off than 
at starting because of the warming of the 
active surfaces during normal discharge. 



TABLE 7.3 RELATIONSHIP OF TEMPERATURE, DISCHARGE RATE, AND PERFORMANCE 

[FROM REF. (10)] 





Cell Rated 
Capacity, 


Discharge 
Rate, 


Potential at midpoini 


, V 




Capacity, amp-hr 


% rated 
















Battery Type 


(amp-hr) 


(amp) 


80° F 


0°F 


-40° F 


80°F 


0°F 


-40° F 


Lead-acid 


5 


0.5 


1.95 


1.89 


1.85 


100 


54 


30 






1.0 


1.92 


1.84 


1.80 


88 


50 


21 






10.0 


1.81 


1.60 


1.40 


46 


16 


3 




60 


10.0 


1.92 


1.89 


1.82 


100 


54 


26 






25.0 


1.90 


1.80 


1.65 


87 


31 


10 






50.0 


1.87 


1.70 


— 


63 


18 


— 






100.0 


1.70 


— 


— 


39 


— 


— 


Nickel-cadmium 


5 


1.0 


1.22 


— 


— 


100 


— 


— 






10.0 


1.11 


1.05 


1.05 


94 


67 


21 




75 


10.0 


1.23 


1.16 


1.14 


100 


80 


64 






25.0 


1.20 


1.14 


1.06 


97 


82 


48 






50.0 


1.13 


1.07 


1.00 


94 


72 


34 






100.0 


1.17 


— 


— 


82 


— 


— 


Silver-zinc 


5 


0.5 


1.52 


1.45 


— 


100 


75 


— 






1.0 


1.50 


1.42 


— 


96 


70 


— 






10.0 


1.40 


1,26 


— 


85 


63 


— 




60 


10.0 


1.52 


1.46 


— 


100 


92 


— 






25.0 


1.49 


1.42 


— 


97 


79 


— 






50.0 


1.48 


1.42 


— 


92 


75 


— 






100.0 


1.42 


1.30 


— 


84 


69 


— 



321 



ATMOSPHERIC (30 CI 




ELtCTBOLYTE 



_l I I I I L. 



ICI I 

70 > 



- 20 

— 10 



30 60 90 120 150 



210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 460 

TIME (MINI 



Fig. 7.4 Silver-zinc cell discharge characteristics under high pressure. 
(From Ret. (12)1 

Pressure 

In 1963, Home (9) stated that the effects of 
pressure on battery performance should be 
slight, and subsequent experience proved 
this correct. More recently, Funao et al. (12) 
performed a number of experiments on sil- 
ver-zinc secondary batteries. One result of 
their studies is shown in Figure 7.4 and 
indicates that there is no appreciable differ- 
ence in capacity at atmospheric pressure 
than at 600 kg/cm^ (8,532 psi). The range of 



fluctuation in electrolyte level due to pres- 
sure was found to be larger than the range 
due to discharge and the electrolyte did not 
regain its original level after pressure was 
removed. The authors could not explain the 
phenomenon and suggest further study of 
this irreversible process. 

Summarizing Home's and others' observa- 
tions and his own. Work (11) concluded that 
pressure might well be beneficial to battery 
performance by: 1) Increasing the electrolyte 
conductivity (5 percent in Pb-acid; 2 percent 
in Ag-Zn), 2) reducing the volume of any gas 
at or in a porous electrode making more 
electrolyte available at the surface and effec- 
tively increasing current density, and 3) 
through some unknown mechanism, increas- 
ing the power and providing greater watt- 
hour efficiency. 

Cell Life and Cycling 

For all practical purposes the life of a 
secondary battery begins when the electro- 
lyte is introduced. At this point the battery 
is said to be activated and its useful longev- 
ity is termed wet life or shelf life. In sub- 
mersible operations a battery is charged be- 
fore and after each dive, and its usefulness 



TABLE 7.4 CELL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE BATTERY TYPES [FROM REF. (10)] 



Shelf life in charged condition 



Composition, 
charged state 



Cell potential, V 



Time to discharge 



Life in operation 



Without 
maintenance 



With 
maintenance 



Battery type Fast- Slow- Shelf life if If 

Pos. Neg. Elec- Open Dis- est, Av., est, discharged Charge loss. Shelf charged Shelf Cycles Float 

trolyte circ. charging (min) (hr) (days) (wet) % life each: life 

Lead-acid... PbOj Pb HjSO^ 2.14 2.1-1.46 3-5 8 >3 Not per- Low-rate; Days 30-45 Years To 500 To 14 yr 

mitted 15-20%/yr Months days 

Nickel-cadmium.. N1O2 Cd KOH 1.34 1.3-0.75 5 5 >3 Years Pocket; Months 30-45 Years 100-2,000 8-14 yr 

20-40%/yr Weeks days 25-500 4-8 yr 

Sintered; 
10-15%/mo 

Silver-zinc... AgO Zn KOH 1.86 1.65-1.1 <0.5 5 >90 Years 15-20%/yr 3-12 mo 6 mo 1-2yr 100-300 1-2yr 

low dis. 
5-100 

high dis. 

SOURCE: F. D. Yeaple, Dry Cell Performance, /"/-orf. Eng., 36;160 (1965). 



322 



to the operator is measured in terms of the 
number of charge and discharge cycles it can 
undergo and still be recharged to its near 
rated capacity (amp-hr). High rated batteries 
(delivering large current drains for periods 
of several minutes to 1 hour) have a shorter 
wet life and cycle life than low or medium 
rated batteries (discharge at rates from 1 to 
10 hours). Under atmospheric conditions the 
shelf life and cycle life characteristics paral- 
lel those shown in Table 7.4. 

A great deal of recent battery studies con- 
centrate on silver-zinc cells (11, 12, 13, 14) 
and provide both laboratory and field data 
regarding their cyclic longevity. Again, 
though lead-acid batteries have been used 
for years, there are no known reports regard- 
ing their cycling characteristics in the ocean. 
Hence, the following data apply only to sil- 
ver-zinc cells. 

In laboratoi-y experiments Funao et al. 
repeatedly cycled two oil-filled batteries 
(placed in a "soft" container and surrounded 
by oil) to 600 kg/cm^ (8,532 psi) and dis- 
charged them at 150 amp for 2 hours. Dis- 
charge was followed by a 35-amp charge to 
2.05 volts and every 10 cycles the battery 
was discharged to 1.0 volt and measured. A 
comparison of the data between the pressur- 
ized battery and a similar battery not sub- 
ject to pressure (Fig. 7.5) shows that dis- 
charging under pressure delays the rate of 
capacity decrease. The cause of expiration 
was short circuits through the separators of 
both batteries. Work (11) reached similar 
conclusions after cycling identical ten-cell 
250-amp-hr batteries for 2 years in simulated 
deep-ocean conditions. He found the rate of 
capacity loss to be the same as that of a 
similar battery operation at atmospheric 
pressure for the same period. Momsen and 
Clerici (13) reported the results of silver-zinc 
cell use on the Deep Submergence Vehicle 
TRIESTE II and concluded that this type of 
battery is entirely suitable so long as usage 
is maximum. 

Charging 

Extensive testing demonstrated that 
charge reception is reduced slightly when 
silver-zinc battery temperatures are at 32°F 
or less (13). Whereas charging (and discharg- 
ing) are heat generating processes, the low 



heat transfer coefficient for the cells tends to 
keep them warm. Work (14) discussed heat 
transfer within batteries and pointed out 
that a number of cells packed tightly to- 
gether can dissipate little heat. Rapid cy- 
cling causes the temperature of the center 
cells to rise appreciably above that of the 
outside cells and results in an unbalanced 
condition. To rebalance the batteries two 
approaches are taken: 1) The entire battery 
is charged and then floated at a low rate for 
a few days, or 2) individual cells are charged 
or discharged at a low rate through the 
voltage monitor system harness. 

Spill Angle 

The normal orientation of wet cell batter- 
ies is upright; most are equipped with spill- 
proof devices and can withstand up to 30- 
degree tilting without ill effects. Work (14) 
reported that cells are under design with 
angles of 45 to 60 degrees from the vertical 
as a goal. The same report relates an inci- 
dent where a surfaced vehicle rolled as much 
as 90 degrees. A 90-degree roll is, to say the 
least, quite unusual, and one might find it 
more advisable to reconsider the vehicle's 
stability rather than designing batteries to 
withstand roll angles of this magnitude. 



DISCHARGE CURRENT 150 amp 
CHARGE CURRENT 35 amp 





PRESSURE 1 


IN DISCHARGE 


IN CHARGE 


— X— 


600 kg/cm' 


ATMOSPHERIC 


— o— 


ATMOSPHERIC ATMOSPHERIC 




LIFE CYCLE 

Fig. 7 5 Life characteristics of silver-zinc cell. [From Ref (12)] 



323 



Gassing 

Hydrogen and oxygen gasses are given off 
from lead-acid batteries during both charg- 
ing and discharging, though the greatest 
quantity emanates during charging. The 
problems brought about by gassing depend 
upon the packaging and location of the bat- 
tery. If the battery is carried within the 
pressure hull the problem concerns the di- 
rect effects on occupants due to: 1) Inhala- 
tion of hydrogen, 2) explosion of hydrogen or 
3) inhalation of chlorine gas if the electrolyte 
spills and comes in contact with seawater. 
Silver-zinc cells also evolve hydrogen and, 
according to Work (14), a "hot" short (where 
the reaction is sufficiently vigorous to boil 
the electrolyte) can vaporize mercury, which 
is used in small amounts in these cells, to 
present another potential hazard to the oc- 
cupants. Batteries located externally and 
pressure compensated by oil avoid the direct 
safety hazards of poisonous gasses, but in- 
troduce other factors bearing on short cir- 
cuits and ballasting control. The effects of 
gassing on pressure-compensated batteries 



will be discussed in the section on Protection 
and Pressure Compensation. 

An atmosphere containing as little as 4 
percent hydrogen (69 in.^ hydrogen/ft^ air) is 
explosive in the presence of a spark or flame. 
Generally, concentrations greater than 2 
percent are avoided for operational safety. 
Hydrogen is generated in greatest amounts 
during charging, and for this reason, the 
charging area should be well ventilated. 
Being lighter than air, the hydrogen rises 
and may become trapped in any dome-like 
space above the battery. Even when idle, a 
lead-acid battery liberates small amounts of 
hydrogen, and if in a small confined space, a 
dangerous accumulation can be reached 
within a few hours. Another area of hydro- 
gen accumulation can be the void space 
above the electrolyte within the battery. (Ac- 
cording to the Hydro-Catylator Corporation, 
1 amp-hr of overcharging, under normal con- 
ditions, produces 25.5 in.^ of hydrogen per 
cell, and when idle, it can be assumed that 
local action will be equivalent to an over- 
charge flow of 0.1 amp for each 100 amp-hr of 
cell capacity.) 




Fig 7.6 Hydrocaps on SEA OTTER s lead-acid balleries. 



324 



Submersibles with batteries inside the 
pressure hull have operated for many years 
with no ill effects on the occupants; indeed, 
military submariners have over a half-cen- 
tury of experience in this field with no ill 
effects. So, for all practical purposes, empiri- 
cal data shows that accumulation of hydro- 
gen during an 8- to 12-hour dive, or even 
longer, does not reach quantities detrimental 
to occupants. Explosions during charging are 
not infrequent and represent the greatest 
gassing hazards. Recently a device called a 
"Hydrocap" has been introduced by the Hy- 
dro-Catylator Corporation of Hialeah, Flor- 
ida. The Hydrocap (Figs. 7.6 and 7.7) is used 
in place of a conventional battery vent cap, 
and it contains a palladium catalyst which 
recombines the hydrogen and ambient oxy- 
gen into water vapor which is condensed and 
returned to the battery. Use of these caps 



during charge and discharge is a significant 
deterrent to hydrogen explosions and also 
aids maintenance by automatically "topping 
off the cells with the reconstituted water. 
Several submersible builders have adopted 
Hydrocaps (Perry Submarine Builders, In- 
ternational Hydrodynamics) and find them 
to be all that the manufacturer claims. 

Battery Location, Protection and 
Compensation 

Submersible builders elect one of three 
procedures to protect batteries from the rig- 
ors of the deep sea: The majority (48%) place 
the batteries outside the pressure hull, en- 
capsulate them within a dielectric fluid and 
subject them to ambient pressure; .32 percent 
place the batteries inside the pressure hull; 
and 20 percent enclose the batteries within a 
pressure-resistant capsule external to the 



MONEL COVER 



2-3/32 SHORT NECK 

I 
2-15/32 REGULAR 

I 
2-27/32 LONG NECK 




PALLADIUM CATALYST 

TREATED 
PROTECTIVE FIBER 



GLASS CONDENSER 



ASBESTOS PAPER 
LINER 



STEATITE CERAMIC 
CATALYST HOLDER 



BASE LOCK 



VAPOR SEALL 
VENT 



SHORT NECK 1-11/16 

REGULAR 2-1/16 

LONG NECK 2-7/16 



SHORT NECK 1/2 

REGULAR 7/8 

LONG NECK 1-1/8 



HYDROCAP 



'|(YDRO-CATYLATOR CORPORATION 

3511 E nth COURT BOV 3648 
HIALEAH, FLORIDA 33013 



Fig, 7 7 Design of Hydrocaps. (Hydro-Catytator Corp ) 



325 



pressure hull. Each approach has its own 
advantages and disadvantages. 

In-Hull Placement 

Placing the battery within the pressure 
hull reduces circuit complexity, eases main- 
tenance and minimizes the possibility of the 
cells coming in contact with seawater. Con- 
versely, this option increases the hull weight 
(and decreases payload), takes up internal 
space which could be used for equipment or 
personnel and presents a potential safety 
hazard to occupants. The first two of these 
disadvantages are fairly obvious; the safety 
aspects should be explained. On a short dura- 
tion dive (8-12 hr) hydrogen gas from dis- 
charging batteries, as discussed previously, 
is not sufficient to harm the human occu- 
pants, nor should it reach a concentration 
(4%) whereby explosion in the event of 
sparking could occur. Indeed, employment of 
Hydrocaps should negate either of these pos- 
sibilities. The first area of concern lies with 
spillage of the lead-acid electrolyte at high 
pitch or roll angles. In this case the electro- 
lyte could come in contact with the occu- 
pants and cause acid burns or, even worse, it 
could combine with seawater in the hull and 
release toxic chlorine gas. It also could dam- 
age the submersible structure and equip- 
ment therein. Work (14) cautions that a vig- 



orous short circuit can boil out the electro- 
lyte in silver-zinc batteries and vaporize the 
mercury within them to further endanger 
the occupants. Undoubtedly, the most signif- 
icant hazard arises during battery charg- 
ing — and this may occur regardless of bat- 
tery location — where overcharging might 
cause electrolyte spillage into the Hydrocap 
and cause it to cease functioning. In this 
case hydrogen might build up to dangerous 
concentration. Anderson et al. (15) cites a 
further consideration in reliance on Hydro- 
caps; this resides in the possibility that in 
enclosed spaces insufficient oxygen may be 
present to recombine with the hydrogen. It 
should be noted that their discussion relates 
to the situation where batteries are carried 
within an external pod, not in the pressure 
hull where a far greater volume of air is 
available. 

Placement of the battery within the hull 
has been approached in two ways: The first 
is to simply install the battery securely in 
some convenient spot, e.g., SEA OTTER, All 
Ocean Industries, and the second is to seal 
off a portion of the hull, generally low in the 
hull, and place the battery there (Fig. 7.8). 
The latter procedure further protects the 
occupants, and if the sealed area is also 
pressure resistant it offers additional safety 
advantages. The in-hull procedure has been 



AFT 

TRIM 

AND V BT 



FORWARD 

TRIM AND 

VARIABLE 

BALLAST 

TANK 




SONAR 



MOTOR 
ROOM 



CMPT. 



FWD. 
FOOT 
WELL 



Fig. 7.8 In-hull battery location in the PC-3A. (Perry Submarine Builders) 

326 



followed for many years in military subma- 
rines and for a number of years in submers- 
ibles. It is inexpensive and simple to install 
and maintain the batteries, and, as long as 
the proper safety precautions in design and 
operation are always followed, the only ma- 
jor disadvantages are in degradation of pay- 
load and decreased internal volume. 



Pressure-Resistant Capsules 

The second option to battery location is 
installation within a pressure-resistant cap- 
sule or pod completely independent of the 
pressure hull (Fig. 7.9). This procedure, 
adopted by the majority of latter-day sub- 
mersible builders, was first initiated by 
Perry Submarine Builders. Anderson et al. 




Fig 7 9 The banery pod of AQUARIUS I 

327 



(15) present a thorough discussion of the 
genesis from in-hull placement of batteries 
to the use of external pods in the Perry 
submersibles; their observations and experi- 
ences constitute the backbone of the follow- 
ing discussion. 

Installation of batteries in an external pod 
offers the following advantages: Internal 
pressure hull space is not required; any toxic 
battery gasses which may evolve will not 
affect the occupants; the pods can be made 
droppable to serve as emergency deballast- 
ing; maintenance and repair is made easier 
by incorporating roller plates on which the 
battery may be removed from the pod; the 
battery tray can be made of a high dielectric 
material and thereby reduce leakage resist- 
ance problems; both ends of the pod can be 
removed and forced air ventilation applied to 
dissipate hydrogen gas generated during 
charging; and for quick turn-around time 
between dives the used batteries can be eas- 
ily replaced with fresh ones. 

Conversely, this procedure has the follow- 
ing disadvantages: Total vehicle weight is 
increased; the drag force of the vehicle is 
increased and thereby requires increased 
power for propulsion; electrical penetrations 
for power are increased; and total cost of the 
vehicle rises. 

One problem of major concern in the Perry 
vehicles is battery gassing during sub- 
merged discharge (15) and the lack of suffi- 
cient oxygen within the pod to recombine in 
the Hydrocaps with the hydrogen generated. 
To alleviate this problem the battery pod on 
SHELF DIVER was pressurized prior to seal- 
ing to provide adequate oxygen. To prevent 
poisoning of the palladium catalyst the Hy- 
drocaps in Perry vehicle pods are located in 
the top of the pod such that overcharging 
will not contaminate the catalyst with elec- 
trolyte. 

This procedure, then, offers a number of 
advantages and disadvantages, the greatest 
penalty being weight. Compared to the pres- 
sure-compensation system, external pres- 
sure-resistant pods are far less trouble and 
considerably more reliable. There is a point, 
however, where the added weight would be- 
come prohibitive in the deeper diving vehi- 
cles. 



Pressure Compensation 

In this arrangement the batteries are lo- 
cated outside the pressure hull and within a 
non-pressure-resistant container. A dielec- 
tric fluid (oil) completely surrounds the cells 
and provides both electrical insulation and 
pressure equalization. A typical compensa- 
tion system is shown in Figure 7.10. The 
system conserves vehicle weight and pres- 
sure hull volume, while offering no direct 
safety hazards to the occupants. In some 
vehicles the batteries are jettisonable to pro- 
vide emergency buoyancy. On the debit side, 
the present systems are messy, generally 
difficult to maintain, and, according to Work, 
". . . destined to get salt water in them tit 
one time or another.'''' 

Packaging batteries in this manner must 
satisfy two, relatively simple requirements: 
Hold the dielectric fluid in and keep sea- 
water out. While the requirements are sim- 



MANUAL 

VENT& FILL 

VALVE 



RELIEF 
VALVES 



SALTWATER - 
BAFFLES 



ELECTROLVTE 
SCRUBBER 



P«- 



ur. 



GASKET 




\ 




n 


nn 





ELECTROLYTE 

LEVEL 

y^ 1 


m 




7 

In 


^ 












A X 




H ;=; tr 




\ 








> 
J 












• 






4 

/ 

















/ 








CASE DRAIN 


-& 


CASE & COVER. 
NEOPRENE COVERED 


^ / 

COMPENSATI 
BLADDER 


3N 





Fig. 7.10 Typical battery compensation system. [From Ref. (16)] 



328 



pie, meeting them in practice has consumed 
a great deal of time and effort. Because oil is 
used as the pressure compensation medium, 
all other materials must be oil-compatible. 
Gasses generated during the batteries' oper- 
ation must be vented off. As this gas leaves 
the electrode, it carries entrained electro- 
lyte, and if no provisions are made to sepa- 
rate the two (gas from electrolyte), the elec- 
trolyte may accumulate on top of the cells 
and elsewhere to produce a host of problems. 
While the gas may be held in solution at 
great depths, it leaves the cell or comes out 
of solution as the vehicle surfaces. These are 
but a few of the problems associated with 
pressure-compensation systems. A review of 
the literature makes one wonder that the 
system works at all. Nonetheless, it somehow 
does, and the need to conserve weight and 
space in deep diving vehicles has prompted a 
great deal of attention to this procedure. 

The approach to pressure compensation 
has been on an individual basis; no two sys- 
tems are precisely the same and all have 
their own peculiar problems. Consequently, 
the subject might best be served by concen- 
trating on the experiences and research of a 
few, rather than the problems of a multitude. 
An appreciation for the range through which 
battery compensation problems can vary 
from vehicle-to-vehicle can be gained from 
Figure 7.11. 



The gassing behavior of lead-acid batteries 
under both atmospheric and high (1,000 psi) 
pressure conditions was studied in detail by 
Marriott and Capotosto (17 & 18). Specifically 
they delved into the chemical, physical and 
electrical properties of the compensating oil 
used in the STAR series of submersibles (Pri- 
mol 207, a hydrocarbon oil produced by 
Exxon Oil) and its compatibility with nonme- 
tallic battery components. They also looked 
into the entire spectrum of bubble genesis 
during charge and discharge of Exide MSC- 
11 batteries. The results of this study are 
summarized by the authors as follows: 
"T/ie volume of gas produced by the 
subject buttery during discharge at 
elevated pressures is not directly de- 
pendent on the magnitude of the ap- 
plied pressure. 

The gassing behavior of the MSC-11 
cell during discharge under pressure 
is much more erratic than at atmos- 
pheric pressure. 

A decrease in the gas producing abil- 
ity of the battery along with a build-up 
of battery by-products occurs more 
quickly at pressure than under am- 
bient conditions. 

Gas volumes entrapped by the battery 
after dischxirge at pressure generally 
vary from 100-155 ml. On occasion. 





Fig 7 1 1 Two pressure compensated systems STAR III (lelt) ot 60 cells and BELL FRANKUN (righl) of 378 cells (Gen Dyn. Corp. and NAVOCEANO) 



329 



lower values (40 ml) can be obtained. 
l\o evidence of degradation of Primol 
207 dielectric fluid as a consequence 
of discharging the battery at pressures 
up to 1000 psi can be noted." 

In a companion paper R. S. Evans (16) 
discussed the whole range of pressure com- 
pensation considerations based on analyses 
of the behavior of lead-acid batteries in ASH- 
ERAH, STAR II and STAR III. Evans' report 
is succinct and in very few words he presents 
a wealth of experience the submersible de- 
signer would do well to review. Several as- 
pects of batteries and pressure compensation 
systems, not dealt with elsewhere in this 
section, are summarized below and are taken 
directly from Evans. 

Vehicle Dynamics: 

List, trim and attack angles and angular 
rates affect such parameters as acid and oil 
movement, structural fatigue and distortion. 
Relative to a surface craft, a surfaced sub- 
mersible is more vulnerable to sea forces 
which produce bending and impact loads in 
components of the pressure compensation 
system and battery containers. 

In a rapid emergency ascent (300 to 600 
fpm) the gasses entrained or in solution 
might rupture the system or accumulate to a 
potentially explosive volume. Introduction of 
sufficient seawater via a rupture invites cer- 
tain explosion or rapid combustion of oil and 
gas. 

A series of relatively shallow dives and 
quick ascents will cause compensating oil to 
push out of the vents in front of the expand- 
ing gas which is produced continuously. If 
the bladder design cannot accommodate such 
losses, insufficient compensation volume 
may result on an ensuing deep dive with 
possible leakage into or destruction of the 
batteries. 

Pressure; 

Interior system pressure should be kept 
slightly positive with respect to ambient. In 
this vein Evans offers the following precau- 
tions in selection of materials for sea pres- 
sure service: Battery lead deforms plasti- 
cally; bulk moduli of adjoining materials 
should be as nearly equal as possible for in- 
cell connection and wedging. 



Biological: 

Evans relates the following experience 
with respect to biological considerations: 
''STAR III was so busy in 1966-67 
that over one year passed before the 
battery box interiors were inspected. 
When they were finally opened, a film 
of biological material was discovered 
deposited across the cell tops. The 
organism was cultured and tentatively 
identified as Pullularia pullulens, a 
black, yeast^like mold. The system had 
been anaerobic for the period, yet this 
organism apparently thrived and de- 
clined several times in this supposedly 
hostile environment. If the ecology 
were not controlled by additive inhibit 
tors or occasional flushing with anti^ 
septics, it is conceivable that orga- 
nisms could flower under the proper 
conditions and c€iuse short circuits by 
entrapping water and/or acid, or 
could clog lines and valves with their 
detritus. Such a case was reported by 
TRIESTE which had an open sea/oil 
interface compensator at the time. Of 
course, any additive or purgative 
would first have to be proved mate- 
rials compatible.^^ 

Utilizing this and other information 
gained over several years' experience with 
the STAR class vehicles, Evans and co- 
worker B. B. Miron proceeded to draw up the 
design specifications for pressure compensa- 
tion of the SEA CLIFF and TURTLE battery 
pods (19). 

The best compensating fluid for battery 
systems has been particularly difficult to 
define. According to Work (11), "The ideal 
compensating fluid is non-reactive, non-com- 
pressible, and probably non-existent." In an 
attempt to solve this dilemma, the Naval 
Ship Research and Development Center 
(NSRDC) performed an assessment of appli- 
cable experience with such fluids and tests of 
their own to issue a guide (20) providing 
critical properties, evaluation methods and 
other pertinent fluid and lubricant informa- 
tion to the workers in deep submergence. 

NSRDC not only dealt with fluids for com- 
pensation and shielding from the seawater 
environments, but also looked at fluids for 



330 



hydraulic systems (power transmission) and 
lubrication for deep submergence applica- 
tion. A variety of fluid properties were inves- 
tigated in these tests: Viscosity (temperature 
and pressure effects on), lubricating ability, 
effects of contamination, corrosion protec- 
tion, dielectric properties, dissipation factor, 
ability to form stable emulsions, material 
compatibility, volatility and toxicity, com- 
pressibility and density, chemical stability, 
fire resistance and cost and availability. 
From these tests and other sources Table 7.5 
was derived which provides a ready refer- 
ence for assessing the applicability of a par- 
ticular fluid in deep submergence applica- 
tions. The NSRDC authors caution that a 
listing of P after a fluid does not constitute 
endorsement for use, nor does Q constitute 
condemnation. 



FUEL CELLS 

In 1965 General Dynamics installed and 
tested an Allis-Chalmers fuel cell in its STAR 
I (Fig. 7.12). A schematic of the fuel cell used 
in STAR I is shown in Figure 7.13 and ac- 
cording to reference (21) it works in the 
following manner. The basic construction 
consists of two electrodes separated by an 
electrolyte (potassium hydroxide). A hydra- 
zine fuel is admitted to the anode electrode, 
where it reduces hydroxyl ions in water and 
releases electrons. The electrons flow 
through the external circuit to the other 
electrode (the cathode), where the oxidant is 
admitted. The electrons are used in the oxi- 
dant's reaction with water to form hydroxyl 
ions. Ionic conduction through the electro- 
lyte completes the electrical circuit and pro- 



TABLE 7.5. IDENTIFICATION OF FLUID CODES 



Fluid 
Code 



Commercial Name 



Supplier 



A 


PRH92 


B 


Micronic 713 


C 


Micronic 762 


D 


NDH-TD4-1 


E 


Hoover Submersible Fluid No. 2 


F 


Tellus 11 


G 


Tellusl5 


H 


Tellus 27 


J 


Primol 207 


K 


Marcol 52 


L 


SF1143 


M 


C141 


N 


PR-85-29 129 



E. F. Houghton Co., 303 W. Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 19133 

Bray Oil Co., 3344 Medford St., Los Angeles, Calif. 90063 

Bray Oil Co., 3344 Medford St., Los Angeles, Calif. 90063 

New Departure - Hyatt Bearings, Hayes Ave., Sandusky, Ohio 44871 

Hoover Electric Co., 2100 South Stoner St., Los Angeles, Calif. 90025 

Shell Oil Co., 50 W. 50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020 

Shell Oil Co., 50 W. 50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020 

Shell Oil Co., 50 W. 50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020 

Humble Oil and Refining Co., P.O. Box 1288, Baltimore, Md. 21203 

Humble Gil and Refining Co., P.O. Box 1288, Baltimore, Md. 21203 

General Electric Co., Silicone Products Dept., Waterford, N.Y. 12188 

Royal Lubricants Co., River Road, Hanover, N.J. 07936 

E. F. Houghton Co., 303 W. Lehigh Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 19133 



331 



TABLE 7.5 SUMMARY LIST OF FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS [FROM REF. (20)] 







Base 






Application 














Nonmoving 






Fluid 


Power 




Motor 


Switching 


Electrical 


Specification or 




Compo- 


Trans- 


Lubri- 


Immer- 


Component 


Equipment 


Trade Name 


Other Designation 


sition 


mission 


cation 


sion 


Immersion 


Immersion 




Federal Specification Products 










VVI-530a 


Transformer Oil 


Petroleum 


— 


— 





KP 


KP 


VV-D-001078(10cs) 


Damping Fluid 


Silicone 





Q 


KQ 


KQ 


KP 


VV-D-001078(50cs) 


Damping Fluid 


Silicone 


KO 





Q 





Q 




Military Specification Products 










MILH-5606B 


Aircraft Hydraulic Fluid 


Petroleum 


KP 


KP 


KP 


P 


P 


MIL J-5624F 


JP5 


Petroleum 


— 


KQ 


KQ 


Q 


Q 


MILL6081C, 


Jet Engine Lubricating Oil 


Petroleum 


KQ 


KO 


KQ 


KQ 


Q 


Grade 1010 
















MIL-H-6083C 


Aircraft Hydraulic System Preservative 


Petroleum 


K 


KQ 


KQ 


KQ 


KQ 


MILL-6085A 


Aircraft Instrument Oil 


Synthetic 


KQ 


KQ 


KQ 


Q 


Q 


IVIILL-7808G 


Gas Turbine Lubricating Oil 


Synthetic 


— 


KQ 


Q 


Q 


Q 


MILL-7807A 


Low Temperature Lubricating Oil 


Petroleum 


— 


K 


Q 


Q 


Q 


IVIILC-8188C 


Gas Turbine Engine Preservative 


Synthetic 


KQ 


KQ 





Q 


Q 


MIL-F-17111 


Ordnance Hydraulic Fluid 


Petroleum 





P 


— 


— 


P 


MIL L-17672, 


Turbine Oil and Hydraulic Fluid 


Petroleum 


KQ 


KQ 





Q 


P 


MS2110TH 
















MIL-S-21568A 


Damping Fluid 


Silicone 


Q 


Q 


KQ 


KP 


KP 


MILL-23699A 


Aircraft Turboprop and Turboshaft 
Lubricant 


Synthetic 


— 


KQ 


— 


— 


— 


MIL-H-27601A 


Aircraft High Temperature Hydraulic 
Fluid 


Petroleum 


— 


— 


— 


™ 


— 


MIL-H-46004 


Missile Hydraulic Fluid 


Petroleum 


KQ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


MILH-81019B 


Aircraft and Missile Hydraulic Fluid 


Petroleum 


P 


Q 


— 


— 


P 


MILH-83282 


Aircraft Hydraulic Fluid 


Synthetic 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






Proprietary Fluids 










Fluid Code A 


Seawater Emulsifying Fluid, Type 1 


Petroleum 


KQ 


KO 








Q 


Fluid Code B 


— 


Petroleum 


KP 


KQ 


Q 





Q 


Fluid Codec 


Proposed Specification MILH-25598 
Missile Hydraulic Fluid 


Petroleum 


KP 


KQ 


Q 


Q 


a 


Fluid Code D 


Traction Drive Fluid 


Petroleum 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Fluid Code E 


— 


Petroleum 


— 


KQ 


KQ 


— 


P 


Fluid Code F 


— 


Petroleum 


P 


P 


— 


— 


P 


Fluid Code G 


— 


Petroleum 


P 


P 


— 


— 


p 


Fluid Code H 


— 


Petroleum 


P 


P 


— 


— 


— 


Fluid Code J 


USP Mineral Oil 


Petroleum 


— 


Q 


KQ 


KQ 


KP 


Fluid Code K 


NF Mineral Oil 


Petroleum 


— 


Q 


— 


— 


— 


Fluid Code L 


Lubricity Improved Silicone 


Silicone 








KQ 


KP 


KP 


Fluid Code M 


— 


Petroleum 


— 


P 


Q 


Q 


Q 


Fluid Code N 


Seawater Compatible Water Glycol 


Water 


— 


Q 


Q 





Q 


P - Possible use 




Q 


- Questio 


mablefor use in this 


application 




K - Known or attempted use 


— (blank) 


- Insufficient information available for assessment of use 



332 




Fig 7 12 Installing hydrazine and oxygen fuel cell in STAR I (Gen Dyn Corp) 

duces the usable electrical energy. The fuel 
cell is an electrochemical device converting 
energy from the reaction of two chemicals 
into low voltage, DC electrical energy. 
Whereas a battery's energy is stored, a fuel 



cell will produce current on demand as long 
as the fuel and oxidizer are supplied. 

The fuel cell in STAR I is pressure-compen- 
sated, not by oil, but by the nitrogen gas 
released when the hydrazine fuel is con- 
sumed. 

The authors, Loughman and Butenkoff, 
cite the following advantages to fuel cells: 
Turn-around time is minimal, in that only 
the refurbishing of fuel and oxidant is re- 
quired; they are lighter than comparable 
power-producing batteries and do not take 
up as much space; they have longer life than 
conventional underwater power sources; 
they may be tapped at any voltage and not 
affect cell life; and they are silent and oper- 
ate at relatively low temperatures. Other 
than this one report (21), nothing further has 
been heard from this program. 

In November 1969, the Perry company en- 
tered a fuel cell test program with Pratt & 
Whitney Corp. which resulted in the installa- 
tion of an oxygen/hydrogen fuel cell in the 
underwater habitat HYDRO-LAB situated in 
50 feet of water off Palm Beach, Florida (22). 
While this application is outside the subject 



N; GAS (OUT) 



N2H4 
FUEL 



1 




KOH, N,H4,N, (OUT) 
Q 



KOH & FUEL 
RESERVOIR 




O2 (IN) 



■KgH^ 



O, SUPPLY 



— H\J— © 



O, PURGE 



HEAT 
EXCHANGER 



3- WAY 

THERMOSTATIC 

VALVE 




KOH,N2H4 (IN) 



Fig. 7.13 Schematic of STAR I fuel cell. [From Ref. (21) 



333 



of manned submersibles, it was, according to 
the author, the first such application in a 
habitat and supplied 5 kilowatts at 28 VDC 
for a period of 48 hours and with no malfunc- 
tions. This report's final statement rather 
succinctly states the major problem with fuel 
cells: "A reduction in cost is required before 
extensive use becomes a reality." 

The latest attempt at utilizing fuel cells in 
submersibles was conducted off Marseilles in 
May 1970 with a hydrazine-hydrogen perox- 
ide generator in the SP-350 (23). Several 
tests of this fuel cell were conducted in 265 
feet of water during a series of dives of not 
more than 15 minutes in length. The investi- 
gators concluded that the tests were success- 
ful and indicated that the fuel cell is not only 
a theoretical possibility, but a practicality in 
submersible operations. 

For those interested in the potential and 
technological state-of-the-art of fuel cells for 
deep submergence application references (5), 
(24), (25), (26), and (27) are recommended. The 
last two of these include a discussion of 
nuclear and other power sources, as well as 
fuel cells. 

NUCLEAR POWER 

The U.S Navy's NR-1 is the only submers- 
ible known to use a nuclear reactor as an 
electric power source. Since NR-l^s details 
are classified, one can only speculate about 
it. On the other hand, while nuclear power 
has revolutionized the military submarine, 
its past, present and proximate influence on 
submersible design is likely to be minimal. 
The reason is quite simple; iVi?-l costs in the 
neighborhood of $100 million; even the most 
optimistic advocates of deep submergence 
would find it difficult to justify such an ex- 
penditure for a commercial venture. Again 
the reader is referred to references (5), (26), 
and (27) for an account of nuclear power 
potential and application to other areas of 
marine technology. 

CABLE-TO-SURFACE 
(UMBILICAL) 

Three submersibles obtain electrical power 
through a cable from the surface: KURO- 



SHIO II, GVPPY and OPSUB. The pros and 
cons of this approach are many and will not 
be explored in detail here. It is sufficient to 
note that in the case oi GUPPY , the reason- 
ing which led to an umbilical included: 
Launch/retrieval would require no divers 
and the projected customer (offshore oil) 
would require more in the way of electrical 
power than batteries or fuel cells could sup- 
ply within the dimensional constraints of the 
preconceived vehicle (28). An additional con- 
sideration was based on KUROSHIO's and 
the unmanned CURVs history of successful 
tethered operations — i.e., they provided 
proven techniques. 

A few submersibles, SEA RANGER in par- 
ticular, include an umbilical option by pro- 
viding an external electrical attachment. 
The option has a great deal of merit if tasks 
are required where long-term, stationary ob- 
servations are planned, such as may happen 
in some biological or sedimentological stud- 
ies. The design, construction and operation 
of a tethered power supply is discussed fully 
in the literature. For a thorough and excel- 
lent summary of the subject, the work of Evo 
Giorgi (27) is recommended. 

The umbilical system is basically quite 
simple (Fig. 7.14) and consists of a generator, 
winch and a load-bearing, conducting cable. 
In the GVPPY operation, the surface genera- 
tor sends 35 kW at 440 VAC down the insu- 
lated and strengthened cable to the vehicle. 
Since power coming to the submersible is 
already AC, no on-board converters are 
needed, with consequent weight and volume 
savings. Buoys are attached at intervals 
along the cable to keep it from fouling the 
vehicle and adding to the propulsion load. 
The cable also serves as a hard line underwa- 
ter telephone. 

The KUROSHIO II system— essentially 
similar to that of Ct/PPy— sends 400 VAC to 
the submersible where a transformer within 
the pressure hull supplies 100 V to the vehi- 
cle's instruments. Specifications for KURO- 
SHIO II's generator and cable are presented 
in Tables 7.6 and 7.7, respectively. The cable 
winch is driven by a 10-hp, AC motor and 
consists of a controller, reduction gear, reel 
and winding drum mounted on a common 
platform (29). 



334 



35-kW 
GENERATOR 



UMBILICAL 
CABLE WINCH 



HYDRAULIC WINCH 



GUPPY IN STOWED POSITION 
(SHOWN FOR CLARITY ONLY) 




GUPPY DURING OPERATIONS 
1,000' MAXIMUM 



Fig. 7.14 GUPPY's operational system. (W. Watson, Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock) 



TABLE 7.6 SPECIFICATION OF AC GENERATOR AND PRIME MOTOR OF KUROSHIO 

[FROM REF. (29)] 



AC Generator 
Type: Totally-Enclosed 



Prime Mover 
Type: 4Cycle SingleActing Diesel Engine 



Output 
Revolution 
Rating Continuous 
Voltage AC 
Frequency 



25 KVA 
900 rpm 

470 V 
BOcps 



Output 
Revolution 



30 hp 
900 rpm 



335 



TABLE 7.7 THE SPECIFICATION OF THE POWER CABLE OF KUROSHIO [FROM REF. (29)] 



Item type 



Power 
3-Core 



Number of cores 

Nominal sectional area (mm ) 

Outside diameter (Approx.) (mm) 

Outside diameter of tension meter (Approx.) (mm) 

Finished outside diameter (Approx.) (mm) 

Weight in the air (Approx.) (kg) 

Weight in the water (Approx.) (kg) 

Length (m) 



Telephone 
1 Circuit 



Selsyn 
2 Circuits 



Coaxial 



3 2 


2 


3 


14 1.25 


0.75 


0.75 


8.4 8.5 


8.4 


8.5 


9 






36 






2.05 






0.75 (Note: Buoys are attached 


in actual use) 




600 







8.5 



From a safety viewpoint, the cable may be 
either friend or foe. In the event of the 
vehicle fouling or the loss of surfacing abil- 
ity, the cable can be used as a retrieval line. 
Conversely, if the cable fouls, provisions are 
made in KUROSHIO II for the occupants to 
release the cable directly from the hull. 

DIESEL-ELECTRIC 

To reduce the dependency on surface sup- 
port, several submersibles incorporate diesel 
engines in their power inventory for surface 
propulsion (Table 7.1) and, in a few, to re- 
charge depleted batteries after a dive. In 
essence, they follow procedures quite similar 
to those of conventional battery-powered 
military submarines. The French submers- 
ible ARGYRONETE, had it been completed, 
would have operated identically to a military 
submarine in that its diesel motors would 
have provided full autonomy for surface 
cruising and battery charging, while lead- 
acid batteries would have supplied sub- 
merged power. 

The submersibles now in existence use 
their diesel-electric motors not so much for 
long-range surface transits as for charging 
batteries or powering an air compressor to 
refill depleted air tanks. The following de- 
scriptions relate the surface power and de- 
tails available for the vehicles SUBMANAUT 



and TOURS 66. In GOLDFISH a Ford V-8 
engine supplies power for direct drive on the 
surface and is coupled to a 6.4-kW generator 
(200 amp at 32 V) for battery charging and 
for compressor operation in recharging of air 
tanks. 

SUBMANAUT: 

Martine's SUBMANAUT realizes surface 
propulsion from a fresh water coiled. General 
Motors 6-cylinder diesel engine (Model 6-71) 
which develops approximately 235 hp. Sur- 
face cruising speed is 10 knots and the on- 
board diesel fuel (300 gal) allows a range of 
2,000 nautical miles. A 5-kW generator is 
belted to the forward end of the diesel engine 
and is used to recharge the vehicle's batter- 
ies. Approximately 2 hours of charging time 
are required to balance 1 hour of discharge 
time (45 amp at 150 V). A 3,000 psi air com- 
pressor is also belt driven off the diesel en- 
gine and supplies 12 cfm. 

TOURS 66: (Fig. 7.15) 

A 28-hp, 3,000-rpm diesel generator is 
arranged aft in the pressure hull to form an 
extension of the battery room deck. All pipe- 
lines connected with the diesel engine (ex- 
haust gas, fuel, and cooling water) are pro- 
vided with compensators. A water-cooled ex- 
haust gas silencer is arranged behind the 
exhaust gas collecting elbow of the diesel 
engine. Exhaust gasses are led through an 



336 




Rg, 7 15 TOURS 66 diesel engine layout. 



exhaust gas line to outboard. The diesel en- 
gine is equipped with decompression equip- 
ment and complies with the regulations of 
Germanischer Lloyds. 

The engine is cooled through a seawater- 
freshwater twin circulation system incorpo- 
rating both seawater and freshwater pumps. 
The diesel fuel tank is within the exostruc- 
ture. The fuel (0.47 m^) is delivered by means 
of the fuel pump attached to the diesel en- 
gine through a fuel tapping dome. Compen- 
sation for used diesel fuel is effected by 
means of the vehicle's trim tanks. A surface 
cruising range of 400 nautical miles at 5 
knots is possible. The diesel engine drives a 
DC shunt-wound generator, which is self- 
ventilated, and supplies 15 kW of charging 
power for the main battery at 3,000 rpm, 
with a voltage range between 250 and 290 
and a maximum charging current of about 60 
amp. Central ventilation is provided for the 
battery room. The air is sucked by the bat- 
tery-room fan from forward to aft over the 
cells. During surface operation the air is 
passed to outside via the exhaust air mast. 

The present use of diesel engines in sub- 
mersibles (only in surface operations) avoids 



a great number of the problems that would 
be encountered in closed-cycle diesel power 
systems supplying submerged power (see 
refs. 5 and 26). Nonetheless, Sub Sea Oil 
Services of Milan is presently conducting a 
research and development program which it 
hopes will result in a system capable of both 
extended surface cruising and closed-cycle 
underwater operation for PHOENIX 66. 

The results of a program at Aerojet-Gen- 
eral, Azusa, California, in 1970 have direct 
application to closed-cycle diesel power sys- 
tems and warrant the attention of present 
and future submersible power design engi- 
neers. Commencing as an in-house research 
and development program, the Aerojet 
power system called "Psychrodiesel" re- 
ceived additional funds from the U.S. Air 
Force to develop a breadboard model and 
conduct demonstrations of a prototype 
closed-circuit power system. 

Psychrodiesel operates on a principle Aero- 
jet called "Psychrocycle," in which the diesel 
engine "breathes" a mixture of oxygen gas 
and water vapor in place of air. This syn- 
thetic air combusts with diesel fuel to pro- 
vide an exhaust consisting only of water 
vapor, carbon dioxide and unconsumed oxy- 
gen. The steam (water vapor) is condensed, 
the carbon dioxide chemically absorbed and 
the oxygen recycled to complete an operating 
closed cycle. Thus, the complete system is 
fully enclosed during an undersea operation. 

In a detailed discussion of the history, 
development, and operation of the Psychro- 
diesel, Hoffman et al. (30) compare its effi- 
ciency with other closed-cycle systems, e.g., 
Rankine, Stirling, and Brayton, and specu- 
late that the internal combustion engine 
may achieve higher thermal efficiency than 
the Stirling because its maximum cycle tem- 
perature is nearly double. Of particular in- 
terest is their design of a Psychrodiesel sys- 
tem (both closed-cycle and air breathing) for 
small and large submersibles which could 
supply power for propulsion and hotel loads. 
The small submersible Psychrodiesel pack- 
age is 4 feet in diameter by 6 feet in length 
and delivers 60 kWh submerged. The large 
system configuration constitutes a module 4 
feet in diameter by 20 feet in length, totaling 
16,000 pounds and delivering 1,000 kWh sub- 



337 



merged and 2,000 kWh surfaced. Both de- 
signs are shown in Figure 7.16. 

POWER DISTRIBUTION 

Few submersible components receive more 
attention than the penetrators, cables and 
connectors used to distribute electric power. 
The reason is clearly evident when the per- 
formance of submersibles is reviewed: These 
components range in reliability from mar- 
ginal to deplorable. One might wonder why 
this inadequacy was not discovered in the 
near half-century of military diving before 
the advent of the manned submersible. The 
answer, in part, resides in the large size of 
fleet submarines relative to submersibles. A 
military submarine carries its power and 
propulsion machinery within the hull, and 
except for sonar devices, communication an- 
tennae and depth sensors, very little else 
penetrates the hull. More importantly, the 
WWII submarine, except in emergency, 
dived no deeper than about 300 feet; at this 
depth the requirements for a successful pen- 
etrator are considerably relaxed. From an 
electrical point of view, a manned submers- 
ible is a submarine turned inside out. Indeed, 
in some vehicles the majority of electrical 
hardware is external to the pressure hull 
and subject to every transgression in the 
deep-ocean's arsenal. 

One of the most beneficial aspects of the 
DSSRG Report to both the military and civil- 
ian submersible builders was the illumina- 
tion of problems associated with power dis- 
tribution and the steps taken to identify, 
categorize and remedy these problems. One 
of these steps was establishment of the Deep 
Ocean Technology (DOT) program in 1966 
under the Chief of Naval Material, and one 
of dot's most significant contributions is 
the Handbook of Vehicle Electrical Pene- 
trators, Connectors and Harnesses for Deep 
Ocean Applications (31). 

Based on an exhaustive investigation into 
past and present penetrators, connectors 
and harnesses (cables) used in deep submer- 
gence, the Handbook presents the factors 
involved in design and development of these 
components and includes the advantages 
and limitations of designs which have seen 
application. The Handbook serves not only 



the designer of future submersibles, but the 
operator of present vehicles as well. Use of 
the information therein could avoid some of 
the major obstacles to an otherwise success- 
fully designed vehicle. 

Owing to the comprehensive, wide ranging 
nature of the Handbook, it would be redun- 
dant herein to relate the many and varied 
problems encountered along the way to relia- 
ble or even quasi-reliable electric compo- 
nents. Hence, this discussion will only high- 
light and broadly define the nature of the 
component and its application. 



Electrical Penetrators 

An electrical penetrator serves to pass 
power or signals through the wall of a pres- 
sure-resistant capsule, e.g., pressure hull or 
battery pod. In this role it must satisfy two 
collateral duties: 1) Seal and insulate the 
thru-hull conductors, and 2) preserve the 
hull's watertight integrity under both nor- 
mal and abnormal (short circuit) conditions. 

Some 33 companies in the U.S. manufac- 
ture electrical penetrators and connectors; 
the variation in design and components pre- 
cludes any one schematic representative of 
the electrical penetrators. 

Consequently, the penetrators described 
are selected from various depth ranges 
merely as an introduction to past and pres- 
ent technology. 

ASHERAH, a 600-foot submersible, uses a 
penetrator incorporating the stuffing-tube 
type of seal which was one of the first de- 
signs used in military submarines (Fig. 
7.17a). Pressurization of the materials to ob- 
tain a seal is accomplished by tightening the 
inboard gland nut. One limitation to a jam 
type of seal such as this is determining the 
correct amount of pressure to apply which 
will prevent the cable from extruding into 
the hull yet not damage the cable and which, 
at the same time, will assure watertight 
integrity. Repressurization is required from 
time to time to compensate for the compres- 
sion set of the packing and cold flow of the 
conductor jacket material. The penetrator 
used by Beebe (which carried two power 
conductors and two telephone cables) in the 
BATHYSPHERE followed the stuffing-tube 
principle. 



338 



WALL CONDENSER 



COOLANT 

CONDENSATE 

TANK 




CO2 ABSORPTION 
TANK 



GENERATOR 



FUEL 
TANK 



LUNG 



LOX DEWAR 




Submersible Power Supply 



GENERATOR 




ENGINE 
GEARBOX 
'COOLANT PUMP 

Fig. 7.16 Submersible power pod. [From Ref. (30)] 

339 



KO2 CANNISTERS CONTAINER 
4-FT DIAM.x 12 FT LONG 



RECEPTACLE 
PLUG 



OUTBOARD 



INBOARD 



BODY 



HULL 




PACKING 



t 



— GLAND RING 
LOCKWASHER 

— GLAND NUT 




RECEPTACLE 



O-RING 

LINER 



Y*- HULL 



INBOARD 



a. ASHERAH Stuffing Tube 



b. Perry Submarine Penetrator 



INSPECTION PLUG 

POLYURETHANE 
POTTING 
-RECEPTACLE 




PYROTENAX 
CABLES 



WAX 



ARALDITE 
EPOXY 
HULL 
FITTING 



RUBBER 
GASKET 

PLEXIGLASS 



SPACER 

RETAINER 
NUT 



c. Redesigned ALUMINAUT Penetrator d. TRIESTE I Penetrator 

Fig. 7.17 Some examples of submersible electrical penetrators. 



340 



DEEP DIVER, a 1,200-foot vehicle, uses 
both Vector and Electro Oceanics (EO) pene- 
trators. An EO type penetration is shown in 
Figure 7.17b (bottom) and Figure 7.18 shows 
outboard configurations of the same penetra- 
tor. The receptacle is essentially screwed 
into a stainless steel insert and the cable 
then connected thereto. A number of blanked 
inserts are shown in Figure 7.18; these can 
be used for additional electric penetrations 
or whatever is required. Similar EO penetra- 
tors are used on General Dynamics' STAR II 
and the DEEPSTAR 4000. 



ALUMINAUT, designed for 15,000 feet, uses 
three Vector-built and General Dynamics- 
designed penetrators. The body of the pene- 
trator is of 7079 T6 aluminum, the same as 
the hull, and is a metal-to-metal seal. The 
tapered body is held into the hull with an 
inboard retainer nut. The connectors are 
mounted to the outboard end of the penetra- 
tor and comprise plastic bodies with the 
plugs of molded rubber. Troubles at the out- 
board plug-receptacle interface prompted a 
redesign which is shown in Figure 7.17c. 
In the TRIESTE design (by Piccard) the 




Fig, 7 18 Electric power thru-hull connector on D££P D/VET (NAVOCEANO) 

341 



pyrotenax cables are sealed to the penetra- 
tor body with an epoxy potting compound 
and a soft wax overlay (Fig. 7.17d). Should 
the epoxy material crack over periods of 
service, then the wax under hydrostatic 
pressure would seal the voids. The cables are 
prevented from being axially forced into the 
sphere by washers brazed to the cables. 
These washers have the proper amount of 
surface area to withstand the hydrostatic 
pressure. The penetrator body is sealed to 
the pressure sphere with a conical plexiglass 
ring which is pressurized initially by a re- 
tainer nut inside the sphere. The nut holds 
the fitting to the hull and initially pressur- 
izes the plexiglass material to effect a seal at 
low pressures. The seal becomes more effec- 
tive with depth due to high hydrostatic pres- 
sure on the penetrator body. Similar pene- 
trators are used on FNRS-3, ARCHIMEDE 
and BEiV FRAISKLIN. 

The BEN FRANKLIN, during its Gulf 
Stream Drift, used two other commercial 
penetrators: A Viking penetrator and a Brit- 
ish design known as the "molded gland" (Fig. 
7.19). Additionally, a specially designed pene- 
trator, basically a 13-mm-diameter copper 
rod 215 mm long with a bronze machined 
collar on the outboard end, was used to carry 
power from the batteries into BEN FRANK- 
LIN's hull; similar penetrators also serve for 
battery charging and shore power. Figure 
7.20 shows these specially designed penetra- 
tions carrying main propulsion power 
through the hull, and Figure 7.21 shows 
their construction. 

The British "molded gland" penetrator has 
been used by Royal Navy submarines for 
several years with no reported failures (32). 
It was originally designed for underwater 
cables and saw its first U.S. application in 
1969 on the BEN FRANKLIN (Fig. 7.22). A 
paper by K. R. Haigh (33) describes the 
molded gland and its advantages over other 
systems. The basic principle of this gland is 
as follows: The polythene (polyethylene)-in- 
sulated cable core passes through the pres- 
sure hull, which is locally deformed by a 
protruding hollow spigot with a castellated 
external surface. The seal is formed by mold- 
ing polythene around the castellated spigot 
and the cable core. On cooling, the core insu- 
lant becomes homogeneous with the poly- 



thene, which also contracts on the castel- 
lated surface. The application of water pres- 
sure increases the contact pressure between 
the polythene and the spigot, thus making 
the gland inherently self-sealing. Pretreat- 
ment of the spigot by the application of a 
thin film of polythene bonded to the surface 
ensures that the molded polythene bonds to 
the castellated surface. If the cable is sev- 
ered outboard at the hull, ingress of water is 
prevented during the molding process by 
forcing epoxy resin under pressure down the 
interstices of the multi-strand conductors 
thereby eliminating any voids which may be 
present between sheath and conductor. For a 
period of 1 year, glands of this type were 
subjected to a water pressure of 5 tons/ 
square inch without any evidence of penetra- 
tion. Each gland is supplied with tails on 
both the high and low pressure sides and 
installation consists of screwing the gland 
body into a prepared housing in the subma- 
rine pressure hull. 

To join the two cable tails together, a 
portable injection-molding machine shoots a 
hot charge of polythene under hand pressure 
from a gun into a transparent Perspex (plexi- 
glass) mold clamped around the section of 
cable core or sheath requiring reinsulation. 
The use of Perspex, which has a relatively 
low thermal conductivity, avoids the need for 
heating the mold, while ensuring that the 
injected polythene is not cooled at a rate 
which would prevent its complete amalgama- 
tion with the conductor insulation or sheath. 
It also permits the operator to watch the 
filling of the mold right up to the time when 
reinstatement of the insulation is complete. 
The complete joint can be tested hydrauli- 
cally by clamping a water jacket around the 
cable and applying any required pressure. 
By this means, the complete external electri- 
cal system can be tested for water-tightness 
to full diving depth and beyond while the 
submersible is still being built or at the dock. 

This system is described in some detail 
because it departs radically from U.S. sys- 
tems, in that, there is a continuous hard line 
conductor running from the external instru- 
ment into the hull. U.S. systems, on the 
other hand, contain separate conductor con- 
tact points externally at either the hull or a 
connector, and again at the cable and the 



342 





Fig, 7 19 A variety of penetrators on BEN FRANKLIN (NAVOCEANO) 



Fig- 7 20 Piccard penetrators witti Marsh Marine (Vector) connectors and specially- 
designed mam power penetrators on BEN FRANKLIN (NAVOCEANO) 



instrument. It is these connect/disconnect 
points which cause most of the trouble. 

The DOT program icientified some 30 dif- 
ferent penetrator types used on underwater 
vehicles and, based on failure modes and 
effects analyses, compiled a list of 22 design 
considerations applying to electrical penetra- 
tors. Such details are beyond the scope of 
this discussion, but from a historical and 
state-of-the-art point of view four design fac- 



COPPER ROD 

\ CONICAL PLEXIGLASS HIGH PRESSURE SEAL 
PLEXIGLASS HIGH PRESSURE SEAL 

STAINLESS STEEL CLAMP BRAZED X)INT 




CHIMP CONNECTOR 
NEGPHENE BOOT 

95 MM' CABLE 



RUBBER TAPE FROM 
FIELD SPLICING KIT 
RUBBER BOOT {SHRINK TUBING) 
FROM FIELD SPLICING KIT 
BRASS CONNECTOR 
(SCREW CON^eCTED 
TO SILVER FEMALE! 
SILVER FEMALE 
CONNECTOR SOCKET 

BRONZE MACHINED COLLAR 
NECPRENE MOLDED COVER 
STEEL PENETRATOR SLEEVE 

NEOPflENE GASKET FOR LOW PRESSURE SEAL 




Fig. 7.21 Electrical penetrator (95 mm) on BEN FRANKLIN 



Fig 7 22 A molded gland atop a 3 5- kHz transducer. (NAVOCEANO) 



343 



tors should be mentioned: entry configura- 
tion, hull fastening methods, hull sealing 
methods and hull insert types. 

Penetrator Entry: 

Cable can enter the hull vertically (Fig. 
7.17a), or at any angle from vertical to hori- 
zontal (Fig 7.17c). The horizontal entry pro- 
vides the most advantages because the ca- 
bles can be supported and protected more 
easily. 

Hull Fastening Methods: 

Several methods exist to secure penetra- 
tors to the pressure hull (Fig. 7.23). Briefly, 
the following comments can be made for each 
approach: 

a) Bolted Flange — Bolting directly to hull 
may produce a stress concentration 
area; the flange consumes a large sur- 
face area outside the hull and may also 
cause crevice (and other) corrosion prob- 
lems. 

b) Internal Lock-Nut — The most widely used 
method, it provides the least problems. 

c) Welding — This conserves space but is per- 
manent and, therefore, hampers re- 



placement for maintenance. Also, some 
hull materials are not weldable. 

d) Adhesives — These have a low confidence 
level at present. 

e) Direct Screwing — This poses machining 
and stress concentration problems. 

Hull Sealing: (Fig. 7.24) 

In this respect replacement or removal of 
the penetrator for inspection is a general 
requirement. Therefore, welding or adhe- 
sives are precluded. 

a) Flat-Gasket — This requires periodic re- 
pressurization. 

b) O-rings — These provide excellent low 
pressure seals, most widely used. 

C) Metal-to-Metal Tapered Seal — An eighty per- 
cent metal-to-metal contact is desired 
and very precise machining is required. 

Hull Insert Types: 

The basic insert types are shown in Figure 
7.25. Threaded, tapered and conical inserts 
are found in most submersibles. In the conical 
insert a plastic gasket is pressurized into the 
cone area by tightening an inboard lock-nut. 
Stepped hole inserts create stress concentra- 



ifl 


\ 


rf 


STUD 

< 




1 




1 u 


_ 


L 





BOLTED 
FLANGE 



/ 




^' 


/ 


- 


^ 



h^ 



y SEAL RING 
^ LOCK NUT 



INTERNAL 
LOCK NUT 



C 



ADHESIVE 
FASTENING 



BONDING 
'COMPOUND 



FLAT GASKET 



^^^ 



7 



1 



3 



/ 




Direct 
Screwing 



\ STRAIGHT 
THREAD 



r^TT^ 



^TAPERED 
THREAD 







0-RING 


i 


? h 


' 






1 1 


J 





Fig. 7.23 Penetrator to hull fastening methods. 



Fig, 7,24 Penetrator to hull sealing methods. 



344 



<=i 



^ 






us NAVY TYPE 



CONICAL HOLE 



Fig 7 25 Typical hull inserts for electrical penetrators 

tions, and thus a tapered hole is favored, al- 
though individual matching of each penet- 
rator may be required to fit each insert. The 
hull insert material must be the same as the 
hull material and full penetration welds at 
the insert-hull interface are desired. 

Electrical Connectors 

Cables (harnesses) and connectors for elec- 
trical components have been the most failure 
prone items on submersibles, and, while such 
failures may not jeopardize the occupant's 
safety, they can result in the loss of time, 
money and good diving weather in the form 
of aborted dives and subsequent down-time 
for repairs. 

Any attempt to lay the blame for connector 
and cable failures reduces to the dilemma of 
"Who struck John?" Earlier, Rynewicz (2), a 
user of connectors, cautioned submersible 
designers that cables, connectors and circuit 
breakers constituted the major areas for im- 
provement in deep submergence. Another 
user, a senior engineer for Perry Submarine 
Builders, recently replied to a query regard- 
ing the connectors they found most reliable: 
"We use one until we get disgusted with it 
and then replace it with another until we've 



had enough of it!" International Hydrody- 
namics, as noted above, finally gave up and 
makes its own connectors and penetrators. 

Conversely, J. D. Tuttle, a manufacturer 
and vendor of connectors (Electric Oceanics, 
Inc.), states (34) that much of the fault re- 
sides with the user for not establishing speci- 
fications which completely encompass the 
boundary conditions within which the con- 
nector must function. Furthermore, Tuttle 
suggests that the user may not understand, 
among other things, the maintenance proce- 
dures and limitations of a perfectly well de- 
signed and manufactured connector. D. K. 
Walsh (35), a manufacturer (Vector Cable 
Co.), also lays the blame on the user and 
states that the principal area of abuse has 
been in misapplication, mishandling and 
careless installation. 

A revealing insight into the problem is 
provided by the DOT Handbook in the form 
of a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, for 
connectors, penetrators and junction boxes. 
The investigators identified 142 modes by 
which failures of these components could 
occur. The failures are grouped under Inher- 
ent (manufacturing design deficiency and 
material fatigue) and Induced (installation/ 
assembly deficiency, maintenance deficiency, 
excessive operational demands and rough 
handling). If it is assumed that inherent 
deficiencies are laid to the manufacturer and 
induced to the user, then the user appears to 
be the chief potential culprit, for in 181 out of 
297 causes of failure the user is to blame. To 
clarify these figures it should be noted that 
both user and manufacturer may be found 
guilty in the case of one failure, for example, 
where insulation material breaks down due 
to use of contaminated materials, the cause 
could be inherent in the original design, or 
induced through installation/assembly, im- 
proper use or deficient maintenance. 

It would appear, then, that both manufac- 
turer and user share somewhat equally in 
the problem, the former by ignoring various 
ramifications; the latter through ignorance 
or inattention to details. 

Connector Design: 

There are dozens of companies in the U.S. 
which produce connectors both for commer- 
cial application and for which the military 
has supplied specifications. Military specifi- 



345 



cations for a general-purpose connector most 
generally applied in undersea application are 
described in Navy Bureau of Ships MIL-C- 
24217. Connectors for the civil sector in gen- 
eral application are supplied by Vector (for- 
merly Marsh Marine), Joy, Electro Oceanics, 
D. G. O'Brien, Viking Industries and ITT 
Cannon Electronics. In addition to those 
noted, a variety of other companies produces 
standard and special purpose connectors. No 
specific point, other than displaying the 
mind's ingenuity, would be served by de- 
scribing each connector in detail. For those 
interested in such details, reference (36) is 
recommended. For a more general overviewr 
the results of the DOT program will serve 
adequately wherein five basic designs were 
evolved from the multitudes which "... 
seal the cable and provide the desired 
electrical continuity between components'' 
(31); these are: 

a) Cable stuffing tube component penetra- 
tor 

b) Pressure proof electrical connector 

c) Molded cable penetrator 

d) Molded cable penetrator with insulated 
backing header insert 

e) Flange mounted polyethylene molded 
plug penetrator. 

All of these devices (Fig. 7.26) are similar to 
those noted for electrical hull penetrators. 
Pressure proof electrical connectors (Fig. 
7.27) are of major concern because of their 
more widespread use. Connectors of the type 
shown in Figure 7.26 offer several individual 
advantages — e.g., they may be inexpensive 
and quite reliable — but the major disadvan- 
tages outweigh the advantages, to wit: The 
penetrator must be scrapped if the cable is 
damaged in service, and, most importantly, 
there is no convenient disconnect point at 
the component. Numerous other advantages 
of the pressure proof electrical connector are 
outlined in reference (31). 

An electrical connector consists of a plug 
and receptacle assembly. The heart of the 
connector is the pin and socket contacts 
which make the electrical junction. The ma- 
jority of connectors in use today can be di- 
vided into four types based on construction 
material. These are: 

a) Metal plug and receptacle 

b) Molded rubber plug and receptacle 



c) Plastic plug and receptacle 

d) Underwater disconnectable connector. 

The following comments regarding the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of the above 
connectors are taken from the DOT Hand- 
book. 

Metal Shell Conneelor: 

The metal construction which provides a 
rigid skeleton has demonstrated the greatest 
degree of reliability on submersible equip- 
ments. The nature of the design requires 
more component parts, is heavier and has 
greater initial cost. However, these disad- 
vantages are more than offset by a higher 
degree of reliability and resistance to instal- 
lation and environmental damage. The 
added initial cost becomes insignificant when 
related to overall system cost and the critical 
role a connector plays in a system's satisfac- 
tory performance. A single connector failure 
can abort an entire mission. 

The metal plug shell provides a rigid and 
adequate bonding surface for the cable seal 
and thus provides adequate cable strain re- 
lief at this point. The rigid construction 
makes possible a greater degree of wire posi- 
tion control in molding a cable to the plug 
and, therefore, much less chance of electrical 
shorts or opens due to uncontrolled migra- 
tion of conductors during the cable end seal- 
ing process. The metal shell provides a posi- 
tive stop for controlled gasket squeeze in 
seal areas between plug and receptacle and 
between receptacle and mounting surface. 
Metal has the necessary strength and dimen- 
sional stability to provide reliable threaded 
parts. A metal receptacle shell provides the 
necessary support for a positive and reliable 
pressure barrier in case of accidental expo- 
sure to sea pressure. Metal construction pro- 
vides for a more reliable mounting of bulk- 
head types and an additional mounting 
method, namely a seal weld. An individual 
insulator in combination with snap-in socket 
contacts provides good contact positioning 
for proper mating alignment. Metal bodies 
are best adapted for positive keying to polar- 
ize plug with receptacle. Where both plug 
and receptacle shell are of a nonresilient 
material, a more reliable coupling can be 
accomplished. Elastomer compression set 
and material flow with resulting loosening is 
not a problem. 



346 




CABLE 



MOLDED BOOT 
& PLUG INSULATION 



PLUG 
ASSEMBLY 



COUPLING RING 

0-RING 
GLASS SEAL 
COMPONENT 
^ BULKHEAD 
LOCKNUT 

ELONGATED CONTACT 



POLYETHYLENE 
JACKETED CABLE 

STRAIN RELIEF 
GROMMET 

^ / STRAIN RELIEF 
-I / SLEEVE 

MOLDED 
POLYETHYLENE 



FLANGE MOUNTED 
PLUG SHELL 




COMPONENT 
BULKHEAD 




CABLE: DSS-3 
yiNEOPRENE JACKET) 



MOLDED NEOPRENE 
PENETRATOR BODY 



O- RING 



COMPONENT 
BULKHEAD 



-RETAINING NUT 

CRIMP TYPE 
SPLICE CONNECTOR 



Pressure Proof Electrical Connector 



Flange Mounted Polyethylene 
Molded Plug Penetrator 



Neoprene Molded Cable Penetrator 




CABLE 



MOLDED NEOPRENE 
BOOT 

PLASTIC CONTACT 
INSULATOR 

HEADER INSERT 



STAINLESS STEEL 
y SHELL 

COMPONENT 
BULKHEAD 

RETAINING NUT 
EPOXY POTTING 



i: 




-CABLE 

-GLAND NUT 



-LOCKWASHER 
-WASHER 



RUBBER GROMMET 



COMPONENT ENCLOSURE 



Molded Cable Penetrator With 
Insulated Backing Header Insert 



Cable Stuffing Tube 
Component Penetrator 



Fig. 7.26 Five basic designs for sealing a cable and transmitting electrical power between components. 



347 



CABLE 



(0 
(0 
(0 
(0 
(0 



NEOPRENE 
MOLDED BODY 



CONNECTOR 

SEAL AREA 

(INTERFERENCE FIT 



M 




PIN CONTACT 



SOCKET CONTACT 



NEOPRENE 
MOLDED BODY 



CABLE 



Molded Elastomeric Connector 




CABLE 
O RING 

SOCKET 
CONTACTS 

- COUPLING RING 



ALL PLASTIC PLUG 



O RING 

SPUT TYPE PIN CONTACTS 
ALL PLASTIC RECEPTACLE | 

BULKHEAD 



RING 



CABLE 



Molded Plastic Connector 



CABLE 
MOLDED BOOT 



PLUG ASSEMBLY 




COUPLING RING 
O RING 



Metal Shell Connector 



Fig. 7.27 Types of connectors presently in use. 
348 



Disadvantages of metal connectors in- 
clude: The need for additional individual con- 
tact seals which are inherent in the inte- 
grally molded rubber type connector; danger 
that sealing surfaces may be damaged, caus- 
ing possible seal failure; susceptibility to cor- 
rosion, depending on material choice, envi- 
ronment and the influence of other interfac- 
ing metals and/or stray electrical currents; 
need for insulation to provide electrical isola- 
tion of the conductors; and the need to se- 
cure and seal these parts. Additionally, ap- 
plications that require the metal connector 
to be subjected to a considerable degree of 
pressure cycling call for special attention to 
the manner of wiring and how the conduc- 
tors are supported in the back end of the 
plug between the cable-end seal and the con- 
ductor termination. Otherwise, fatigue fail- 
ure of the conductor can occur. Where nonre- 
silient parts interface at plug and receptacle, 
a minimum volume void is always present 
because necessary dimensional tolerances 
preclude interfacial contact at this point. 
This void can account for some electrical 
degradation due to condensation of moisture 
in the contact area. This can be significant 
depending on application and environmental 
temperature and humidity ranges. Contact 
insulation composed of compression glass 
seals must be adequately protected from 
welding temperatures when components are 
fastened or sealed by this method. 
Molded Plastic Connector: 

The molded thermosetting resin type of 
connector construction is relatively inexpen- 
sive and ideally suited to volume production. 
It has many of the same advantages as the 
all rubber type. For example: It takes fewer 
components; integral molding requires no in- 
ternal seals; no insulators are required as 
the structural material itself is a good dielec- 
tric; and the material is not subject to salt 
water corrosion, since it cannot form a gal- 
vanic couple with adjacent metal parts. 

However, experience has indicated that 
plastics have many deficiencies as a connec- 
tor fabricating material. Any one specific 
thermoplastic or thermosetting resin mate- 
rial does not seem to combine the desirable 
electrical properties with all the required 
physical and mechanical properties neces- 
sary for use as a deep submergence connec- 



tor. Some of these properties include a high 
degree of dimensional stability, high impact 
strength, low mold shrinkage, low water ab- 
sorption, high compressive strength and non- 
flammability. 

Fabricating requirements further limit the 
material choice. These include good moldabil- 
ity — especially with any necessary reinforc- 
ing fiber content — at reasonable tempera- 
tures and pressures. Some of the more com- 
mon defects found in molded connector parts 
include the following: Cracks at points of 
high stress which are generated in the mold- 
ing process and proliferate with use; threads 
that fail under load or are damaged by im- 
pact; failure in areas that are molded resin 
rich and lack the necessary fiber content; 
seal surfaces that do not present the re- 
quired finish due to excessive flash or poros- 
ity; and a tendency under higher levels of 
pressure cycling towards minute fiber dis- 
placement, followed by fatigue and eventual 
structural failure. 

Though the molded plastic connector has 
exhibited serious design deficiencies to date, 
especially for higher pressure applications, it 
is quite possible that the proper combination 
of material and design would produce a satis- 
factory connector for low pressure applica- 
tions. 
Molded Elastomer Connector: 

The molded or cast elastomer type of con- 
nector construction provides the least expen- 
sive type of underwater connector. Basically, 
this type of connector consists of a length of 
cable whose conductors are terminated with 
male or female plugs. The entire terminal 
area is molded or cast integral with the cable 
jacket. The contacts are positioned by exter- 
nal means until curing or vulcanizing is com- 
plete. The geometry of the molded area is 
such as to provide a sealing interface be- 
tween plug and receptacle and to provide for 
strain transition between contact area and 
cable. Because of the resilient qualities of 
the material used, relatively thick sections 
are required to provide adequate polariza- 
tion between plug and receptacle. This re- 
sults in a large connector. For this reason, 
polarization, where present in this design, is 
normally accomplished by contact pattern or 
by the use of two or more different contact 
diameters. Neither method is adequate be- 



349 



cause electrical contact between plug and 
receptacle is not possible prior to proper 
alignment and mechanical locking. For this 
reason, this type of connector is vulnerable 
to electrical mismating and contact damage. 

The materials most often used in fabricat- 
ing this connector are neoprene for pressure 
molding and polyurethane for cast molding. 
The neoprene molded connector is superior 
in several design areas. However, the inabil- 
ity to properly control movement of the con- 
ductor during the pressure molding process 
can lead to electrical opens and shorts that 
very often don't appear until after the con- 
nector sees the operating environment. 
Thus, reliability is seriously affected. 

The all rubber type of connector, not hav- 
ing a rigid internal or external structure, 
does not provide for positive and controlled 
compression of interfacial seals. For the 
same reason, most coupling and mounting 
devices are marginal because the material is 
subject to compression set. Seal failure can 
also occur when the connector is mated in a 
low temperature environment, due to loss of 
elasticity. Most designs have little or no pro- 
tection for pin contacts. 

This type of connector construction is not 
without certain advantages. Among these 
are low cost, light weight, capability of with- 
standing considerable abuse and, because it 
is integrally molded, a need for fewer seals. 
Both plug and receptacle withstand open 
face pressure equally well. No material cor- 
rosion problem exists and the material being 
a dielectric does not contribute to galvanic 
corrosion of adjacent areas. No separate in- 
sulating parts are required and the resilient 
material provides for a void-free interface 
between mated plug and receptacle. 

Underwater Disconnectable Connectors: 

Underwater disconnectable, or make and 
break, connectors are a definite requirement 
for submersible applications. For instance, it 
is advantageous for divers to be able to dis- 
connect camera and light housings while the 
vehicle is still in the water. This allows re- 
placement of film and lights on a routine 
basis without the need to haul the vehicle 
from the water. Another disconnectable con- 
nector requirement is the one-time electrical 
disconnect that is required when emergency 



drops are made of outboard mounted equip- 
ment such as batteries and manipulators. 
These equipments would be disconnected 
from the vehicle under conditions of emer- 
gency surfacing; it may also be necessary to 
drop the manipulators should they become 
entangled during underwater operations. 

Electro Oceanics has developed and pat- 
ented an underwater make and break con- 
nector wherein both the male plug and fe- 
male receptacle are molded of a nonwetting 
elastomer, neoprene, to which the metallic 
contacts are bonded (Fig. 7.27). An interfer- 
ence fit between plug and receptacle causes 
a wiping action as connection is made. By 
slightly constricting the front face of the 
female opening and slightly flaring the end 
of the male, the entire male surface is wiped 
clean as is the interior of the female with 
excess water or salt film being ejected to the 
rear. The purging action is so effective that 
the connector can be plugged and unplugged 
in salt water with a resultant leakage resist- 
ance exceeding 100 megohms. 

As one part of the DOT Program, the 
Crouse-Hinds Company of Syracuse, New 
York, developed an underwater make-break 
connector capable of operation at depths to 
1,000 feet. A flexible bladder provides volume 
compensation for changes due to pressure or 
temperature, and a method employing one 
active and one dummy rod maintains zero 
displacement when connection is made. Tests 
to 15,000 psi show no damage to the connec- 
tor and subsequent development is aimed at 
multicircuit use. A complete description of 
this novel approach and its advantages are 
presented by Small and Weaver (37). 

Prior to completion of the DOT Program's 
Connector, Cable and Harness Handbook, 
several manufacturers and users published 
state-of-the-art reports of these components 
which included recommendations for the fu- 
ture and described the techniques employed 
on a few specific vehicles. These reports and 
articles are included in references (38) 
through (42) and are mentioned herein, not 
only for historical reasons, but also to give 
the views of both users and manufacturers. 
A more recent development in penetrators in 
Figure 7.28 shows Electro Oceanics' titanium 
penetrator for the 12,000-foot titanium hull 
of ALVm. 



350 




Fig 7 28 PROJECT TfTANES ' (WHOI) 

Cables 

The primary function of a pressure proof 
harness assembly is to provide an electrical 
interconnection point from the electrical hull 
penetrator to the outboard electrical/elec- 
tronic component. A harness assembly is a 
pressure proof cable with connectors wired 
and sealed to each end (Fig. 7.29). The har- 
ness is used outboard of the pressure hull 



and usually runs from the hull's electrical 
penetrator or outboard distribution box to an 
outboard electrical component. Many types 
of harness assemblies can be considered and 
have actually been used on submersibles 
(Fig. 7.30). However, the majority of those 
used to date employ rubber jacketed cables. 
Metal-sheathed, mineral-insulated cables 
have been used on a few European vehicles, 
but almost all U.S. designs have made use of 
conventional neoprene jacketed cables. 

Another output of the DOT program is the 
Handbook of Electric Cable Technology for 
Deep Ocean Application (44), a guide pre- 
pared for deep submergence designers, engi- 
neers and operating personnel. The Hand- 
book is a compilation of engineering criteria 
obtained from literature surveys, experimen- 
tal investigations and consultation with 
manufacturers, and provides detailed discus- 
sions of material selection and construction 
requirements for reliable deep-ocean cables. 
Additionally, a glossary and a varied collec- 




Fig 7 29 Harness assemblies for Deep QUEST (LMSC) 



3S1 




"NON HOSING" OR 
"WATER BLOCKED" CABLE 







g 



RUBBER FILLERS 
■NON-WATER BLOCKED 
CABLE 



FLAT 
CONDUCTOR CABLE 



RIBBON CABLE 



0=:^: 



©- 
.© 



individual 
'conductors 

"free flooding" 
cable, individual 

conductors in a 
porous protective 

sheath (jacket) 



CO 



^ 



OIL FILLED 
CABLE 




.©■ 



OIL FILLED PLUG 



. INDIVIDUAL 
CONDUCTORS 



cD 



SILVER SOLDER 



MINERAL INSULATED 
METAL SHEATH 

CABLES 
(MI-PYROTENAX) 




CONDUCTORS IN 

PIPE (OIL FILLED-GAS 

FILLED OR W/VOIDS) 



j: 



METAL CORRUGATED 
SHEATH CABLES 



Fig. 7.30 Submersible pressure proof harness types. 
352 



tion of useful tables are included. Because 
the subject of cables is covered exhaustively 
in the Handbook and references (31) and (36), 
only a cursory discussion is given herein, and 
it is taken directly from the above sources. 

As with so many other components of sub- 
mersibles, the selection of outboard cabling 
for privately owned vehicles depends both on 
the designer's personal choice and availabil- 
ity. Among the options are single insulated 
conductors, standard commercial cables, oil 
filled cables, welding cable, metal sheathed 
cables and hybrid cabling systems. Typical 
problems encountered include: 

1. Incompatibility of insulation and jacket 
compounds with pressure-compensating 
fluids. 

2. Water penetration of cable jackets and 
molded plug terminations. 

3. Cracking of cable sheath. 

4. Problems of potting plug molding com- 
pounds to cable jackets and metal shell 
of plugs. 

5. Conductor breakage at molded plug ter- 
minations. 

6. Instability of electrical characteristics 
with change in hydrostatic pressure or 
with long-time immersion. 

7. Breakage of braided shields under re- 
peated cable flexing. 

8. Mechanical damage during vehicle serv- 
icing. 

Mr. D. K. Walsh (35) summed up the situa- 
tion quite succinctly in a 1966 report to the 
Marine Technology Society: "Historically, 
the cable problem has been treated as an 
afterthought." Walsh proceeded to develop a 
historical account of cable selection (what- 
ever seemed adequate), terminations to asso- 
ciated equipment (trial and error) and the 
means of connecting equipment to a power 
source (whatever method came to mind). 
Tracing the evolution of combining cables 
and connectors, Walsh described an early 
approach known as the "Schlumberger 
Splice" (Fig. 7.31) which worked satisfactor- 
ily with single conductor cables. From this 
developed multi-pin, watertight, disconnect 
type connectors (Fig. 7.32) which are essen- 
tially throw away units, inexpensive and 
rugged and still in use today. These rubber 
molded connectors, according to Walsh, had 
much to do with combining the cable problem 



C 



Hf 1 



TZIt 



Fig 7 31 The Schlumberger Splice (D K Walsh) 

with the connector problem since a rubber 
molded connector could only be installed on 
or molded to a vulcanizable type of cable, 
e.g., neoprene jacketed. This began the de- 
sign of what Walsh calls an Engineered Ca- 
ble System: A combination of a cable with a 
connector and a suitable junction, for the 
development of which the systems engineer 
must have full prior knowledge of the associ- 
ated connectors and the types of junctions to 
be employed. Walsh's report contains a num- 
ber of considerations to insure compatibility 
and optimum performance and is one of the 
first (if not the first) contemporary attempts 
to approach the entire cable/connector prob- 
lem in a systematized, soundly engineered 
manner. 



Fig 7 32 A variety of rubber-molded disconnect type connectors (D. K. Walsh) 



353 



During the design phase of the U.S. Navy's 
Deep Submergence Search Vehicle (DSSV), 
Lockheed Missiles and Space Company rec- 
ognized that reliability of so-called standard 
(Fig. 7.33) external cabling systems was 
questionable at depths of 20,000 feet. Subse- 
quently, the Navy funded a design, fabrica- 
tion and test program for several types of 
pressure-compensated cable systems. 

According to Saunders (43), present ca- 
bling systems suffer the following deficien- 
cies: They are not amenable to analytical 
design approach; extensive pressure testing 
is needed to prove design; "standard" compo- 
nents and assemblies are expensive, large 
and heavy; and cable assemblies are difficult 
to assemble, repair, inspect and maintain. 
The test program was an attempt to over- 
come these deficiencies through use of pres- 
sure-compensated cables. 

Six compensated systems were tested and 
the results compared to the DSRV type of 
standard cabling system. Briefly, the com- 
pensated cable consisted of a Tygon tubing 
sheath with bare wire loosely coiled inside. 
The various test compensating mediums con- 
sisted of a petroleum-based hydraulic fluid, 
electrical box silicone fluid, mineral grade oil 
and silicone grease. A variety of compensa- 
tion devices were used, and each of the six 
systems consisted of a junction box with 
three cable entries and two cable assemblies 



#20AWG 
CONDUCTOR 




#16AWG 
CQNOUCTOR 



»16AWG 
CONDUCTOR 



Rg. 7 33 Typical power cable construction lor the DSRV 



with a penetrator plug on the end of one 
cable. 

A wide variety of tests were performed, as 
the systems were cycled to 13,200 psi, in an 
effort to gain general information rather 
than to determine the suitability of one type 
of compensated system over another. It is of 
interest to note that, except for one leak, all 
test specimens met the required perfor- 
mance criteria. While Saunders expresses 
the need for further study and component 
development for specific subsea devices, he 
draws the following conclusions regarding 
pressure-compensated cable systems: Depth 
does not limit their applicability, manufac- 
turing costs are lower than for standard 
cables, component costs are lower, testing 
costs are lower because no pressure testing 
should be necessary following qualification 
testing, procurement time is reduced, relia- 
bility is increased, cable assemblies weigh 
less, and measured electrical characteristics 
were equal to or exceeded DSRV cabling. 
Although the DSSV never progressed beyond 
the design stage, many of the experimental 
results were unanticipated and the reader is 
urged to consult this report for an insight 
into this approach to submersible cabling. 

As regards reliability of undersea cables, 
there is revealing testimony in reference (32) 
which supports the earlier manufacturers' 
contention that mishandling and misapplica- 
tion by the user are chief factors in cable 
harness failure. Lockheed's DEEP QUEST 
Program Manager, distressed at the high 
damage rate, established training programs 
to teach their engineers and technicians the 
proper methods of handling and carrying, 
what length could remain unsupported with- 
out damage, what kinds of containers to use 
for shipping and proper in-plant storage pro- 
cedures. Additionally, a very rigorous ship- 
board inspection program was instituted and 
supervised by DEEP QUEST s Chief Pilot to 
assure, among other things, that connectors 
were tied tight, that people were not using 
connectors or penetrators as steps and that 
cables were not allowed to lay loose on the 
deck. Similar precautions were taken by 
Westinghouse in its DEEPSTAR 4000 pro- 
gram. 

One problem in small submersibles is that 
cables cannot be protected by enclosing them 



354 



in a steel trough as they are on the much 
larger military submarines. Also, during con- 
struction and maintenance periods tools or 
other devices may be dropped on them. In 
order to stabilize and support the cables of 
STAR III the "Halo" device shown in Figure 
7.34 was used; obviously this is merely sup- 
port, not protection. 

Junction Boxes 

Junction boxes are used to interconnect 
wires or cables. On submersibles they are 
sometimes within the pressure hull, e.g., 
SEA OTTER, though in many cases they are 
external to the hull. In the VAST series of 
submersibles there is no junction box what- 
ever, because the only electric power lines 
are from internal batteries to two electric 
propulsion motors. 

When junction boxes are external to the 
hull, they may be pressure resistant, solid or 
compensated. Pressure-resistant boxes are 
heavy and penetrations may be costly. In 
some cases, however, it may be the only way 
to protect components that cannot withstand 
high pressure. Solid junction boxes (Fig. 
7.35), wherein the electrical equipment is 
potted in a block of elastomeric material, is 




Fig 7 35 A solid junction box consisting of 1547 amber urethane (Gen Dyn Corp) 




Fig 7 34 STAR Ills "Halo cable support. (Gen Dyn Corp.) 



inexpensive and, if transparent, allows easy 
observation of the component parts. On the 
debit side, access to the components is quite 
difficult and water may intrude along pot- 
ting-to-component interfaces. Equally frus- 
trating is the fact that elastomeric materials 
transmit significant shear stresses, and deli- 
cate components, thus, may be ruptured or 
fatigued by the motions accompanying 
compression and decompression. As an ex- 
ample, in tests at General Dynamics the 
conductors soldered into the pin at the rear 
of the receptacles in Figure 7.35 experienced 
a number of breaks due to pressure cycling. 
Postmortem revealed that the urethane was 
compressing and pushing in, and when it 
pushed it dragged the conductor along with 
it and broke. Subsequent change to a higher 
strength conductor and rerouting of the wir- 
ing so that it received some support and 
protection from the metal frame proved sat- 
isfactory. 

Pressure-compensated junction boxes offer 
advantages for components which can tolerate 



355 



pressurization in a dielectric liquid medium. 
Dielectric liquids transmit negligible shear 
which allows exposure of fragile components. 
Since the electrical resistance of all dielectrics 
increases with pressure (43), the chance of 
spontaneous arcing because of dielectric 
breakdown is minimal, thereby providing gre- 
ater latitude to the designer of high-voltage 
equipment. Other advantages are realized in 
weight-saving and visual inspection if opti- 
cally transparent dielectric and container 
material is used. 

Circuit Design 

No two manufacturers of submersibles fol- 
low the same circuitry design or allocation of 
power. Consequently, it would serve little 



purpose to present just one or two power 
schematic diagrams, for they would be repre- 
sentative of only themselves. In the same 
vein, very little has been published regard- 
ing the philosophy of circuit design, which 
leaves the investigator in a quandary if he 
wishes to base his design on other than 
intuition. For such reasons, the contents of 
this section will deal with the manner in 
which circuit design and power distribution 
should be approached, rather than how it 
actually has been carried out. Two sources 
are drawn upon for the major portion of this 
information: 1) The DOT Handbook on Pene- 
trators. Connectors and Harnesses (31) and 
2) course notes taken at a short course in 
Manned Submersibles at UCLA presented by 



TRACKING PINGER 
AUXILIARY BALLAST TANK SENSOR 
MAGNESYN COMPASS 
MERCURY TRIM LEVEL SENSOR 
RUDDER ACTUATOR BOX 
UQC TRANSDUCER 



COMMUNICATION ANTENNA 
HOVERING MOTOR 

PORT & STARBOARD PENETRATORS 
FORWARD PENETRATOR 




PROPULSION MOTOR 



DEPTH TRANSDUCER 



BOWTHRUSTER MOTOR 

BOW LIGHT 

TV CAMERA 

DEPTH TRANSDUCER 



Fig. 7.36 Outboard electrical components. 



356 



Mr. G. Pallange (Lockheed Missiles and 
Space) in November 1968. 

Obviously, the first order of business for 
the circuit designer is to identify and ascer- 
tain the electrical characteristics of the com- 
ponents (inboard and outboard of the pres- 
sure hull) the power source will serve. Table 
7.8 presents a listing of voltage and amper- 
age requirements of one set of outboard sub- 
mersible components and was taken from 
reference (31). A graphic representation of 
some components in this list is shown in 
Figure 7.36 on the STAR III; also taken from 
the same source. To demonstrate the "untyp- 
ical" nature of the component array shown 
in Figure 7.36, the VAST or K-250 series of 
shallow vehicles (see Chap. 4) has only its 
propulsion motors outboard. Other vehicles, 
e.g., the DSRV's, have several times more 
than the 25 shown in this figure. Nonethe- 
less, with the information presented in Table 
7.8, the designer is in a position to develop a 



schematic for both internal and external dis- 
tribution as shown in Figure 7.37. 

The DOT Handbook (31) offers several con- 
siderations regarding the general distribu- 
tion system; in part, these are: 

— Identify and classify thru-hull conduc- 
tors to expedite location and eliminate 
cross coupling. 

— Examine load levels (high, low, etc.) to 
ascertain their potential for electro- 
magnetic interference. (This topic is 
dealt with in more detail in the following 
section.) 

— The metallic parts of the vehicle should 
not be used to carry electrical power 
(i.e., as a ground), thus, power sent out 
on one conductor must return on an- 
other. In this respect Pallange recom- 
mends that switching, isolation and pro- 
tective functions be performed on all 
wires concerned with the circuit. 



INBOARD 

DISTRIBUTION 

CENTER 



FEEDER 
BREAKER 




CONTROL 
POWER HULL 
HULL PENETRATOR 
PENETRATOR \ 

/ INBOARD 



HULL 



I OUTBOARD 

FROM OUTBOARD 
POWER SOURCE 



NBOARD 
EQUIPMENT 



GROUP 

FEEDER 

BR 



FEEDER 
BREAKER 




MAIN 
BREAKER 

TIE 
BREAKER 



eakerXj? : 

L4...A 



OUTBOARD 




FEEDER 
BREAKER 



SENSOR 

HULL 

PENETRATOR 



OUTBOARD 

DISTRIBUTION 

CENTER it^ 




TO OUTBOARD 
SENSOR 
TO OUTBOARD 
LOADS 



INBOARD 

DISTRIBUTION 

SYSTEM 

#1 



INTERNAL 



HULL 

HULL 

PENETRATOR 

INBOARD 



EXTERNAL 



GROUP 
FEEDER 
>i>^BREAKER 

4 I 

OUTBOARD 
DISTRIBUTION 
r— .CENTER #2 

0=^ 



INBOARD 

)ISTRIBUTION 

SYSTEM 

#2 



Fig. 7.37 External and internal schematics of power distribution systems. 

357 



TABLE 7.8 TYPICAL VOLTAGE AND AMPERAGE REQUIREMENTS 
FOR OUTBOARD COMPONENTS ON SUBMERSIBLES 



Typical 




Number of 


Typical 




Recommended 


Basic 




Conductors 


Values 




Connector 


Component 


Notes 


Required 








Group 






Volts 


Amps 


Size 


MOTORS 












Main Hydraulic Plant 


1 


2/2/1 


60/60/12 


60/2/<1 


3N0.4-3N0.16 


Auxiliary Hydraulic Plant 


2 


2/2/1 


60/60/12 


110/3/<1 


3NO.0-3NO.16 


Pod Propulsion 


3 


2/2/1 


60/60/12 


85/6/<1 


3N0.4-3N0.16 


Pod Training 


4 


2/2/1 


60/60/12 


25/1/<1 


3N0.12-3N0.16 


Main Propulsion 


5 


2/2 


120 


20 


3N0. 12-3N0.16 


Ext. Hydraulic Pump 


6 


3/2 


440/10 


15/<1 


5 NO. 16 


Thruster 


7 


3/2 


440/10 


20/<1 


3N0. 12-3N0.16 


Main Propulsion 


8 


3/2 


440/10 


45/<l 


3N0.8-3N0. 16 


Mam Seawater Pump 


g 


6/2 


440/10 


15 <1 


3N0. 16-3N0. 16 


Main Propulsion 


10 


2/2/2 


120/240/120/10 


15/25/2/<1 


3NO,12-5N0.16 


Vertical Thruster 


11 


2/2/2 


120/120/10 


15/2/<l 


9N0. 16 


CAMERAS 












Remote Operated TV 


1 


4 + 75nCoax 


12VDC 


<1 


5 NO. 20 -75n Coax 


Remote Operated TV 


2 


6+ 75nCoax 


12 VDC 


<1 


10NO.20-75nCoax 


Remote Operated Still 


3 


3 


30 VOC 


14 (Peak) 
<1 (Avg.) 


3N0. 16 


Remote Operated Still 


4 


9 


30 VDC 


14 (Peak) 
<1 (Avg.) 


9N0.16 


Still Camera Strobe 


5 


3 


30 VDC 


14 (Peak) 
<1 (Avg.) 


3N0.16 


Remote Operated Camera 












Pan and Tilt Mechanism 


6 


5 


115 VAC 


1 


5 NO. 20 


Remote Operated Camera 












Pan and Tilt Mechanism 


7 


13 


115 VAC 


1 


14N0. 16 


Remote Operated Camera 












Pan and Tilt Mechanism 


8 


10 


30 VDC 


5 


14N0.16 


COMMUNICATIONS & SONAR 












Underwater Telephone 


1 


See Note 


See Note 


1 


3N0.16 


Intercom Telephone 


2 


See Note 


See Note 




3N0.16 


Radio Telephone Whip Ant. 


3 


Single Coax 


See Note 


<1 


50 n Coax 


CTFM (Contmuous Transmission 












Frequency Modulated) Sonar 


4 










Training Mechanism 


5 


12 


115VAC 


1 




Transmitting Hydrophone 


6 


See Note 


500V, P-P 


<1 


5 NO. 20 


Receiving Hydrophone 


6 


See Note 


10V, P-P 


<1 


3N0. 16 


Sonar Echo sounder 


7 










Pressure Hull To Transmitter 












Can 




6 


30 VDC 


1 




Transmitter Can To Hydrophone 


6 


See Note 


500V, P-P 


<1 


3N0. 16 


Doppler Navigator Sonar 












Transmitting Hydrophone 


8 


See Note 


500V, PP 


<1 


5NO.20 


Receiving Hydrophone 


9 


See Note 


10V, PP 


<1 


10N0.20 



358 



LIGHTS 
Underwater Floodlamps 
Mercury Vapor 
Tungsten - Iodide 
Tungsten - Iodide 
Tungsten - Iodide 
Tungsten - Iodide 
Navigation Running 
Identification Flashing 
Beacon 
Strobe, Photographic 



1 

1 

2 
3 
4 

7 


3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


110 VAC 
110V, AC/DC 
110V,AC/DC 
228V, AC/DC 
30V, AC/DC 
110V, AC/DC 


10 

10 

5 

1 

25 

1 


3N0. 16 
3N0.16 
3N0.16 
3NG.16 
3N0.12 
3N0.16 


5 

6 


2 

4 


110VAC 
28 VDC 


1 

14 (Peak) 


3M0. 16 
5N0.16 




2 
2 


110VAC 
60 VDC 


1 
1 


3N0.16 
3N0.16 


1 
3 


2 
2 
2 


30 VDC 

60 VDC 

110VAC 


3 

1 
1 


3N0.1G 
3N0.16 
3N0.16 


62 
74 

2 + 2 


24 VAC/DC 
24 VAC/DC 
30 VDC 


1 

1 

See Note 


24 NO. 16 

24 NO. 16 

5 NO. 20 



MISCELLANEOUS 
Anchor Payout Solenoid 
Ballast Release Solenoid 
Single Motion Actuator 
For Various Equipments 
For Various Equipments 
For Various Equipments 
Mechanical Arm (Manipulator) 
Open Loop Control 
Closed Loop Control 
Emergency Guillotine 



TRANSDUCER CIRCUITS 
Seawater Leak Sensing Probe 
Shaft Tachometer 
Pressure 
Temperature 
Salinity 
Rudder Angle 
Dive Plane Angle 
Propulsion Pod Angle 
Ammeter Shunts 
Voltmeter Leads 



Generally 
Twisted Pair, 
Shielded. May 
Have Special 
Requirement 
Depending on 
Application 
And/Or 
Manufacturer 



These Probes Are 
Usually Powered 
From The Inboard 
Device They Are 
A Part Of. 
Typical Values 
Are Currents In 
Milliamperes And 
Voltages Less Than 10. 



5N0.16or5N0.20 



NOTES AND COMMENTS TO TABLE 7.8 

NOTES: (MOTORS) 

1. DC Shunt, Armature/Field/Seawater Leak Probe; 3 hp 

2. DC Shunt, Armature/Field/Seawater Leak Probe; 6.8 hp 

3. DC Shunt, Rev., Field Control; Arm/Field/Probe; 4 hp 

4. DC Shunt, Rev., Arm/Field/Probe; 1.5 hp 

5. DC Series, Rev., Pulse Width Speed Control; 

6. 30 AC, Motor Power/Tachometer 



-With AC circuits a two-or-three conduc- 
tor path twisted pair is the best available 
configuration to cancel the alternating 
magnetic field from each conductor. 
Magnetic and electrostatic shielding may 
also be required. Physical separation of 
conductors to reduce alternating fields 
would be almost impossible. 



— Inductive loads on DC power require spe- 
cial switch and circuit breaker considera- 
tions. Separation of conductors could 
possibly make a normally resistive load 
inductive. If the conductors were sepa- 
rated by several feet, a single turn loop 
of considerable area and significant in- 
ductance could be formed, but the loop 



359 



NOTES AND COMMENTS TO TABLE 7.8 (Cont.) 

7. 30 AC, Rev., Speed Control By Variable Voltage; Motor Power/Tach. 

8. 30 AC, Rev., Speed Control By Variable Frequency; Motor Power/Tach. 

9. 30 AC, 2-Speed, By 2 Winding Sets; 2 or 10 pti; Motor Power/Tach. 

10. DC - Shunt, Rev., Speed Control By Arm. Volts And/or Field; Arm/Field/Tach. 

11. DC - Shunt, Rev., Speed Control By Field Resist; Arm/Field/Tach. 

NOTES: (CAMERAS) 

1. Remotely Controlled Focus 

2. Remotely Controlled Focus, ZOOM, and Iris 

3. Remotely Controlled Trigger Function Only; 14 Amp Max. Recharge; 3 Sec Recycle 

4. Remotely Controlled with Trigger, Iris Focus, and Shutter Special Optical 

5. Remotely Controlled Trigger Function 

6. PAN And TILT Functions Only 

7. With Additional Options: Orientation and Limit Indicators 

8. DC Operated Option With Stepping Motors; 5 amp Peak Current During Stepping Pulse. 

NOTES: (COMMUNICATIONS &SONAR) 

1. Cable Usually Twisted Pair With Shield; Volts About 950 Peak to Peak On Audio Peaks 

2. Cable Usually Twisted Pair With Shield; Volts About 10 Peak to Peak on Audio Peaks 

3. Voltage Typically 150 Peak To Peak (Radio Frequency) With 50 ohm System. 

4. Side Scan Or Obstacle Avoidance 

5. 3 Cables; 4 Conductors Each 

6. Twisted Pair With Shield 

7. BETHOS 2670; With Outboard Transmitter Can and Hydrophone 

8. 3 Conductors, Shielded; TTS4SHL Recommended 

9. 4 Shielded Pairs; TTRS4 SLL Recommended 

NOTES: (LIGHTS) 

1. 1000 Watts 

2. 500 Watts 

3. 75 Watts 

4. 750 Watts 

5. For Larger Vehicles With AC As Main Source, Smaller Vehicles Utilizing Battery Power Generally Use a Self-Contalned, Pressure 
Activated Flasher. 

6. Usually Supplied with 4 Terminal Underwater Connector; 14 amp Peak Recharge Current After Flash. 

7. These Lights Usually Originate From Support Vessel and Are Removed For Diving. 

NOTES: (MISCELLANEOUS) 

1. Electrically Controlled Hydraulic Powered Operators 

2. Emergency Devices Usually Have D'.jal, or Redundant Functions For Safety. 

3. Explosive Operated Devices Require 30 amp Pulse, Low Resistance Circuit. 

Projected Future Electrical Requirements Are Covered By: 
3 #0000 - For Propulsion Motor and Battery Connectors. 

Single Contact 

#16, 12, 8,4,0 and 0000 - For Applications Where Single Conductor Cables Are Used Outboard or Are Projected For Future Use. 



360 



could prove to be most troublesome dur- 
ing switching operations and, in addi- 
tion, would generate a substantial mag- 
netic field which could be fatal for other 
devices, such as magnetic compasses and 
magnetometers. 
— Another area sometimes overlooked is 
the desirable separation of conductors 
capable of carrying high level fault cur- 
rents from conductors attached to explo- 
sive-operated devices. A high fault cur- 
rent could possibly induce a firing cur- 
rent in the explosive squib and could 
prematurely activate some system. 
The foregoing considerations define the 
tasks involved in the power distribution de- 
sign. In general, the following recommenda- 
tions are offered for these applications: 

— The connector or hull penetrator must 
have a power rating in excess of the 
maximum fault current which may flow 
through the respective circuit as limited 
by circuit protective devices. 
— On all DC power circuits each polarity 
should be taken through separate con- 
nectors or penetrators. 
— AC power circuits, especially three-phase 
440 VAC, for example, should be carried 
through a single nonmagnetic penetra- 
tor or connector. Before attempting to 
separate these conductors into separate 
penetrators or connectors, a hard look 
would have to be taken at the inductive 
heating effects of these conductors sepa- 
rated by magnetic materials, since detri- 
mental, or even destructive, heating of 
these materials could occur. If nonmag- 
netic materials are used in the magnetic 
field between conductors, the heating ef- 
fect would be greatly reduced. However, 
eddy current heating in any electrically 
conductive material would still remain a 
possibility. 
— Circuits susceptible to noise or interfer- 
ence should not be routed through a 
connector or penetrator which carries 
power and control circuits. 
Regarding external distribution specifi- 
cally, the importance of connectors (between 
energy source and external distribution box) 
capable of carrying the maximum fault cur- 
rent generated by the energy source is em- 
phasized. The group feeder breakers (Fig. 
7.37) provide added connector protection be- 



tween the external distribution center and 
the vehicle and the hull penetrator. In se- 
lecting suitable sensing devices on the tie 
and feeder breakei-s, the rating of the con- 
nectors used in these areas must be suffi- 
cient to handle the maximum fault amperage 
which may flow prior to tripping a particular 
breaker. The DOT Handbook further cau- 
tions that penetrators through the hull 
should be protected by circuit protective de- 
vices to reduce the possibility of damage. 

As an aid in providing design guidelines, 
component specifications and selection crite- 
ria for circuit interruption devices, the DOT 
Program undertook to produce reference 
(45), the emphasis of which is almost entirely 
on the use of on-off mechanical contactors in 
pressure-compensating fluids. The author, 
Pocock, states that subsequent editions will 
include additional chapters on circuit break- 
ers, solid state circuit interrupting devices 
and fuses. 



INSTRUMENT 
INTERFERENCE 

A great proportion of the instruments on 
contemporary submersibles are electronic 
and thus susceptible to electric interference 
which can degrade their performance by 
blanking out data or generating erroneous 
data. Many of the instruments may be 
classed as electroacoustic, which are also 
subject to acoustic interference. Regarding 
this problem, Mr. K. R. Haigh of the Admi- 
ralty Experimental Diving Unit, Ports- 
mouth, states (46): 

"T/ie presence, origin and nature of 
electrical and acoustical interference 
in the majority of current submers- 
ibles has received scant attention from 
the owners and operators with the 
result that many users have been una- 
ble to realize the full potential of the 
boat in its scientific or survey role.''^ 

Haigh further reflects that such interfer- 
ence is not a new problem but is one that has 
been solved before in military submarines, 
and he attributes its existence in submers- 
ibles to lack of dissemination or suppression 
methods to civilian submersible builders. To 
appreciate that such interference can be a 



361 



severe problem, one has merely to glance at 
Figure 7.38 which shows portions of a side 
scan sonar record from ALUMIISAUT. Vir- 
tually every electronic component aboard 
the vehicle, including the scientific instru- 
ments themselves (stereo camera system), 
produced an interference pattern on the rec- 
ord which partially or completely obliterated 
the returning echoes from the sonar's trans- 
ducers. ALUMINAUT is not alone in this 
problem; to a greater or lesser degree all 
submersibles exhibit electrical and/or acous- 



tic interference. Because this problem has 
such an impact on the scientific and survey- 
ing potential of submersibles, its nature and 
the means of suppression, as discussed by 
Haigh, are summarized in some detail. 

Acoustic sources of interference may be 
mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic in origin. 
These are considered so basic as to constitute 
design error. The chief consideration, there- 
fore, is given to other types of acoustical as 
well as magnetic and electrical interference. 
Figure 7.39 presents their origin and nature. 





mmm 




osnACu AvotOANa sonai 



HMIJONTAl TNtUSTH 



viancAi THiutni 




7 



ST{*(0 CAMfRA SYSTEM 



TIANSPONOfR IKS 



fVfNI 
MAtIt 



UQC 



UMINOWN 



fXAMPLES OF ELECTRONIC INTERFERENCf ON SIOC SCAN SONAR RECORDS 

Fig 7 38 Examples ol electronic interference on side scan sonar records (NAVOCEANO) 



362 



ERRONEOUS OBLITERATED RESTRICTED 



DATA INFORMATION DISPLAY 



SIGNAL PROCESSING CIRCUITRY 



T 



INPUT CIRCUITS 



POWER SUPPLY TRANSIENTS 
THERMAL NOISE 



TRANSDUCER 
MAGNETIC ELECTRICAL ACOUSTIC 



ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE J 



SIGNAL 

MAGNETIC 

ELECTRICAL 

ACOUSTICAL 



ACOUSTICAL INTERFERENCE 



"I 



LINE EFFECTS SELF NOISE SEA NOISE RADIATED NOISE 

ELECTROMAGNETIC | | | 

X 



RADIATED COUPLED FEED GROUND 
BACK LOOPS 



PROPELLER 



r 



MACHINERY 



HYDRODYNAMIC PROPELLER 

' OTHER ' 

ACOUSTIC MACHINERY 
DEVICES I 



I 

HYDRODYNAMIC 

' OTHER 
ACOUSTIC 
DEVICES 



STRUCTURAL AIRBORNE 



STRUCTURAL AIRBORNE 



Fig. 7.39 Origin and effects of acoustical and electrical interference. [From Ref. (45)] 



Acoustic Interference 

Three types of acoustical interference can 
find their way into signal circuits and conse- 
quently lower the signal-to-noise ratio: Sea 
Noise, Self Noise and Radiated Noise. 

a) Sea Noise: 

In an acoustical system free of other 
noise sources, sea noise is the background 
against which signals must be detected. The 
origin of the noise may. be due to thermal 
agitation of the water molecules, seismic ac- 
tivity, surface and sub-surface traffic and 
sea surface motion which is dependent on 
wind speed. In coastal waters additional con- 
tributions are received from waves breaking 
on the shoreline, turbulence around obstruc- 
tions and noise from marine life. Because sea 
noise is always present and must be ac- 
cepted. Figure 7.40 is taken from Haigh's 
report and indicates the background sea 
noise for various sea states; these levels are 
expressed in a 1-Hz bandwidth so they must 
be increased by 10-log bandwidth to arrive at 
the interfering pressure level. 



b) Self Noise: 

Self Noise is that produced by the vehi- 
cle itself (propellers, machinery, hydrody- 
namic) and picked up in its own transducers 
or hydrophones. The submersible user 
should also be aware that noise from its own 
support ship can also be detrimental to func- 
tions such as communications and tracking 
and must also be considered. 



ALUMINAUT 





-10 
-20 
-30 
-40 

-50 

-60 
-70 
-80 
-90 
















E 


^ ^--^ 






1 


^^^~-~-- 






o 


----..^^ 


-~^^~~~---,..J~~~~--^ 


^ 


> 


^ 


^^ ^~~~~--~r'~~~~ 


____^ ^""""-^-.^^SEA STATE 


^ 




^^^^ ^ 


^---r~~~~~---r^ 


G 






"~~~-~-^ ""~"~~--^ 


I 






^~~~~-^-° 











FREQUENCY VHi 

Fig 7 40 Background sea noise under various sea state [From Ref, (45)] 



363 



1) Propeller Noise — Noise produced by the 
collapse of bubbles created by the 
propeller rupturing (rotating in) the 
water. The point of inception of cavi- 
tation depends on propeller speed 
and depth. Generally, submersibles 
have small, high speed propellers 
and cavitation sets in at slow vehicle 
speeds; however, the effect of depth 
is to reduce the point of inception 
and to move the noise spectrum to- 
ward the higher frequencies. 

2) Machinery Noise — Noise emanating 
from machinery and transmitted 
through the structure induces pres- 
sure waves. Unless precautions are 
taken reciprocating and rotating ma- 
chinery of any type will produce vi- 
brations which can be transmitted to 
the hull structure. Electrical trans- 
formers and chokes can also produce 
structural vibrations. Structural vi- 
brations can be minimized by mount- 
ing all rotating and vibrating ma- 
chinery on rubber mounts and ensur- 
ing that there is no mechanical cou- 
pling between the machine and the 
structure. In hydraulic and pneu- 
matic systems this entails the use of 
flexible pipe couplings, while in elec- 
trical circuits no conduits should be 
firmly secured to both the machine 
and hull. 

3) Hydrodynamic Noise — Noise Originating 

from the flow of water across the 
face of a hydrophone or turbulence 
around some protuberance on the 
vessel. At the slow speeds of sub- 
mersibles this should not be a prob- 
lem, except perhaps in those vehicles 
propelled by water jets, 
c) Radiated Noise: 

The sources of radiated noise are identi- 
cal to those of self noise and the cure in 
many cases is the same. If radiated noise is 
present to any extent it may be assumed 
that the vessel has self noise problems. 

Electrical Interference 

Electrical interference is of three types: 
Electromagnetic, line effects and electro- 
static. All can be induced directly or indi- 
rectly into signal processing circuits and 



must be suppressed to a level less than that 
of sea noise, which is considered the practical 
background against which sensors operate, 
a) Electromagnetic Interference: 

When currents pass through conduc- 
tors, magnetic and electrical fields are 
formed around the conductors as in Figure 
7.41. The magnitude of interference depends 
upon field strength, field geometry, the rate 
of change of field and frequency and the 
susceptibility of the receiving circuit. Haigh 
divides electrical interference into radiated 
and coupled. The difference is slight and 
resides merely in the physical separation of 
the transmitting and receiving elements. 
Coupled interference is characterized in Fig- 
ure 7.41a as both magnetic and electric ra- 
diation between two cables running side by 
side or between cores in a multi-core conduc- 
tor. Conventional cable shielding methods 
can contain the electric field as shown in 
Figure 7.41b, but either exotic shielding or 
complete separation of power supply cables 




- ELECTRIC FIELD 
-- MAGNETIC FIELD 



a/FIELDS BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTORS 



ELECTRIC FIELD 

CONTAINED IN 

CONVENTIONAL 

SHIELD 

b/SHIELDING OF FIELDS 




MAGNETIC FIELD 

NOT CONTAINED 

BY SHIELD 



Fig. 7 41 Electromagnelic radiation (a), and the eftecis of conventional shielding (b). 



364 



from sensitive instrument circuits is re- 
quired to isolate electromagnetic fields. 
Sources of radiated interference include 
transformers, inductors and cables operating 
at frequencies from zero to the radio commu- 
nication spectrum. Other sources are invert- 
ers, converters (DC to DC), and fluorescent 
lighting. Protection includes encasing low 
level cables in solid drawn steel conduits, as 
well as conventional shielding. An example 
of one source of coupled intereference is 
shown in Figure 7.42 wherein the close prox- 
imity of cables seems to make such interfer- 
ence inevitable. Further problems with such 
a layout is that of identifying various cables 
and protecting them from physical destruc- 
tion. 



b) Line Effects: 

These encompass unexpected tuning ef- 
fects of cables and associated equipment 
which cannot be completely anticipated in 
the design stage and arise during installa- 
tion and the effects of grounding upon inter- 
ference suppression. Haigh separates these 
into feedback and ground loops and suggests 
various remedies, e.g., filters and grounding, 
to ameliorate their effects. 

c) Electrostatic Interference: 
Electrostatic interference arises chiefly 

from the movement of cables or machinery 
rubbing against cable sheaths. Should the 
submersible be concerned with towing a low 
level sensor, or derive its power from a sur- 
face umbilical, then the action of the cable 




Fig 7 42 ALUMINAUTs internal |unction boxes (NAVOCEANIO) 



365 



sti'umming under tension can give rise to 
friction in the insulation and the creation of 
an electrostatic field. This problem may be 
overcome by using a cable insulant loaded 
with a small amount of graphite. 

The subject of eliminating or suppressing 
the interference discussed above is dealt 
with in greater detail in the DOT Handbook 
on Cable Technology (44); the designer is 
referred to this and Haigh's work for a thor- 
ough and comprehensive review. 

REFERENCES 

1. Cohn, P. D. & Wetch, J. R. 1969 Power 
Sources, in Handbook of Ocean and 
Underwater Engineering. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., N.Y., p. 6-2 thru 6-32. 

2. Rynewicz, J. F. 1970 The submersible 
DEEP QUEST. A .step forward in Off- 
shore Technology. Offshore Tech. Conf., 
of 22-24 April 1970, Houston, Tx., Paper 
No. OTC 1199. 

3. Louzader, J. D. & Turner, G. F. 1966 
Power under the sea. Trans. Mar. Tech. 
Soc. Conf., Exploiting the Ocean, p. 424- 
433. 

4. Bodey, C. E. & Friedland, N. 1966 lSav€il 
architecture of submarine work boats 
for offshore work. Proc. of Ocean Explo- 
ration Conf., 1966, p. 105-119. 

5. Panel on Energy Sources, Committee on 
Undersea Warfai-e, National Research 
Council 1968 Energy Systems Endurance 
in the 1-100 Kilowatt Range for Under- 
sea Applications. Nat. Acad. Sci. Pub. 
1702, Wash., D.C., 132 pp. 

6. Penzias, W. & Goodman, M. W. 1973 Man 
Beneath the Sea. Wiley-Interscience. 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y., 831 pp. 

7. Howard, P. L. 1964/1 novel technique for 
predicting battery performance . Product 
Eng., 26 Oct., 8 pp. 

8. Kisinger, W. W. 196b Propulsion of deep 
diving subniersibles. Naval Eng. Jour., 
Aug., p. 573-584. 

9. Home, R. A. 1963 The operation of bat- 
teries at great ocean depths. Undersea 
Tech., July, p. 16-18. 

10. Yeaple, F. D. 1965 Dry Cell performance. 
Prod. Eng. 

11. Work, G. W. 1969 Battery Materitils and 
Characteristics — Effects of the Deep-Sea 



Environment on Materials Performance 
and the Deep Sea. ASTM STP 445, Amer. 
Soc. of Testing and Materials, p. 31-40. 

12. Funao, Y., Nakamura, K., Kawai, I. & 
Hosoi, S. 1972 Oil-filled silver-zinc sec- 
ondary battery for deep submersible. 
Preprints 2nd International Ocn. Dev. 
Conf., Oct. 5-7, 1972, Tokyo, v. 1, p. 853- 
869. 

13. Momsen, D. F. & Clerici, J. 1971 First 
silver-zinc batteries used in deep sub- 
mergence. Mar. Soc. Tech. Jour., v. 5, n. 2, 
p. 31-36. 

14. Work. G. W. 1972 Batteries for deep 
ocean application. Preprints 8th Ann. 
Conf. & Exhibition, Mar. Soc. Tech. Jour., 
V. 5, n. 2, p. 31-36. 

15. Anderson, A. G., Wright, C. P. & New- 
man, J. P. 1970 Capsulating energy sys- 
tems for small submersibles. 2nd Ann. 
Offshore Tech. Conf., Houston, Tx., April 
22-24, 1970, Paper No. OTC 1164. 

16. Evans, R. S. 1968 Compensation for out- 
board batteries on research submarines . 
Trans. Mar. Tech. Soc. 1968, A Critical 
Look At Marine Technology, p. 643-649. 

17. Marriott, J. A. & Capotosto, A., Jr. 1968 
The gassing behavior of lead-acid stor- 
age batteries in oil compensated sys- 
tems. I. Studies at atmospheric pres- 
sure. Trans. Mar. Tech. Soc, A Critical 
Look At Marine Technology, p. 651-660. 

18. 1968 The gassing behavior of 

lead acid storage batteries in oil com- 
pensated systems. II. Studies at elevated 
hydrostatic pressures. Ibid., p. 661-670. 

19. Miron, D. B. & Evans, R. S. 1966 Analysis 
and Specificfttion Compensation Vol- 
ume and Parameters for AUTEC Vehi- 
cles External Battery Systems . Gen. 
Dyn./Elec. Boat Rept. U413-131. 

20. McQuaid, R. W. & Brown, C. L. 1969 
Handbook of Fluids and Lubricants for 
Deep Ocean Application. NSRDC Pub. 
MATLAB 360, 176 pp., revised 1972. 

21. Loughman, R. & Butenkoff, G. 1965 Fuel 
Cells for fin underwater research vehi- 
cle. Undersea Tech., Sept. 1965, p. 45-46. 

22. Anderson, A. G. 1970 Summary of a pres- 
entation on PROJECT POWERCEL". 
Trans. Mar. Tech. Soc. 1970, v. 2, p. 1103- 
1109. 



366 



23. Warszawski, B., Verger, B. & Dumas, J. 
1971 Alsthom fuel cells. Mar. Tech. Soc. 
Jour., V. 5, n. 1, p. 28-40. 

24. McCartney, J. F. 1970 Hydrospace fuel- 
cell power systems. Trans. Mar. Tech. 
Soc. 1970, V. 2, p. 879-907. 

25. Cohen, S. & Wallman, H. 1970 Engineer- 
ing evaluation of the applicability of 
fuel cell systems to deep submersibles. 
Trans. Mar. Tech. Soc. 1970, v. 2, p. 1401- 
1423. 

26. Fukunaga, P. R. & Pearson, R. O. 1971 
Closed-Cycle Power Systems For Under- 
sea Military Facilities and Equipment. 
Prepared for the U.S. Naval Civil Engi- 
neering Laboratory, under contract 
N62399-71-C-0027 to TRW Systems 
Group. 

27. Giorgi, E. 1968 Underwater power sys- 
tems. Jour. Ocean Tech., Mar. Tech. Soc, 
V. 2, n. 4, p. 57-117. 

28. Watson, W. 1971 The design, construc- 
tion, testing, and operation of a deep- 
diving submersible for ocean floor ex- 
ploration. Trans, of the Ann. Meeting of 
the SNAME, 11-12 Nov. 1971, N.Y., p. 
405-437. 

29. Sasaki, T. 1970 On underwater observa- 
tion vessels in Japan. Trans. 6th Ann. 
Conf. & Exhibition Mar. Tech. Soc, 29 
June— 1 July 1970, Wash., D.C., v. 1, p. 
227-237. 

30. Hoffman, L. C, Rudnicki, M. I. & Wil- 
liams, H. W. 1970 Psychrocycle. Mar. 
Tech. Soc. Jour., v. 4, n. 6, p. 47-56. 

31. U.S. Naval Ship Engineering Center 1971 
Handbook of Vehicle Electrical Pene- 
trators. Connectors and Harnesses of 
Deep Ocean Applications. Deep Ocean 
Tech. Program, Hyattsville, Md. 

32. ^""Meeting on Cables, Connectors and 
Penetrators,'''' text of presentations and 
general discussion held at Deep Submer- 
gence Systems Project Office, Bethesda, 
Md., 15-16 Jan. 1969. 

33. Haigh, K. R. 1968 Deep-sea cable-gland 
system for underwater vehicles and 
oceanographic equipment. Proc lEE, v. 
115, n. 1, p. 153-157. 

34. Tuttle, J. D. 1971 Underwater electrical 
integrity. Preprints 7th Ann. Conf., Mar. 
Tech. Soc, 16-18 Aug. 1971, Wash., D.C., 
p. 135-145. 



35. Walsh, D. K. 1966 Underwater electrical 
cables and connectors engineered as a 
single requirement. Exploiting the 
Ocean. Mar. Tech. Soc, p. 469-484. 

36. Department of the Navy, Deep Submer- 
gence Systems Office 1969 Meeting on 
Cables, Connectors and Penetrators for 
Deep Sea Vehicles, 15-16 Jan. 1969, 383 
pp. 

37. Small, F. B. & Weaver, R. T. 1971 Under- 
water disconnectable connector. Pre- 
prints Mar. Tech. Soc. 7th Ann. Conf., 12- 
18 Aug. 1971, Wash., D.C., p. 125-133. 

38. Haworth, R. F. & Regan, J. E. 1964 Wa- 
tertight electrictil connectors for under- 
sea vehicles and components. Ann. Win- 
ter Meeting ASME, N.Y., Nov. 29— Dec 

4, 1964, Paper 64-WA/UNT-lO, 12 pp. 

39. 1965 Watertight electrical ca- 
ble penetrations for submersibles — past 
and present. Ann. Winter Meeting 
ASME, N.Y., 7-11 Nov. 1965, Paper 65- 
WAyUNT-12, 8 pp. 

40. Haworth, R. F. 1966 Electrical cable 
system for the STAR III vehicle. Ann. 
Winter Meeting and Energy Systems 
Expo ASME, N.Y., 27 Nov.— 1 Dec, 1966, 
Paper 66-WAyUNT-ll, 5 pp. 

41. O'Brien, D. G. 1961 Application of glass- 
hermetic-sealed watertight electrical 
connectors. Mar. Tech. Soc. 3rd Ann. 
Conf. and Exhibit, San Diego, Calif., 5-7 
June 1967, p. 667-705. 

42. Patterson, R. 1969 Electrical connec- 
tors — the weakest link? Oceanology In- 
ternational, Jan/Feb 1969, p. 40-43. 

43. Saunders, W. 1972 Pressure-compen- 
sated cables. Preprints Mar. Tech. Soc. 
8th Ann. Conf. and Exhibition, 11-13 
Sept. 1972, Wash., D.C., p. 23-38. 

44. Forbes, R. T., Delucia, M. A. & Behr, 

5. H. 1970 Handbook of Electric Cable 
Technology for Deep Ocean Applica- 
tion. U.S. Naval Ship Research and De- 
velopment Laboratory, Annapolis, Md., 
24 pp. 

45. Pocock, W. E. 1971 Handbook of Electri- 
cal and Electronic Circuit Interrupting 
and Protective Devices for Deep Ocean 
Application. U.S. Naval Ship Research 
and Development Center, Wash., D.C., 74 
pp. 



367 



46. Haigh, K. R. 1970 Instrumentation inter- June— 1 July 1970, Wash., D.C., v. 2, p. 

ference in subniersibles. Preprints 6th 1189-1201. 

Ann. Conf. and Expo. Mar. Tech. Soc, 29 



368 




8 



MANEUVERABILITY AND CONTROL 



The ability of submersibles to maneuver 
and the means of controlling or directing 
them undoubtedly represent the widest de- 
sign departures from the military subma- 
rine. BEAVER was designed to work primar- 
ily on engineering tasks. Therefore, the basic 
requirements were for tightly-controlled, 
small scale movements which could place it 
in a position to employ its tool kit while 
hovering and maintaining a constant posi- 
tion in midwater. DEEP QUEST was in- 
tended for various tasks: It could range 
about for moderate distances, maneuver 
adroitly and, if required, assume virtually 
any attitude necessary to mate with an un- 
dersea object. Vehicles of the BEN FRANK- 
LIN and ALUMINAUT variety were survey- 



ors in the fashion of Lewis and Clark. They 
could range over long distances, maneuver to 
pick up large quantities of samples and carry 
a vast array of equipment. Smaller submers- 
ibles, such as SP-350, Perry's CUBMARINEs 
and General Oceanographic's NEKTONs, 
were designed for short duration scrutiniz- 
ing and sampling in narrow canyons and 
along steep cliffs, as well as cruising along 
flat or gently sloping surfaces. 

One of the more ingenious and imaginative 
aspects of manned submersibles is the vari- 
ety of approaches taken to achieve the de- 
sired maneuverability. Virtually all have ob- 
tained a high degree of maneuverability with 
only a handful following similar approaches. 
Within this chapter the means employed to 



369 



propel, maneuver and control submersibles 
is reviewed. No attempt is made to catego- 
rize the various approaches, because the ex- 
treme variation from vehicle-to-vehicle de- 
fies classification. 

There is one general statement regarding 
submersible propulsion which can be made: 
They are all slow and they all use electric 
power. Although it may be satisfying in a 
literary sense, no submersible "darts about" 
or "speeds off on its appointed rounds. As 
Cousteau so aptly stated in The Living Sea, 
"Speed is the enemy of observation." This 
philosophy has been adopted by submersible 
designers. Averaging the cruising speed of 80 
submersibles produces a value of 1.5 knots, 
with a range from 0.2 knot {FNRS-2) to 6 
knots (AIGUSTE PICCARD). One and a half 
knots is equivalent to a casual stroll, and 
this has been quite acceptable to the under- 
sea scientist and engineer. The only need for 
higher speed appears to be on the part of the 
pelagic fisheries' biologist who desires to ob- 
serve the migration and behavior of fast 
swimming fish, such as tuna. To this end 
General Dynamics conducted a feasibility 
and conceptual design study of a research 
submarine for the Department of Interior's 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now the 
National Marine Fisheries Service) and rec- 
ommended a maximum submerged speed of 
20 knots. Nothing further has evolved from 
this study, which was completed in 196.5 (1). 

In the submersible field the term maneu- 
verability has a variety of meanings; it re- 
fers, not only to the vehicle's ability to twist 
or turn, but also implies its ability to climb, 
hover and poke around in close quarters. The 
requirements for maneuvering at times can 
be quite severe — on a surveying mission, for 
example, where ascent (at a constant height 
of 10-.30 feet above the bottom) from several 
thousand feet deep to a hundred feet or less 
may be required. The submersible must be 
able to "fly" horizontally, then assume an 
up-bow angle of 30 or more degrees and 
finally ascend vertically while maintaining a 
position some 2 or 3 feet away from the face 
of a vertical escarpment. Such requirements 
are not hypothetical; ALUMINAUT con- 
fronted just this problem while bottom sur- 
veying off Vieques Island, Puerto Rico and 
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, in 1967 and 



1968. ALVIIK confronted similar problems in 
the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas in 1966 
and 1967. These are but a few examples. 
Other submersibles faced and continue to 
face equally taxing demands on their maneu- 
verability and control. The problem is not too 
different from those of a helicopter. While 
ocean bottom currents do not nearly ap- 
proach the wind speeds encountered by a 
helicopter, submersible power plants are so 
much less than a helicopter's that the prob- 
lems are quite comparable. 

The topics of marine propulsion and hydro- 
dynamics are subjects which comprise books 
in themselves. Their terminology and princi- 
ples are multitudinous and complex. Herein, 
discussion is confined to the minimum of 
terms and principles needed to describe the 
motions of a submersible and the devices and 
physical phenomena which propel and direct 
it through the water. In the event that a 
more thorough or technical treatise is de- 
sired, the following are recommended: 

a) '■''Marine Propulsion'" (2): A historical 
and semi-technical presentation which 
describes and illustrates the develop- 
ment of marine propulsion throughout 
the ages. 

b) ^'Stability and Motion Control of 
Ocean Vehicles'" (3): A very thorough 
and highly technical discussion of the 
hydrodynamic principles involved in de- 
signing vehicles and systems and deter- 
mining their response to the environ- 
ment. This publication was written as a 
"partial" text on the subject of motion 
and control of ocean vehicles offered by 
the Department of Naval Architecture 
and Marine Engineering at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. 

c) '"l\aval Hydrodynamics": A series of 
seven publications from 1957 through 
1968 presenting the reports of interna- 
tional scientists and engineers regard- 
ing marine propulsion, cavitation, noise, 
hydroelasticity, motions, drag and other 
aspects of marine propulsion. The con- 
tents of these books are quite technical, 
comprehensive and far ranging. A list- 
ing of the books and their contents can 
be obtained from the National Technical 
Information Service, Operations Divi- 
sion, Springfield, Virginia 22151. 



3 70 



d) ^^Water, Air and Interface Vehicles'^ 

(4): Similar to reference (3) in purpose 
and technical detail, this publication 
discusses hydrodynamic forces and pro- 
pulsion for airborne and waterborne ve- 
hicles on a common plane. 

e) "Principles of Naval Architecture'' (5): 
A textbook which covers all static and 
dynamic aspects of naval architecture, 
both theoretical and applied. The book 
concentrates on merchant ships, but in- 
cludes discussion of submarine hydrody- 
namics and design. A knowledge of cal- 
culus, applied mechanics and theoretical 
and applied fluid mechanics is a prereq- 
uisite. 

Of the above publications reference (3) con- 
cerns itself most directly with submersibles, 
although other problems are addressed. In 
addition to these there are a variety of re- 
ports, both technical and non-technical, 
which are referenced throughout this text. 

PROPULSION AND 
MANEUVERING 

Ideally there are six degrees of freedom 
(motion) desirable in the control of a sub- 
mersible; these are shown in Figure 8.1 rela- 
tive to an X, Y and Z axis and are classified 
as translational and rotational motions. 



Translational motions occur when every 
point of the submersible has simultaneously 
the same speed and direction of motion. 
These are Heave (vertically up/down), Surge 
(forward/backward) and Sidle or Sway (lat- 
erally left/right). 

Rotational motions occur around a center 
point or axis. These are Yaw (rotation 
around a vertical axis), Roll (rotation around 
the principal longitudinal axis) and Pitch 
(rotation around the principal transverse 
axis). 

To varying degrees and through a variety 
of means, both translational and rotational 
motions, both singly and together, are ob- 
tained by most contemporary submersibles. 

To acquire any or all of the six motions, a 
submersible requires a component to propel 
it and another to change its direction. In the 
most basic arrangement, a screw-type pro- 
peller provides forward/reverse translational 
movement (surge), a rudder provides left/ 
right movement (yaw) and a movable plane 
or wings provide up/down (pitch) rotational 
movement. We treat first the devices that 
overcome the submersible's inertia, or make 
it move. These are: Free propellers, ducted 
propellers, Kort nozzle propellers, cycloidal 
propellers and water jets. Next we examine 
the devices that change its course or atti- 
tude. These are: Rudder and planes, thrus- 
ters and trim control. 




Fig 8 1 Translational and rotational motions. 



PROPULSION 

Free Propellers 

The simplest means of submersible propul- 
sion is the screw propeller (Fig. 8.2). In con- 
cept, the propeller can be thought of as 
screwing itself through the water — analo- 
gous to tapping a screw into a solid material 
where the rate of advance distance for each 
revolution is equal to the pitch of the thread. 
In practice, however, a screw propeller in 
water does not advance at a speed pn (pitch 
X revolutions) per unit time. Instead, it trav- 
els at some lesser speed which is a function 
of the propeller slippage with each revolu- 
tion. Thus, if a propeller having a pitch of 10 
feet turns at 200 rpm, it would advance 2,000 
feet in 1 minute in a solid; it does not do so in 
water because of slip, the difference between 



371 




Fig 8 2 Free screw-type propeller 

the distance it would advance in a solid 
substance and the actual distance traveled, 
expressed as a percentage of the former. 
According to Taggert (6), the screw propeller 
is the most efficient means of obtaining pro- 
pulsive force, and when used at its designed 
rpm and speed of advance its efficiency is 
exceeded by no other device. Miller (7) states 
the screw propeller's efficiency as 75 to 85 
percent under ideal conditions and contrasts 
this with the 40 percent efficiency of a cycloi- 
dal propeller. Obviously, the submersible 
community is in agreement, for only the 
French vehicles SP-350 and SP-500, and 
the U.S. Navy's MAKAKAI use other than 
screw propellers for propulsion. NEKTOlK's 
propeller is of the open screw variety, in that 
the shroud around it is solely for protection, 
not to improve its efficiency. 

Kort Nozzle Propellers 

By fitting a specially-designed shroud or 
nozzle around a screw propeller, its effi- 
ciency can be increased. The design shown in 
Figure 8.3 was invented and patented by 
Ludwig Kort in the U.S. in 1936. In cross 
section the nozzle resembles an aircraft wing 
with the outer side or face being practically 
straight and the inner side being cambered. 



In practice the nozzle experiences a negative 
pressure forward of the propeller's plane of 
rotation and a positive pressure aft, which 
results in forward thrust. According to refer- 
ence (2), in a well-designed propeller-nozzle 
combination the nozzle thrust is about half 
of the total thrust applied. A further advan- 
tage (8) is that the static shroud thrust is 
maximum at zero speed; in other words, it is 
most effective when the submersible begins 
moving from a stationary position. Reference 
is made by Taggert (3) to the Kort nozzle 
being particularly advantageous when oper- 
ating under high slip conditions (during ac- 
celeration or when the vehicle is heavily 
loaded) and about equal in performance to 
the free propeller during low slip conditions. 
The advantage of obtaining greater thrust 
from a shrouded screw propeller at zero 
speed has not been ignored by the submers- 
ible builders — a large number of vehicles em- 
ploy this feature. Equally attractive is the 
fact that a shrouded propeller can be consid- 
erably smaller than its "free" counterpart 
and still deliver maximum efficiency. This 
feature is desirable in that it decreases the 
overall vehicle size envelope. 

Ducted Propellers 

Johnson and Barr (9) define a ducted pro- 
peller as any scheme which takes water 




Fig 8 3 A Kort nozzle surrounds the Ihree-bladed ttiruster propeller of ALVIN 
(WHOI) 



372 



through an inlet flush with the hull, adds 
energy with a pump located within the hull 
and discharges it through a nozzle flush with 
the hull. Under this definition falls the 
ducted propellers of DOWB (Fig. 8.4). These 
ducts are located aft on DOWB and the pro- 
peller screw shafts are canted 15 degrees 
outboard. This arrangement provides the fol- 
lowing advantages: The center of drag is 
moved aft for hydrodynamic stability and it 
reduces the beam while still maintaining a 
large twist moment aft. Analyzing the per- 
formance of ducted propellers, Johnson and 
Barr state that the inlet and outlet designs 
are extremely significant. Ideally, a well- 
designed duct would utilize a bell mouth 
inlet and a sharp exit extending a short 
distance beyond the hull. Where the duct 
exit is flush with the hull, jet entrainment 
effects cause low pressure in the exit side of 
the hull and reduce thrust where both ends 
of the duct are sharp and flush with the hull. 
In the case of DOWB, there could be a thrust 
reduction of unknown magnitude resulting 
from an eddy created near the hull by the 
exit jet. To prevent the propellers from foul- 





Fig. 8-4 The Ducted Propellers on DOWB provide surge and yaw thrust. The two 

motors are in the deck plane of the vehicle and canted outboard at angles of 15 

degrees (NAVOCEANO) 



Fig. 8.5 Two pi-pitched cycloidal propellers attached to the exostructure of MAKA- 
KAl provide Its entire propulsion (U.S.M.C. Air Station, Hawaii) 



ing with ropes or cables while submerged, 
DOWB's operators installed fine wire screens 
at both the inlet and exit ends. Such screens 
also reduce thrust by restricting the flow of 
water through the duct. This penalty, how- 
ever, could be well worth the price in terms 
of safety. Ducted propellers, of varying de- 
signs, are found on quite a few vehicles — 
mainly because they reduce the vehicle's en- 
velope and chance of entanglement and pro- 
peller damage. 

Cycloidal Propellers 

The U.S. Navy's MAKAKAI is the only 
submersible known to use cycloidal propul- 
sion (Fig. 8.5), although its predecessor HI- 
KINO was the first. The two units on MAKA- 
KAI are Kirsten Boeing, pi-pitch*, cycloidal 
propellers mounted on the vehicle's exostruc- 
ture which operate similar to a paddle wheel: 
The propeller disc rotates and moves the 
blades through the water. Talkington and 
Murphy (10) describe its operation as follows: 
"T/ie cycloidal propeller is capable of 
directing its thrust in any direction in 
the propeller disc's plane of rotation. 
The pirpitch propeller is used because 
of its mechanical simplicity and be- 
cause of the four degrees of freedom 
propulsive control that can be ob- 
tained by using two thrusters. Thrust is 



373 



generated by movement of the individ- 
ual blades. Blade pitch is varied as 
the blade moves around its orbit so 
that the sum thrust of all blades is in 
the desired direction. This pitch is 
varied for the pi-pitch propeller by- 
rotating the blade at one-half the disc 
rotational speed. Thrust direction is 
varied by changing the relative phas- 
ing of the blades with respect to the 
disc. 

By placing the two thrusters at 45 
degrees to the fore/aft vertical plane, 
4 degrees of dynamic control (forelaft, 
up/down, transverse, and yaw) are 
available (Fig. 8.6). This is arrived at 
by summing the thrust vectors. The 
coordination of the vectors is con- 
trolled by the pilot^s hand controller 



which directs the thrust in the direc- 
tion his hand is moved. The farther 
the hand is moved in a particular 
direction, the greater the thrust mag- 
nitude and vehicle speed will be." 

Cycloidal propellers offer several advan- 
tages: Superior steering and maneuverabil- 
ity, no need for rudders or external shafting 
and elimination of the resistance produced 
by such appendages. On the debit side, cy- 
cloidal propellers are far less efficient than 
screw-type propellers, they do not represent 
any size or weight savings and there are 
sealing problems (7). It would also seem that 
protection against damage to the propellers 
and underwater entanglement would be dif- 
ficult to achieve without substantial loss of 
efficiency. 



FORWARD 



V STARBOARD 
\ CONTROL 




Fig. 8.6 MAKAKAI's thrusters' positions. [After Ref. (8)] 



374 



Water Jets 

The French SP-350 (Fig. 8.7) and the two 
SP-SOO's are the only submersibles known to 
use water jets as primary propulsion sys- 
tems. Lockheed's DEEP QUEST employs this 
means also, but only for transverse augmen- 
tation of its primary screw propulsion. The 
heart of the SP-350 system is a stern- 
mounted 2-hp electric motor-driven water 
pump which drives seawater forward 
through a "Y" shaped flexible tube to jets 
mounted port and starboard on the vehicle's 
brow. The jets are mounted so that a rack 
and pinion movement can rotate them in 
unison or individually from straight forward 
to straight down. The inefficiency and low 
speed of this system were known and under- 
stood by Cousteau, but for scientific research 
and underwater photography the advan- 
tages of high maneuverability overrode its 
disadvantages. 



A comparison study between a number of 
the various propulsion devices described has 
been conducted and the results presented in 
a previously referenced report by V. E. John- 
son and R. A. Barr (9). These authors sum- 
marized the results of experimental data to 
1965, regarding free propellers, nozzles, 
ducts and tandem and cycloidal propellers, 
and related these data to the hydrodynamic 
performance of the propulsors. The report 
provides guidance in the selection of systems 
to satisfy propulsion and maneuvering re- 
quirements. 

Two propulsion systems proposed, but re- 
portedly never used on an operational sub- 
mersible, are the tandem and varivec propel- 
ler systems. 

Tandem Propulsion System (TPS) 

The TPS consists of two girdling bands of 
blades near the bow and stern of a submers- 




Fig. 8 7 Propulsion lor SP-350 is provided by two water jets mounted port and startx)ard on ttie centerlme lorward Ttie port |et can be seen here pointing directly aft. (NAVOCEANO) 



375 



ible that can each provide controlled thrust 
in any direction (Fig. 8.8). For forward pro- 
pulsion the pitch of the blades remains fixed; 
for translational thrust in any other direc- 
tion the blade pitch can be cyclically varied 
with each revolution of the propeller. By 
thrust coupling the blades, rotation of the 
vehicle in any angular motion can be pro- 
vided, thus six degrees of freedom are possi- 
ble with the TPS. Model tests by the U.S. 



Naval Ship R&D Center in the late 1960's 
showed the system to be capable of its pro- 
posed potential (up to 2.2 knots) beyond 
which the model became unstable. A station- 
ary tail provided the model good stability at 
3 to 5 knots, but beyond 6 knots the vehicle 
once again became inherently unstable. 
While 2.2 knots are more than satisfactory 
for submersible speed, other factors contrib- 
uted to the demise of the TPS: The system is 




Fig 8 8 One end of a cigar-shaped tandem propulsion system (U S Navy) 

376 



very expensive, leaks around seals of the 
TPS were common and the complexity of the 
control system for six degrees of freedom 
was beyond human capability and required a 
computer (11). 

Varivec Propulsion System 

The Varivec (variable vector) propulsion 
system was designed by Westinghouse for 
DS-20000, but never saw application since 
the vehicle was never built. A stern- 
mounted, variable pitch, three-bladed propel- 
ler (looking somewhat like a single TPS com- 
ponent, but with three blades instead of six) 
provides variable thrust from full ahead 
through zero to full astern by means of col- 
lective blade pitch control. Through cyclic 
pitch control a side thrust vector can be 
achieved to produce yaw directional control 
through 360 degrees (12). 

Such are the actual and proposed devices 
that propel submersibles; in addition, the 
screw-type propeller is generally reversible, 
it can be varied in speed, and, as will be 
shown later, can also be oriented (trained) in 
different directions. 

While submersible propulsion systems do 
not lend themselves to logical or systematic 
classification, they can be broken down be- 
tween: Main Propulsion and Thruster. 

Main Propulsion designates those propul- 
sion devices on a submersible used primarily 
to provide forward thrust motion and for 
cruising. Main propulsion motors are usually 
more powerful than thruster motors. They 
may consist of the more classical arrange- 
ment — one or two stern-mounted propel- 
lers — or of paired port/starboard propellers 
mounted amidships on the vehicle. The ma- 
jority of main propulsion motors are fixed; 
that is, unlike an outboard motor, they can- 
not be aimed left or right. Those that can be 
moved to vary their thrust angle are re- 
ferred to as "trainable." 

Thrusters are those propulsion devices 
used primarily to move the vehicle left or 
right and up or down; they can provide this 
service while the vehicle is in motion or 
stationary. Thrusters are generally lower 
powered than main propulsion motors, and 
they are usually, but not always, mounted 
fore and aft. Thrusters may be so located and 
so oriented as to provide yaw or sidle motion, 



heave and pitch motion or, by being rotata- 
ble through a full 360 degrees, any combina- 
tion of motions. While these terms do not 
mean exactly the same thing to all submers- 
ible builders, they are generally accepted 
throughout the industry. 

Dive Planes, Rudders, Stabilizers 

For maneuvering while underway, many 
submersibles are equipped with rudders 
(yaw control) and/or dive planes (pitch con- 
trol), or both. A great number have neither 
dive planes nor rudders, but rely on propul- 
sion motors to perform these maneuvers. To 
stabilize the moving vehicle a fixed fin or 
dive plane is sometimes attached or molded 
into the fairing. 

Rudders produce force as follows: When 
the rudder is deflected to an angle of attack 
to the flow a force results. This resultant 
force may be broken into two components, 
one of which is parallel and the other normal 
to the direction of flow. Planes produce force 
in a similar manner. The parallel component 
is called the drag while the normal or effec- 
tive steering component is called the lift. The 
lift of a rudder or plane is influenced by its 
area, area orientation and rudder angle; rud- 
der configuration has less influence. Lift of 
rudders or planes varies considerably with, 
what is called, the aspect ratio. Aspect ratio 
is the ratio of the rudder's depth (span) to its 
width (chord), the latter being the dimension 
in the direction of water flow. For rudder or 
plane shapes other than rectangular the as- 
pect ratio is the ratio of the square of the 
span to the lateral area. The turning effec- 
tiveness of rudders varies considerably with 
aspect ratio. The greater the aspect ratio, 
the higher the lift for a given rudder deflec- 
tion. However, with a larger aspect ratio, the 
rudder will "stall" (lose lift) at a smaller 
angle. 

The size and configuration of rudders and 
planes on submersibles is determined mainly 
by trial and error. Mr. Frank Cunningham, 
Design Engineer for Perry Submarine Build- 
ers, uses a rule-of-thumb that the rudder 
area should be at least as large as the area of 
the main propeller (about 2 ft^), with the 
dive planes equal to the rudder in size and 
shape (rectangular). Earlier Perry vehicles 
had the planes leading the bow, but because 



377 



of the flow of water around the bow they 
were not fully effective and subsequently 
were moved aft where they provided better 
control. While this trial-and-error approach 
may appear somewhat unsophisticated, 
there are no better guidelines available and 
Mr. Cunningham's concluding statement 
fairly well sums up the pragmatic approach 
private builders have taken in an area void 
of precedent: "It works!" 

The shape and location of rudders and 
planes, and combinations thereof, vary from 
vehicle-to-vehicle, but a sampling of the dif- 
ferent approaches can be obtained from the 
following examples: 

PC-3B (Fig. 8.9) is equipped with a rectan- 
gular rudder which is manually turned left 
or right. Plexiglass bow planes, similar to 
those on DEEP DIVER (Fig. 8.10), control 
pitch. 

Martine's SUBMANAUT (Fig. 8.11) com- 
bines both rudder and planes into a stern- 
mounted arrangement whereby yaw and 
pitch are obtained. 

SEA OTTER (Fig. 8.12) had a rudder ar- 
rangement similar to Perry's PC-3B, but 
both rudder and propeller were shielded for 



protection. This is now replaced by a Kort 
nozzle. 

DEEP QUEST (Fig. 8.13) obtains yaw and 
pitch motion with hydraulically actuated 
rudder and stern planes. An automatic pilot 
system with integrated controls (discussed in 
Chap. 2) can "fly" the vehicle on a predeter- 
mined course, pitch angle and altitude. 

The DSRV submersibles (Fig. 8.14) employ 
a unique pitch and yaw system. In this sys- 
tem a stern-mounted shroud encircles the 
main propeller which may be tilted fore and 
aft from the vertical and left and right, thus, 
combining a rudder/plane system in one unit. 
The shroud is not designed to redirect the 
propeller's thrust, but to orient lines to flow 
as does a rudder. Figure 8.15 shows the 
variation of shroud lift conditions with angle 
of attack for various aspect ratios as calcu- 
lated by Lockheed during design of the 
DSRV 8. 

There is another system of pitch control 
which many vehicles with cylindrically- 
shaped hulls obtain by virtue of their small 
metacentric height. This consists merely of 
the occupants leaning or moving fore or aft 
within the vehicle. While such tenderness 




Fig, 8.9 The PC-3B is provided yaw motion by its stern rudder and pilch by plexiglass bow planes not visible here. (NAVOCEANO) 



378 




Fig 8,10 Plexiglass bow planes on DEEP RIVER provide pitch motion Ttie central 

duct encloses a reversible screv^ propeller v^hicti can be rotated 360 degrees to 

obtain propulsion in any vertical plane (NAVOCEANO) 



can make piloting difficult, it can be used to 
advantage in surmounting sudden, vertical 
obstacles in the vehicle's path. A number of 
vehicles have fixed (non-moving) fins or sails 
for stabilization at higher speeds. At the 
very low speeds at which submersibles work 
and transit, the need for such stabilizing 
surfaces is sometimes debatable. Indeed, as 
related in Chapter 5, Mr. Edwin Link and 
others go to the other extreme — decrying 
even the need for fairings to streamline the 
vehicle. Whether they are necessary or not, 
they are still on the vehicle where they as- 
sume a variety of shapes and sizes. Two 
arrangements of stern-mounted stabilizers 
are shown in Figures 8.16 a & b on STAR III 
and BEAVER, respectively. Supporting the 
non-stabilizer faction, PISCES II and /// 
originally had tail fins; experience showed 
that these were more a hindrance than a 




Rg 8-11 Marline's SU8M4W>iL/r obtains yaw and pitcti motion from stern-mounted 
rudder and planes 




Fig- 8,12 Both propeller and njdder are ducted m SEA OTTER (or protection and 
greater effiaency 



379 




Fig 8 13 The sophisticated DEEP QUEST uses hydfaulic actuators to orient its rudder and dive planes. (LMSC) 




I UL ti^fe 



Fig 8.14 05^1^-25 stern shroud tilts fore and att. and left and nght, to provide yaw and pitch motion The fore and aft circular ducts house lateral (yaw and sidle) thrusters {U.S. 

Navy) 



380 



help and the later PISCES vehicles (IV & V) 
abandoned the fins (Fig. 8.17) for easier ac- 
cess to the aft machinei-y sphere, improved 
handling and because they were of little 
control value anyway. The fins were taken 
off PISCES II and /// when purchased by 
Vickers. Ironically, had the fins been left on 
the III vehicle, the entanglement and subse- 
quent flooding of the machinery sphere 
which led to its sinking could not have oc- 
curred (see Chap. 15). 

MANEUVERING 

The widest divergence of design philosophy 
in manned submersibles is found in the ap- 
proaches taken to maneuvering and, based 
on current submersibles employment rec- 
ords, there seems to be no best and no worst 
approach. About the only way to categorize 




ANGLE OF ATTACK o (OEG) 

Fig. 8 15 Variation of shroud lift coefficient with angle of attack for various aspect 
ratios 




Fig 8 16 STAR III and BEAVER Showing two different configurations of fixed stem stabilizers {Gen Dyn and North Amencan Rockwell) 



381 




Fig. 8.16 BEAVER 





Fig, 8.17 Tail tin stabilizers on PISCES II S III (left background) were discontinued on later vehicles ol the PISCES IV variety (right), (International Hydrodynamics) 



382 



the means of maneuvering is between vehi- 
cles that rely solely on motors and those that 
use motors in combination with planes and a 
rudder. In each case the location and versa- 
tility of motors and the shape and location of 
the planes and rudders all vary widely and 
defy categorization. In an attempt to impose 
some order into an area dominated by the 
"free spirit," the following discussion pro- 
ceeds along the lines of degrees of freedom 
obtained by the "motors only group" versus 
the "motor and rudder/planes group." 

To hold this narrative to manageable pro- 
portions, only the motions obtained by mo- 
tors, planes and rudder are discussed. As 
was shown in Chapter 6, submersibles have 
the ability to gain pitch and roll by virtue of 
variable ballast tanks, battery shifts, mer- 
cury transfer and what-not. A discussion of 
these is not repeated here. Similarly, most 
submersibles can obtain heave motion by 
virtue of ballasting or deballasting. Previ- 
ously mentioned is the control the operator 
has on motion by merely shifting his weight. 
Discussed later in this chapter, but directly 
related to maneuvering capability, is the 
ability of most vehicles to run their motors 
at variable speeds independently of each 
other and in opposing directions. This fea- 
ture provides a great deal of the yawing 
capability on vehicles where two motors are 
used for main propulsion. 

A variety of other maneuvering options 
are available. For example, DEEP QUEST 
can attain a high upward pitch angle while 
stationary on the bottom by transferring 
mercury from forward to aft, ALUMINAUT 
used its manipulators to climb hand-over- 
hand up the side ofALVIN in 1969 to insert a 
toggle in ALVIN's hull, and NEMO can attain 
heave by reeling its anchor in or out in a yo- 
yo-like fashion. In actual operations, these 
and other options are brought into play to 
provide virtually any motion or maneuver 
desired. These options must be added to the 
basic degrees of freedom motions discussed 
below. 

Propulsive Control 
Thrust and Yaw: 

The most basic of motions, to move forward 
(or backward) and change heading (under- 
way or bottomed), are obtained by: 



a) Two port/starboard reversible propellers 
fixed in a horizontal position and 
mounted either amidships or on the 
stern. By slowing down or reversing one 
propeller the vehicle can be made to 
yaw. Submersibles in this category are 
DS~4000 (Fig. 8.18a), PISCES I, 11, III, 
IV and V, SP-3000, SDL-1 , FNRS-2 & 3 
and SNOOPER. 

b) Two reversible stern propellers with a 
lateral bow thruster for additional help 
in changing heading. TRIESTE II (Fig. 
8.18b) uses this method. 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave: 

Adding the ability to maneuver vertically 
up or down to that of traversing and chang- 
ing course, the following procedures are fol- 
lowed: 

a) Two port/starboard fixed, reversible pro- 
pellers capable of being rotated 360 de- 
grees in the vertical plane. NEMO (Fig. 
8.18c) used this arrangement (its shape 
and low center of gravity held it in a 
vertical position) in addition to an an- 
chor and winch for heave motions. 

b) One {ARCHIMEDE) or two {DEEP 
VIEW) stern-mounted, reversible propel- 
lers, one lateral thruster and one verti- 
cal thruster (Fig. 8.18d). 

Thrust, Yaw and Sidle: 

Two vehicles can be found with this capa- 
bility, MERMAID (Fig. 8.18e), which uses a 
reversible stern propeller and two lateral 
thrusters (one fore, one aft), and NEREID 
which uses a trainable, reversible, stern pro- 
peller in conjunction with a fixed, reversible 
lateral thruster mounted forward. 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave, Pitch: 

The greatest number of submersibles us- 
ing only motors for maneuvering fall into 
this group, and the ways to achieve these 
motions are quite varied: 

a) Two reversible propellers mounted port 
and starboard amidships and capable of 
rotating 360 degrees in the vertical 
plane. Vehicles using this system are all 
small and consist of the All Ocean In- 
dustries' vehicle, GUPPY, K-250 (Fig. 
8.18f), STAR I, ASHERAH, BENTHOS 
V, SURV and TOURS 64 & 66. A roll 
motion can be placed on these vehicles 
by directing one propeller's thrust up- 



383 





a) DEEPSTAR 4000 



— ^C ^ 9CI> "^ 



b) TRIESTE II 



in 



d) ARCHIMEDE 



360" 
ROTATION 




g) ALVIN 



h) DOWB 





o 



360" 
ROTATION 



os-i <^! 



j) SP-350 



180 




k) SHINKAI 

I I I 



' 1 ' 



m) JOHNSON SEA LINK 




^ 



WINCH 

ANCHOR 
[ZTD 

c) NEMO 

<=» — 




c 



o 

ST 




360° 
ROTATION 



f) K-250 



( o „: > 



Q 




1) SEA RANGER 




&J 




1 
I) KUMUKAHI 

THRUST HEAVE 




n) DS-2000 
Fig. 8.18 Maneuvering by propulsion. 
384 



YAW 



o) BEAVER 



SIDLE 




ROLL 



ward and the opposing one downward. 

b) Laterally trainable, stern-mounted pro- 
peller with port/starboard, 360-degree 
rotating thrusters amidships. ALVIN 
(Fig. 8.18g), SEA CLIFF and TURTLE 
fall into this group. 

c) Two reversible, fixed and ducted stern 
propellers (pointing 15° outboard) and 
two fixed, reversible, vertical thrusters 
fore and aft. DOWB (Fig. 8.18h) can 
obtain pitch by operating the thrusters 
in opposition. 

d) Two fixed, reversible stern propellers 
and one fixed reversible, vertical stern 
thruster. SEA RANGER (Fig. 8.18i) em- 
ploys this system. The vertical thruster 
provides pitch and, it is believed, with 
proper vehicle trim can also provide 
heave. 

e) Two variable-speed, port/starboard 
water jets mounted on the bow and ca- 
pable of rotating 270 degrees in the ver- 
tical plane. SP-350 (Fig. 8.18J) and SP- 
500 use this system. 

f) One fixed, reversible stern propeller and 
two port/starboard, reversible thrusters 
capable of 360 degrees of rotation in the 
vertical plane. SHINKAI (Fig. 8.18k) 
uses this approach. 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave, Sidle: 

In this group are two submersibles, each 
with a different means to the same end. 

a) The Navy's MAKAKAI uses two pi-pitch 
cycloidal propellers, which were de- 
scribed earlier. 

b) KUMUKAHI employs four reversible, 
fixed, port/starboard thrusters, and one 
vertical and one lateral thruster, both of 
which are fixed and reversible (Fig. 
8.181) 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave, Pitch, Sidle: 

Two submersibles obtain these motions ex- 
clusively through propulsion alone: The 
JOHNSON SEA LINK and DS-2000. 

a) The JOHNSON SEA LINK (Fig. 8.18m) 
carries eight reversible propellers which 
are arranged to provide the following: 
Three trainable (90° port/starboard) 
stern-mounted propellers provide 
thrust and yaw. One bow-mounted 
and laterally oriented thruster also 
provides yaw and, in combination 



with stern propellers in proper orien- 
tation, sidle. Two vertical fore and aft 
thrusters provide heave and pitch. 
Two port- and starboard-mounted, 
fore-and-aft thrusters are situated 
amidships to assist in thrust, 
b) DS-2000 employs two fixed, reversible, 
stern propellers, two fixed, reversible 
fore- and aft-mounted vertical and fore- 
and aft-mounted lateral propellers (Fig. 
8.18n). 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave, Sidle, Roll: 

BEAVER has three reversible, 360-degree 
rotatable propellers mounted in an inverted 
"Y" configuration amidships around its hull; 
through a variety of orientations and thrust 
combinations five degrees of freedom are 
obtained as demonstrated in Figure 8.I80. 
Similar to NEMO, BEAVER also carries an 
anchor and winch which can be used to ob- 
tain a yo-yo-like heave motion and fore and 
aft transfer of meurcury provides pitch. 

Control by Motors, Rudders 
and Planes 

The greatest number of shallow diving 
submersibles is found in the group relying on 
rudders and planes, in addition to propellers, 
to maneuver. The use of planes and rudders 
has one obvious disadvantage: They are only 
effective when the vehicle is underway; 
thrusters are effective when the vehicle is at 
zero speed. 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave: 

The two General Dynamics' submersibles 
STAR II and STAR III fall into this category 
and both vehicles' rudders are hydraulically 
powered. 

a) STAR II (Fig. 8.19a) is equipped with 
two fixed, reversible, stern propellers, 
one fixed, reversible, vertical thruster 
atop the vehicle just aft of the hatch 
and enclosed within the fairing. A rud- 
der is formed from the lower trailing 
edge of a cruciform tail section. 

b) STAR III (Fig. 8.19b) utilizes one fixed, 
reversible stern propeller, a vertical 
thruster mounted similar to STAR //'s, 
a fixed, reversible lateral bow thruster 
ducted within the exostructure and a 
rudder formed from the trailing edge of 
its inverted Y-shaped tail section. 



385 





o o 



■5 



RUDDER 




^ : ^ 



a) STAR II 
180° 




b)STAR III 



PLANE 
c) PC-3B 





r> 



[iC,;____^ THBUST [ Jpd 



^ 



3^) 



d) AQUARIUS I 



e) AUGUSTE PICCARD f) ALUMINAUT 



■C^T^^ (a 




■-T r. L VT 



360 
ROTATION 



r. ^ I VT. ROTATION/ — °^ 



I 



O OH ^ 180° 



C 



-Dv 



>— 



g) SURVEY SUB 1 



h) BEN FRANKLIN 



i) VOL-LI 



180" 



\ 



o 



)l 



.<C:;^'3eo- i ! 



j) DEEP DIVER 





W 

^ 



I) SEA OTTER 



Bi 




-t^ -tn^^^-^'l^ 



m) SHELF DIVER 



n) DSRV 



o) DEEP QUEST 



Fig. 8.19 Maneuvering by propulsive and non-propulsive devices. 



386 



Thrust, Yaw, Pitch: 

A total of 18 vehicles obtains these three de- 
grees of freedom utilizing three different ap- 
proaches. Pitch in all cases is provided by dive 
planes; yaw is obtained in two instances with 
other than rudders, 
rudders. 

a) In the most general situation, maneu- 
vering consists of a fixed, reversible 
stern propeller, a rudder and dive 
planes; the only variation is in the loca- 
tion (and shape) of the dive planes. The 
following vehicles have bow planes: 
NAUTILETTE, NEKTON A, B, and C. 
PC-3A1 and 2, PC-3B, PC3-X and 
SPORTSMAN 300 and 600. Aft dive 
planes are found on the MINI DIVER 
and Martine's SUBMANAVT (Fig. 8.11) 
while the dive planes are mounted amid- 
ships on SEA-RAY. KUROSHIO II com- 
bines both fore and aft planes with a 
rudder. While the location of planes var- 
ies, the motions obtainable are equiva- 
lent and PC-3B (Fig. 8.19c) is used to 
demonstrate this arrangement. 

b) In place of a rudder, AQUARIUS I has a 
trainable stern propeller (90° port/star- 
board) to provide yawing motion. This 
propeller is also reversible and a bow 
plane provides pitch motion (Fig. 8.19d). 
PAULO I had a similar system, but its 
dive planes were mounted aft in a fash- 
ion similar to Martine's SUB MAN AUT . 

c) AUGUSTE PICCARD has both fore and 
aft hydraulically controlled dive planes 
(called hydroplanes) to provide pitch. To 
obtain yaw, its Kort nozzle can be di- 
rected 25 degrees to port or starboard 
while its fixed, reversible stern propel- 
ler remains in one position. While the 
approach to yaw is different from those 
of PC-8 and its associates, the result is 
the same. Figure 8.19e shows only the 
motion of the Kort nozzle on AUGUSTE 
PICCARD. 

d) TOURS 64 and 66 employ a rudder and 
port and starboard mounted propellers 
amidships. Both propellers are reversi- 
ble and capable of 210 degrees of rota- 
tion in the vertical plane. 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave, Pitch: 

By including vertical thrusters in a propel- 



ler/rudder/planes arrangement, the motion 
of heave is included in two vehicles. 

a) ALUMINAUT (Fig. 8.19f) employs two 
fixed, reversible stern propellers, a 
fixed, reversible vertical thruster top- 
side amidships, a hydraulically-powered 
rudder and aft dive planes. 

b) SURVEY SUB 1 or TS-1 (Fig. 8.19g) 
obtains similar maneuverability using 
one fixed, reversible stern propeller, one 
fixed, reversible, lateral bow thruster, 
one fixed, reversible, vertical bow thrus- 
ter, bow planes and a rudder. 

Thrust, Yaw, Heave, Pitch, Roll: 

BEN FRANKLIN(Fig. 8.19h) is equipped 
with four 360-degree, rotatable, reversible 
thrusters mounted port and starboard, fore 
and aft. Hydraulically-powered rudders as- 
sist in yaw motion. The roll motion is as- 
sumed to be obtainable by orienting the port 
and starboard pairs in vertical opposition to 
each other, though this effect is not stated 
by the manufacturers. 
Trust, Yaw, Heave, Pitch, Sidle: 

By various arrangements of thrusters, 
rudders and planes, seven vehicles obtain 
these motions, each with a system different 
from the others. 

a) VOL-Ll (Fig. 8.19i) has one 180-degree 
laterally trainable, reversible, stern pro- 
peller, one fixed, reversible, lateral bow 
thruster and one vertical thruster aft 
and dive planes port and starboard 
amidships. 

b) DEEP DIVER (Fig. 8.19J) has one 180- 
degree laterally trainable, reversible, 
stern propeller, one bow thruster capa- 
ble of rotating 360 degrees in the verti- 
cal plane, one fixed, reversible, aft lat- 
eral thruster and bow dive planes. 

c) HAKUYO (Fig. 8.19k) has one 180-degree 
laterally trainable, reversible, stern pro- 
peller, two fixed, reversible, vertical 
thrusters fore and aft, one lateral thrus- 
ter forward and bow planes. 

d) SEA OTTER (Fig. 8.191) has one fixed, 
reversible, stern propeller, two fixed, re- 
versible, lateral thrusters fore and aft, 
one fixed, reversible, bow thruster and a 
rudder. 

e) SHELF DIVER (Fig. 8.19m) has one 180- 
degree laterally trainable, reversible, 
stern propeller, two fixed, reversible. 



387 



vertical stern and bow thrusters, one 
fixed, reversible, lateral thruster fore 
and aft and bow planes. 

f) DSRV-1 & 2 (Fig. 8.19n) has one fixed, 
reversible, stern propeller, one each 
(four altogether) fixed, reversible and 
ducted, lateral and vertical thruster 
fore and aft, port and starboard traina- 
ble stern shroud. Roll is obtained by 
transfer of mercury from one side to the 
other. 

g) DEEP QUEST (Fig. 8.19o) has two fixed, 
reversible, stern thrusters, two fixed, 
reversible, ducted vertical thrusters 
fore and aft, two fixed, lateral water jets 
fore and aft (to provide sidle), hydrauli- 
cally-operated stern dive planes and a 
rudder. 

The degrees of freedom described for each 
of the above vehicles were present at one 
time and may still remain. It is obvious that 
merely adding a thruster or re-orienting an 
existing unit can change these motions. Such 
changes have occurred in the past and there 
is no reason to suspect that varying missions 
might not prompt such changes again. 

While the approaches to maneuverability 
have varied, there is a growing practice 
among current builders toward laterally- 
trainable stern propulsion units. This fea- 
ture provides more responsive and controlla- 
ble yaw motion without the aid of a rudder 
and provides it at zero speed of advance. In 
combination with a lateral bow thruster, the 
180-degree trainable, stern propeller also 
provides sidle motion. 

An interesting approach to steering and 
propulsion was presented by Wozniak et al. 
(13) and termed "Wake Steering." Wake 
steering employs a propeller in a converging- 
diverging nozzle with four slots through the 
surface which may be selectively opened to 
provide radial thrust (Fig. 8.20). Wozniak and 
his associates offer the following explanation 
behind the radial thrust producing forces. 
"T/ie combined action of the vehicle 
fonvard motion find propeller induced 
flow results in a low ambient sttitic 
pressure on the inside surface of the 
nozzle, in fact, the propeller wake 
attaches to the nozzle. By opening a 
small port in the wall of the nozzle. 



exterior fluid is induced into the main 
flow.This action results in a circum- 
ferential variation of the interior pres- 
sure and local separation of the wake 
ichich in turn causes a net radial 
thrust. Turning forces for various ma- 
neuvers are thus developed by opening 
one or a combination of ports. Pure 
axial thrust is obtained when all ports 
are closed.'' 

The wake steering concept had only under- 
gone experimental and theoretical analysis 
at the time of their report (1972) and, as the 
authors concluded, produced more questions 
than answers. It is described herein because 
it is a fixed system which, theoretically, can 
produce thrust, yaw and pitch motions with 
only one propeller and a fixed, instead of 
trainable, nozzle. 

MOTORS 

Regardless of the propulsor type or the 




PROPELLER 
SUPPORT 



CONTROL PORT 




CONTROL 
PORT 



BASIC STEERING NOZZLE & PROPELLER 
CONFIGURATION 

Fig. 8.20 Wake sleering nozzle and propeller. |From Ref. (13)] 



388 



nature of its containment, all submersibles 
use electric motors to initiate and maintain 
motion. The motor may be directly coupled to 
a rotating shaft, or it may move the shaft 
indirectly through an intermediary hy- 
draulic pump. The nature of such motors (or 
propulsive power) depends, in part, upon the 
vehicle's size and configuration and the de- 
sired speed. Neglecting motor horsepower 
requirements for the moment (dealt with in 
the following section), let's turn to an exami- 
nation of the design and electrical current 
options available to the submersible de- 
signer. 

Alternating Versus Direct Current 
Motors 

The choice between a propulsion motor 
operating on alternating or direct current 
has been almost unanimously in favor of DC. 
Only 9 of the lOO-l- submersibles use AC 
propulsion motors; the reason is one of eco- 
nomics. While AC motors are simpler in de- 
sign and construction, and require less main- 
tenance, an inverter must be supplied to 
change DC to AC. This adds weight and will 
take away from pressure hull space if 
mounted therein. More importantly, the in- 
verter adds to both the vehicle's cost and 
complexity. 

DC motors, on the other hand, can be oper- 
ated directly from the battery, they have 
better speed control than AC, and produce 
higher torque. Because DC motors use com- 
mutator bars and brushes they must be pro- 
tected from seawater; additionally, they re- 
quire more frequent maintenance, which 
may be every 40 to 50 hours of service. This 
latter feature has not been a great disadvan- 
tage because most vehicles are taken out of 
the water after each dive when such mainte- 
nance may be performed. 

Before examining the design of present 
electric motors, a basic problem should be 
identified. A screw-type propeller turns on a 
shaft which in turn is rotated by an electric 
motor. Somewhere in this scheme the compo- 
nents of the motor must be protected from 
seawater. The most obvious solution is to 
place the motor inside the pressure hull or 
inside a pressure-resistant case, but the fact 
that the shaft must both penetrate the case 



and rotate within this penetration presents 
severe problems. From earlier chapters it 
was seen that thru-hull shaft penetrations 
which are watertight and pressure resistant 
are common, but when the shaft must main- 
tain these two features and rotate at the 
same time a new set of problems is con- 
fronted. In essence, a dynamic seal capable 
of limiting the leakage of seawater into a 1- 
atmosphere motor container is not available 
for great depths. In some shallow vehicles, 
e.g., the NEKTON series and the Perry vehi- 
cles, the pressure at their operating depth 
can be overcome by a pseudo-packing gland. 
In these vehicles the motor is contained in a 
separate, pressure-resistant compartment 
either outside or inside the hull. The only 
relatively deep submersible in which the 
drive shaft penetrates the pressure hull and 
the motor is not sealed off from the hull in a 
separate compartment is the 2,500-foot AU- 
GUSTS PICCARD. The water-tightness of 
AUGUSTS PICCARD's propeller shaft is ob- 
tained by a graphite joint inside of which is a 
packing gland. An inflatable rubber ring 
serves as a security fitting between shaft 
bearing and the hull. A variety of contact 
seals of this nature is presented in reference 
(14), and this report concludes that all con- 
tact-type seal configurations are, in effect, 
bearings whose generated pressure and 
clearance are utilized to restrict leakage. 
Design of such seals is, according to Sasdelli 
and Spargo (ibid), a trade-off between wear 
and leakage, and in the military submarine 
where large, powerful propulsion plants are 
required and must be protected from both 
nature and man, the problem is severly com- 
plicated. In manned submersibles, propul- 
sion power requirements are minute in com- 
parison and nature, through formidable is 
the only adversary. 

A state-of-the-art summary of propulsion 
motors for submersibles was presented by 
Mr. L. A. Thomas of Franklin Electric Com- 
pany in 1968 (15). Though modifications have 
taken place since this summary, the motor 
categorizations and the design principles 
Thomas outlined are still applicable. 

Thomas presented three different design 
concepts in electric motors for outboard (vs. 
in-hull) propulsion in seawater: Open- 



389 



winding, Water-filled; Open-winding, Oil- 
filled; and Hermetically sealed motors. 

Open-Winding, Water-Filled Motors: 

In this design the machinery is open to the 
sea and operates within the ambient sea- 
water environment where circulating sea- 
water both cools and lubricates the motor. 
The stator coils are magnet wire insulated 
with a heavy-duty waterproof coating, such 
as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The advantages 
to this system are that no dynamic seals are 
required and a supply of machinery fluid is 
always available. On the debit side, the poor 
lubricating, electrical and corrosive proper- 
ties of seawater call for a very high degree 
of reliability in components (standard ball or 
roller bearings would have a limited life- 
span). To restrict the inti'oduction of large 
particles and organic materials, a shaft seal 
can be installed and internal water compen- 
sated to ambient pressure, but, as Thomas 
points out, some biological growth and corro- 
sion is still likely. 

Open-Winding, Oil-Filled Motors: 

The stator coils of this motor are wound of 



standard varnish insulated magnet wire. 
The machinery system may be filled with a 
dielectric fluid which provides protection 
against corrosion, and also cools and lubri- 
cates. Also, the entrained fluid acts as a 
pressure-compensation system where a shaft 
seal keeps water out and the pressure differ- 
ential across the seal can be minimal. This 
system is one of the more popular types used 
in submersibles with DC motors. Its reliabil- 
ity is strongly influenced by the effective- 
ness of the seal. The simplest system uses 
one seal and one pressure compensator to 
maintain the machinery compartment at am- 
bient pressure or slightly higher. The major- 
ity of seal systems on electric drives uses two 
axial face seals at the machinery-shaft-sea 
interface and two pressure compensators. An 
example of this type of seal design in a system 
is shown in Figure 8.21. If seawater leaks into 
the system the motor may fail quickly by 
short circuiting. However, DOT studies of 
such seals concluded (6 Feb. 1973) that no 
serious problems with these seals have been 
reported to date, and tests they performed 
substantiated this observation. Static leak- 
age immediately after assembly has been re- 



MACHINERY CAVITY COMPENSATOR 



SEAL CAVITY COMPENSATOR 
SIMPLE ELASTOMER DIAPHRAGM 




INBOARD SEAL OUTBOARD SEAL SLINGER 

Fig. 8.21 Double seal, redundant arrangennent (AP Nominally Zero). (From Ref. (14)1 

390 



ported and found to be due to contaminants 
between seal faces introduced at the assem- 
bly stage. 

Hermetically Sealed Motors; 

In this design (Fig. 8.22) the electrical sys- 
tem is completely isolated from seawater by 
impregnating the stator windings in an 
epoxy resin and sealing the component in- 
side a welded, corrosion-resistant metal case. 
The design may incorporate either oil or 
water as a lubricant and a shaft seal and 
pressure-compensation system can be em- 
ployed. According to Thomas, hermetically 
sealed motors have successfully performed 
as deep as 11,500 feet and can, with minor 
modifications, operate successfully to 20,000 
feet. He further states that this design pro- 
vides maximum reliability in seawater. 



The variety of commercially available elec- 
tric motors is manifold and submersible 
builders do not appear to favor any particu- 
lar brand over the other (See individual list- 
ings in Chap. 4). In a few instances they have 
modified the design of an off-the-shelf item 
to fit their own requirements, e.g., Perry 
Submarine Builders. In other cases, such as 
HYCO, they manufacture their own. The 
shallow diving, smaller vehicles have a 
greater range of options than their deep- 
diving counterparts because of the small 
power requirements and reduced pressures. 
In the case of KUMUKAHI, a trolling motor 
from Sears & Roebuck suited the task. 

A few vehicles employ electro-hydraulic 
motors to provide propulsive power; an ex- 
ample of this arrangement for MAKAKAI is 



STAINLESS 
CONSTRUCTION 



PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE 
.COMPENSATING BELLOWS WITH 
POSITIVE INTERNAL PRESSURE 



LABYRINTH SHAFT 
SEAL 




OIL FILLED BORE 



ANTI-FRICTION 
BALL BEARINGS 



WATER BLOCK 
CONNECTOR 



HERMETICALLY SEALED - 
ENCASULATED STATOR WINDINGS 



DYNAMICALLY 
BALANCED ROTOR 



RUNNING FACE 
SEAL 



Fig. 8 22 Cutaway ot Franklin Electrics hermetically sealed motor with pressure compensaton (Franklin Eiec Co ) 



391 



shown in Figure 8.23. A scheme using hyd- 
raulic motors in lieu of direct electrical drive 
in MAKAKAI was because only one electronic 
control circuit would be required to control 
both motors; hence, simplicity. In NEMO, 
because the anchor winch only operated with 
hydraulic power, it was considered expedient 
to operate the remaining components with 
the same hydraulic motor. Use of hydraulic 
motors for propulsion is not common in past 
or present submersibles, and their employ- 
ment is generally based on design or space 
constraints peculiar to a specific vehicle. 

DRAG FORCES 

So far, only the forces that move a sub- 
mersible have been discussed. In order to 



derive the propulsive power required to 
move a particular vehicle, the forces acting 
to resist movement must also be considered. 
Two forces act to restrain a submersible's 
movement underwater: Form drag and fric- 
tion drag between the water and its skin. 
Quite simply, form drag is created as the 
water is moved outward to make room for 
the body and is a function of cross-sectional 
area and shape. Friction drag is created by 
the frictional forces between the skin (fair- 
ings and appurtenances) and the water. 

Form Drag 

The ideal hydrodynamic shape for an un- 
derwater vehicle is a streamlined body of 
revolution with a single screw on the center- 
line as shown in the ALBACORE -type hull 



FLUID 
RESERVOIR 



ELECTRIC MOTOR 

120 VDC 

lOSHP 




1r^ 



> 



l^ 




HYD PUMP 
PRESS COMP 



_r^ 



y\ 



m 



FOUR-WAY 
CONTROL VALVE 

SHAFT POSITION 
ENCODER 



± 



cv 



m. 



THRUST DIRECTION 
ACTUATOR 



CV 

T 



HYD MTR 
4 HP 



POWER OUT TO 
SPEED REDUCER 



II i CAW 

1 m SHAFT 

; T (SPEED! 



I 

L^^ 

I 

I — r 
I I 



CAM PLATE 
ENCODER 
FEEDBACK) 



ELECTRONIC 

CONTROL 

CIRCUITRY 

r 



CV 



OPERATOR CONTROL INPUT 



^ 



HYD MTR 
4-HP 



I POWER OUT TO 
SPEED REDUCER 



L_. 



CV 



iHiy 



THRUST DIRECTION 
ACTUATOR 



Fig. 8.23 MAKAKAI's electro-hydraulic propulsion system. 
392 



(Fig. 8.24). In this type of body there is low 
drag, very little wake and what drag does 
exist is largely that of skin friction. As is 
evident from Figure 8.24, the drag coefficient 
(C(i) of such streamlined bodies of revolution 
is governed primarily by the length to diame- 
ter ratio, sometimes referred to as the "fine- 
ness" ratio and secondarily by Reynolds 
number of the flow. 

A review of the submersible configurations 
in Figures 8.18 and 8.19 reveals no parallels 
to the ALBACORE hull; the closest similarity 
being perhaps that of the DSRV. Submers- 
ibles range between bluff (non-streamlined) 
to somewhere approaching streamlined bod- 
ies; the majority congregating towards the 
lower middle or bluff end of this broad cate- 
gory. Consequently, high form drag is preva- 
lent. 

Skin Friction Drag 

Skin friction drag is due to the viscosity of 
the water. Its effects are exhibited in the 
adjacent, thin layers of fluid in contact with 
the vehicle's surface — i.e., the boundary 
layer. The boundary layer begins at the sur- 
face of the submersible where the water is in 
immediate contact with the surface and is at 
zero velocity relative to the surface. The 
outer edge of the boundary layer is at water- 
stream velocity. Consequently, within this 
layer is a velocity gradient and shearing 
stresses produced between the thin layers 
adjacent to each other. The skin friction drag 
is the result of stresses produced within the 
boundary layer. Initial flow within the 
boundary layer is laminar (regular, continu- 
ous movement of individual water particles 
in a specific direction) and then abruptly 
terminates into a transition region where 
the flow is turbulent and the layer increases 
in thickness. To obtain high vehicle speed, 
the design must be towards retaining lami- 
nar flow as long as possible, for the drag in 
the laminar layer is much less than that 
within the turbulent layer. 

An important factor determining the con- 
dition of flow about a body and the relative 
effect of fluid viscosity is the "Reynolds num- 
ber." This number was evolved from work of 
the Englishman Osborne Reynolds in the 
1880's who observed that what might have 
begun as laminar flow became abruptly tur- 



bulent when a particular value of the prod- 
uct of the distance along a tube and the 
velocity divided by the viscosity was reached. 
The Reynolds number expresses in non-di- 
mensional form a ratio between inertia 
forces and viscous forces on the particle, and 
the transition from the laminar to the turbu- 
lent area occurs at a critical Reynolds num- 
ber value. This critical Reynolds number 
value is lowered by the effects of surface 
imperfections and regions of increasing pres- 
sure. In some circumstances, sufficient ki- 
netic energy of the flow may be lost from the 
boundary layer such that the flow separates 
from the body and produces large pressure 
or form drag. 

The Reynolds number can be calculated by 
the following: 



Re = 



pVl VI 



m 




ALBACORE Type HuK 



07 






0.06 


- 


BASEDON.(^^/.°L""^)'''' 

1 THE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OF A 
\ SPHERE OF THE SAME VOLUME 


05 


~ 


\ 


0.04 


- 


\ 


0.03 


- 


\ 


002 




v.____ _______ 


0.01 


1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 



LENGTH TO DIAMETER (FINENESS) RATIO 

Fig. 6 24 Drag coefficjent of streamline bodies of revolution 



393 



REYNOLDS 
NUMBER 

8 + 

6 

4__ 



2-- 



10^- 
8 
6 



4-- 



2-- 



8 
6 

4 + 



10^- 
8 

6. 



10" 



V 

SPEED 



(KNOTS)(FT/SEC) 

100^ 
V. 80 -" 



REFERENCE 
LINE 



60 
40 - 

20 - 



100 
h 80 
60^ 

- 40 



10- 
8 

6 

4 



- 20 



1- 
0.8 

0,6 
0.4 

0.2 



0.1 — 



^< 



10 
8 

6 

-- 4 

LINE A AND 
LINE BRASS 
2 THROUGH SAME 
POINT ON 
REFERENCE LINE 
1 
h 0.8 

0.6 
h 0.4 



-0.2 



-0.1 



/ 
LENGTH 

(IN) (FT) 

1^100 
1,000 -_ 80 



800 - 



600 -- 

--40 
400 -" 



V.\r>e ' 



^. 



- 20 



200 - 



S 



\ 



100—- 
80-1 
60-- 



40 - 



W 

V 



2- 



1— ' 



60 



10 
8 
6 



-- 2 



20 - 



— 1 
10—- 0.8 

^1-0.6 
6-- 

-- 0.4 
4-- 



-- 0.2 



— 0.1 



KINEMATIC 
VISCOSITY 

CENTI- \ 

STOKES/ (FTVSEC) 
100^T_10-3 
80=1 8 

60 ^: 6 



40 - 



20 - 



10— 



'- 4 

Air 

h 2 60°F 
^^40 

■10-" 



6 - 
4 - 

2- 

\ 

1 — 
0.8 

0.6 

0.4- 



- 6 

- 4 



0.2 - 



0.1 — 



20 
0°F 



SEAWATER 

tr_l 30° F 

40 

: ^-50 

_10-"s~^60°F 

- 8 

- 6 

- 4 



1-10' 



To find the Reynolds number, find the crossing point on the reference line for the product of the 
given speed and length; for example, line A for a velocity of 10 ft/sec and a 30-ft length. Then, 
using this reference point, find the quotient for the given viscosity; for example, line B for a 
viscosity of 1.2 X 10"^ (seawater at 60°F). The resulting Reynolds number is given by the 
intersection of line S and the Reynolds scale— 2.5 X 10' for the example. 

Fig. 8.25 Nomogram for finding Reynolds Number. 



394 



where p = density of fluid (Slugs/ft^) 

V = velocity of flow (ft/sec) 

m = coefficient of viscosity (lb-sec/ 
ft^) 

V = m/p = kinematic viscosity (ft^/ 

sec) 
1 = a characteristic length of the 
body (ft) 

The Reynolds number can also be obtained 
from the nomogram in Figure 8.25. 

An additional factor is roughness of the 
body surface which will increase frictional 
drag. Naval architects generally add a 
roughness-drag coefficient to the friction- 
drag coefficient value for average conditions. 

Because a submersible rarely travels at 
constant speed, forces must be considered 
that arise from the acceleration of a mass of 
fluid entrained by the body or fairings. The 
added mass is determined by the mass den- 
sity of the fluid and size, shape and motion of 
the body. Likewise, there is a moment of 
inertia accompanying angular acceleration 
which is also added (16). Both the former 
force (called virtual or induced mass) and the 
latter, moment of inertia, are treated under 
unsteady flow in hydrodynamic considera- 
tions. 

While such considerations are of extreme 
importance to the military submarine — 
where high speed, among other factors, is 
desired — they are less important to submers- 
ibles where 2 or 3 knots generally will suf- 
fice. More important than the shape of a 
submersible are considerations of pressure 
hull size, component arrangement, maneu- 
verability, weight saving and surface sea- 
keeping. Furthermore, while a particular 
hull shape may be hydrodynamically satisfy- 
ing, the external instruments and equipment 
attached from dive to dive will frustrate any 
attempts by the hydrodynamicist to main- 
tain a low drag coefficient. A number of the 
large corporations and academic institutions 
have derived the drag forces operating on 
their vehicle. One such case is ALVIN, for 
which Mavor et al. (8) present a moderately 
detailed but fully referenced account of the 
procedures and results. Resistance data for 
bodies of ALVIN's shape (described as ocu- 
lina) were not available at the time of its 
design; consequently, a one-twelfth scale 
model was constructed at the Massachusetts 



Institute of Technology and towed by a 
pusher sting dynamometer. A drag coeffi- 
cient of 0.027 based on its wetted-surface 
area was indicated. A second test on a one- 
quarter scale model at the Illinois Institute 
of Technology confirmed the 0.027 drag coef- 
ficient. For comparison purposes, a total 
drag coefficient for the ALB ACORE -type hull 
was calculated at 0.0033. While ALVIN is not 
the most streamlined of submersibles, it is 
not the worst, and it might serve as a gen- 
eral comparison for the drag coefficient of 
contemporary submersibles (with a spherical 
bow) against a streamlined body of revolu- 
tion. Interestingly, ALVIIS's resistance is ap- 
proximately equal to that of a sphere having 
the same cross-sectional diameter as the 
hull, and the hull shape in this range of 
fineness ratio may not have important ef- 
fects on resistance. 

PROPULSION POWER 
REQUIREMENTS 

To derive the horsepower required of a 
submersible's motor two factors must be de- 
cided: What is the desired speed, and what 
resistance must be overcome? In most cases 
the designer will have fairly firm notions 
concerning speed, but the resistance or drag 
of the vehicle is not always known. 

Model testing and the engineering talents 
required for drag and dimensional analyses, 
such as those performed on ALVIN, are ex- 
pensive and far beyond the resources of the 
so-called "backyard builder." Furthermore, if 
the model tests were to show an optimum 
horsepower which was not available off-the- 
shelf, few, if any, of the smaller builders 
would be able to afford the cost of a specially 
built motor. The approach taken by the small 
builder to motor selection is based, in the 
final analysis, on availability and trial and 
error. 

An example of the above approach is found 
in the NEKTON vehicles. According to Mr. 
Douglas Privitt of General Oceanographies, 
the procedure followed in selecting a propul- 
sion motor for those vehicles was based on 
the following constraints: The motor had to 
be DC, series wound, small and light weight. 
It had to provide a speed of 2 knots at an 
economical current drain and be available 



395 



off-the-shelf. These constraints left very few 
candidates from which to select. A golf cart 
motor of 3.5 horsepower mounted in a pres- 
sure-resistant housing designed by General 
Oceanographies was selected and has been 
quite successful. The power for this motor 
was provided by golf cart batteries. Addi- 
tional guidance was provided by assaying 
the field to see what other similarly sized 
vehicles were using. This approach is just as 
successful for the NEKTON vehicles of Gen- 
eral Oceanographies as the more sophisti- 
cated approach taken by the giant Aerospace 
Corporation for their vehicles. 

The common unit for expressing the power 
delivered by a motor is horsepower (hp) (one 
horsepower is defined as 550 ft-lb/sec). In 
both submersibles and surface ships the 
power delivered by the engine to the propel- 
ler is called shaft horsepower (SHP), and is 



the product of the torque and revolutions per 
minute of the shaft. Another definition of 
SHP deducts shaft seal and bearing losses 
from the engine output to derive actual 
power delivered to the propeller (2). The 
power required to propel a submersible 
through the water is expressed as effective 
horsepower (EH?) and is equal to the prod- 
uct of the resistance in pounds and the speed 
(ft-lb/sec) divided by 550. 

In the4LV/A^ model tests (8), the total drag 
(Rt) was measured by a dynamometer at 
varying speeds. By performing the calcula- 
tions defining EHP, the horsepower needed 
to propel ALVIN through a range of speeds 
was found. A plot of these values, including 
EHP, is shown in Figure 8.26. 

Another example of deriving required 
horsepower was given by Daubin (18) for 
General Motor's DOWB . In these calcula- 



X 

V) 

o 

z 

D 

o 

(3 
< 

DC 

a 




m 
O 



I 
O 

33 

cn 
m 
-o 
O 

m 

33 



Fig. 8.26 EHP curves for ALVIN. [From Ref. (17)] 
396 



tions DOWB's similarities to ALVIIS in fine- 
ness ratio, Reynolds number and shape were 
considered close enough to justify using the 
same drag coefficient of 0.027, from this was 
calculated: Drag, EHP and SHP. 

A first approximation of SHP required to 
drive a submersible is presented by Rechnit- 
zer and Gorman (19) as 

SHP = 0.005 V3 A2'3 
where V = Speed in knots 

^2/3 = propelled displacement. An ap- 
proximation of the weight in- 
cluding water confined within 
the fairing: = LBD/60 in. long 
tons (2,240 lb); L = length, B = 
breadth. D = depth in feet. 

From these examples it is apparent that 
there are several ways to determine and 
obtain the required SHP for a submersible: 
The first involves off-the-shelf availability of 
candidate motors and intuition, the second 
encompasses model testing and a variety of 
calculations from model tests of similarly 
configured vehicles. In addition there are 
other means proprietary to various manufac- 
turers. Perry Submarine Builders uses a 
method based on past vehicle performance 
with various propulsion plants and, in some 
manner, observes drag on the vehicle itself 
instead of a model. (Personal communication 
with F. Cunningham, Perry Submarine 
Builders.) 

Regardless of the method used to derive 
required SHP, the results are fairly consist- 
ent: Low SHP is the rule. Where rated horse- 
power data is available (58 submersibles), the 
following groupings are found: 1-5 hp = 50%; 
5-10 hp = 35%; 10-15 hp = 9%; 15-20 hp = 
2%; the remaining 4%, AUGUSTE PICCARD 
and BEN FRANKLIN, use 75 hp and 100 hp, 
respectively. (These values are for main pro- 
pulsion only and do not include thruster 
values.) The low horsepower reflects not only 
the undesirability of high speed, but also the 
quite limited supply of electrical power 
which is the only power source for a variety 
of other tasks. 

The term V^ in the above equation is a 
paramount consideration when high speed is 
desired, because it represents a heavy toll 
one must pay in power for merely a small 
increase in speed. 



Consider the following for the submersible 
BEAVER which, from reference (20), has a 
A2/3 = 15. If BEAVER is to cruise at 2 knots 
then by the formula: 
SHP = 0.005 V3 A2/3 = 0.005 (2)^ (15) 
SHP = 0.60 

If a 50 percent increase in speed (3 knots) is 
desired, then the SHP required increases to 
2.03, over a three-fold increase. Let us now 
consider what this requires in the form of 
electrical power. A 0.60-hp requirement is 
equal to 0.45 kWh (hp x 0.745), while 2.03 hp is 
equal to 1.51 kWh. An increase in speed, 
therefore, calls for electrical power which is 
in competition with other tasks equal to, or 
exceeding, the importance of higher speed. 

CONTROL DEVICES 

The means of controlling a submersible's 
maneuvering devices are as varied as the 
devices themselves. At one end of the spec- 
trum the control is entirely manual; at the 
other end the necessary controls are so com- 
plex that computer assistance is necessary. 
Between these two extremes are combina- 
tions of manual, manual-hydraulic, electro- 
hydraulic and electrical. Instead of listing 
each and every means used on individual 
vehicles, which would be exhaustive, a repre- 
sentative selection of vehicles is described. 

There is one area of commonality through- 
out the field: All vehicles can be controlled 
by one person. While several of the larger, 
more complex vehicles have a co-pilot, the 
second person is not required for basic con- 
trol of the vehicle. The co-pilot serves mainly 
to relieve the pilot and assist in special ma- 
neuvers or functions. The similarity in tasks 
between an aircraft crew and the crew of a 
large submersible is, in many respects, very 
close. 

While the major control functions occupy- 
ing the operator are those when submerged, 
there are certain functions some operators 
must perform during launch and retrieval. 
The great majority of vehicles place no re- 
sponsibility on the pilot during launch or 
retrieval other than to secure the hatch and 
wait until the vehicle is in the water. Once it 
is in the water and free of steadying lines 
and lift cable, the operator's work and con- 



397 



trol functions begin. In the case of both 
ALVIN and DEEP QUEST, however, coordi- 
nation is required between the operator and 
support ship during both launch and re- 
trieval. An explanation of submerged con- 
trol, however, describes the same control 
available on the surface. 



ALL OCEAN INDUSTRIES: 

The All Ocean Industries vehicle and the 
K-250 series obtain all propulsion and ma- 
neuverability from four V2-hp, 6 and 12 VDC 
electric motors mounted in pairs port and 
starboard amidships. A selector switch is 
provided for each motor which can be set at 
low, medium or high speed. Control or orien- 
tation of the motors, which rotate together 
or individually 360 degrees in the vertical, is 
quite simple: The operator merely pushes or 
pulls a crank-like bar connected to the mo- 
tors which rotates within a thru-hull pene- 
tration (Fig. 8.27). The motors are pressure- 
compensated to 150 feet and produced by 
Phantom Motors, Kansas City, Mo. Because 
there are no slip rings in the rotating sys- 
tem, the operator must be careful not to 



rotate the motors beyond 360 degrees or else 
he runs the risk of breaking the wires. 

SDL-1 : 

The SDL-1 is propelled by two independ- 
ently controlled motors which are mounted 
in the horizontal plane port and starboard. 
Each motor is compound wound, 120 VDC, 5 
hp, reversible and drives a screw-type pro- 
peller. A 4:1 planetary reduction gear is cou- 
pled to each motor armature. Both motor 
casing and reduction gear housing are indi- 
vidually pressure-compensated. Control of 
each motor is obtained from a Wismer and 
Rawlings 50-amp, 60- and 120-VDC, 3-step 
reversing control unit. The throttle box is 
portable and may be moved about in the 
control (forward) pressure sphere. Two 7-step 
rotary switches are mounted on opposite 
sides of the throttlebox, providing three 
speeds forward, three speeds aft and neutral 
or OFF. The propulsion motors may be oper- 
ated together or independently at any combi- 
nation of speeds and in opposition. Rheostats 
on the motor starters provide speed adjust- 
ment over a small range to equalize propul- 
sive thrust of both motors. Ammeters are 
provided to monitor currents. Schematics of 
SDL-1 showing these systems were not 




Fig. 8.27 Manual propulsion control on the K-250 series. 
398 



available. Instead Figure 8.28 presents the 
PISCES series control and propulsion system 
which is similar. 

PC-14: 

The Perry built PC-14 (belonging to Texas 
A&M Univ.) (now TECHDIVER) is propelled 
by a 36-VDC, 7.8-amp, reversible General 
Electric motor. Motor speed control is by a 
selector switch on a portable control box 
which provides three speeds forward and 
three reverse (Fig. 8.29). The rudder and bow 
planes are controlled by port (for dive planes) 
and starboard (for rudder) levers which are 
manually operated and are linked by a rod 
and cable to the plane and rudder, respec- 



tively. The cable controlling rudder move- 
ments (manufactured by Controex Corp. of 
America, Croton Falls, New York) is made of 
stainless steel and consists of a flexible hous- 
ing in which a flat rod rides on ball bearings. 
Control mechanisms for the larger Perry- 
built vehicles consist of hand-held portable 
units (Fig. 8.30) which control all motor 
speeds, direction and position (for trainable 
units), the planes and rudder. The portable 
control box may also include an automatic 
piloting feature. 

STAR III: 

STAR III receives thrust power from a 7V2- 
hp electric motor (110 VDC) and vertical and 



AHEAD -• 




PORT 
MOTOR 



Fig. 8.28 PISCES' control propulsion system. (HYCO) 
399 




Fig. 8.29 Motor conlfol unit for PC-U. 

lateral propulsion from two thruster motors 
of 2 hp each. All motors are pressure com- 
pensated and reversible, and speed control is 
continuously variable throughout its range. 
An electrically-powered rudder may be 
moved 35 degrees left or right by a 20-rpm, 
reversible gear motor enclosed in a pressure- 
compensated box. To control these devices 
STAR III has both fixed and portable con- 
trols. The fixed controls (Fig. 8.31) and push- 
buttons are mounted on the starboard side. 
To operate the thrusters the buttons must be 
constantly depressed, if not, they return to 
stop (so-called "deadman" control). There are 
no provisions for rudder maneuvering on the 
fixed controls. The portable control box has a 
joystick for forward-reverse and left-right 
control, a separate lever for vertical thruster 
control and two toggle switches for left/right 
rudder control. The thruster controls provide 
for continuously-variable speed and must be 
reset to neutral or stop. A rudder angle 
indicator is incorporated into the portable 
control box. It may seem a small matter 
whether or not a button remains in when it's 
been pushed or returns to its "stop" position 



when released, but it must be remembered 
that if a deadman-type control is used then 
the operator can do nothing else with his 
hands while pushing the button. In a small 
submersible, where the crew consists of one 
or two people, a multitude of recurring and 
concurrent tasks is required of these limited 
resources. Such demands on the occupants 
must be considered in designing control de- 
vices. 

BEAVER: 

International Underwater Contractors' 
BEAVER receives all maneuvering capabil- 
ity from three, 5-hp each, reversible, pres- 
sure-compensated, DC motors. Control of 
these motors, which are rotatable through 
360 degrees in the vertical, is through a 
primary and backup system, both of which 
are hand-operated and fixed. BEAVER^s pri- 
mary control system possibly typifies the 
most one can do with one hand in vehicle 
maneuvering, without requiring the assist- 
ance of a computer. Both control system 
components are shown in Figure 8.32, and 
the primary control system is shown in Fig- 
ure 8.33. At operating depth with the joy- 
stick neutralized and motors stopped, the 
ballast control buttons bring BEAVER to 
neutral trim. Forward or reverse motion is 
obtained by pushing the joystick forward or 



-BOW TKBUSTEI** 



# 



Hi 




Fig. 8,30 The portable control box for V0L-L1 Designed and built by Perry 
Submarine Builders. (Perry Submarine Builders. Inc.) 



400 




Rg. 8-31 STAR Ills portable and fixed controls (NAVOCEANO) 





BACKUP 

MANUAL 

THRUSTER 

CONTROLLER 


















_ 




POD &PROP 

MOTOR 

DRIVER 

ELECTRONICS 




PROP 

& 

POD 

MOTORS 




VEHICLE 
DYNAMICS " 








I 


" 




DISPLAYS 


— 


. 1 1 

OPERATOR 






"^ 














JOYSTICK 
CONTROLLER 




PRIMARY 

CONTROL 

ELECTRONICS 




















1 




1*- 




1 
























L^ 


SENSORS 



































Fig. 8.32 Primary and backup control connponents of BEAVER. 



401 



FORWARD 



PORT 




STARBOARD 



REVERSE 



Fig. 8.33 Primary motor and variable ballast and pitch/trim control on BEAVER. 



pulling back. Side motion is effected by push- 
ing the joystick in the desired direction of 
movement. Directional changes are effected 
by twisting the joystick. Depth and attitude 
changes are commanded by rotating the trim 
wheels. For emergencies, the propellers can 
be stopped or reversed by pressing override 
buttons. 

An unusual aspect of this control system is 
the incorporation of the variable ballast con- 
trol in the same component with the motor 
controllers. The majority of vehicles locate 
ballasting controls completely separate from 
the motor controller. The backup control sys- 
tem is adjacent to the primary system and 
allows independent pod rotation and motor 



rpm control. Control in the backup mode 
permits most maneuvers with the primary 
system but requires more operator attention. 

ALUMINAUT: 

Vehicles as large as ALVMIISAUT, AU- 
GUSTS PICCARD and BEN FRANKLIN are 
generally operated by both pilot and co-pilot. 
In the first two vehicles a third crewman 
acts as engineer or, more precisely, elec- 
tronic technician. AUGUSTS PICCARD had 
all controls in the bow hemi-head where both 
pilot and co-pilot were stationed. BEN 
franklin's control station was slightly aft 
of the bow on the port side and, when cruis- 
ing near the bottom, the co-pilot operated 
the controls on voice command from the pilot 
who maintained visual contact with the bot- 
tom from one of the forward viewports. ALU- 
MINAUT operated similarly to BEN FRANK- 
LIN, except that the pilot had the option of 
controlling the vehicle from his forward posi- 
tion with a portable control unit. ALUMI- 
NAUT received thrust and yaw from two 
reversible, 115- and 230-VDC motors of 5 hp 
each and heave from a motor mounted atop 
the vehicle with similar characteristics. 
Stern planes and rudder were moved by a V4- 
hp electric motor. The primary control panel 
(Fig. 8.34) contains individual controls for all 
thrusters, planes and the rudder, in addition 
to motor monitoring devices (amperage, 
rpm's, etc.). Motor speed for both forward 
and reverse movement is Vs, ^/s and full. 
Pitch control, by transfer of water fore or aft, 
is also incorporated in this panel's trim pump 
control. The portable control box (Fig. 8.35) 
incorporates all features of the primary con- 
trol panel except monitoring devices and 
trim control. 

DSRV-1 & 2: 

The U.S. Navy's rescue vehicles have the 
most sophisticated control system in manned 
submersibles. Called ICAD (Integrated Con- 
trol and Display) it is likened to the control 
and navigation system used in the APOLLO 
spacecraft system (Fig. 8.36). The ICAD sys- 
tem is complex and its research and develop- 
ment cost is reckoned in the millions of dol- 
lars. An ICAD simulator is located at San 
Diego where candidate DSRV operators 
undergo a several-week course to learn of its 
operation before they are confronted with 
the actual DSRV's themselves. A description 



402 




Fig 834 ALUMINAUTs primary control panel (NAVOCEANO) 



403 



/ 



r 



■""HRUSTER \ 



FM/D 




PORT 
"'"TRUSTER r 





DIVE 
PORT JR ^ 

R/SE 




Fig, 8.35 ALUMINAUTs portable conliol unil and torwarO gyro-repeater (NAVOCEANO) 



of the ICAD is not merely the subject of a 
book itself, it is the subject of three large 
volumes which cover installation, operation, 
troubleshooting and maintenance. Hence, 
the description herein will merely acquaint 
the reader with ICAD's existence. 

The heart of the ICAD is a digital com- 
puter which integrates signals from the 
DSRV"s sonars and from the other data-gath- 
ering and producing devices, including a 
miniature precision inertial platform. The 
computer serves as a central processer which 
displays pertinent information to the DSRV 
operators. 

With the aid of visual and aural displays 
from the ICAD, the operators make the nec- 
essary command decisions and activate the 
vehicle's controls. Two hand controllers con- 
trol vehicle maneuverability with the ICAD 
translating the operator's commands into 
the proper signals to the various propulsion 
and control mechanisms to provide the pre- 
cise reaction. 



The development of ICAD was undertaken 
to minimize work and assist the operator 
during the intricate DSRV mission. A typical 
rescue mission cycle for a DSRV is graphi- 
cally outlined in Chapter 15 and under cer- 
tain conditions — e.g., where a stricken sub- 
marine is listing with an up or down bow 
angle and high currents and low visibility 
prevail — the ability of a human to direct the 
DSRV and respond to the environmental dy- 
namics is exceeded. By integrating the con- 
trols and displays, the ICAD system reduces 
the situation to within the limits of human 
capabilities. 

The operator's console shown at the top of 
Figure 8.36 is too complex to be shown in 
detail, hence the major panel components 
are presented at the bottom of the figure. 
DSRV maneuvering is realized through the 
operation of the two joysticks in the ship 
control panel; translational motions (thrust, 
heave, sidle) are obtained from the left stick 
and rotational motions (yaw, roll, pitch) from 



404 




Fig, 8,36 The integrated control and display system on the DSRVs (U,S, Navy) 





/ ivm* "MIL \ ' 


XHEl 


i .OH n HO con mo L f*n(i. 


™«Niceiv((> 


INTtBROCyinOH lONAII 


»inTvD(iDf»rHS DIM 


SHOHT nanci 


SONAII n^NlCOVEIt 


\«"°' ij—^i.vt- 


COOHO-MTO" 


«-u^„o:™«,c..«- 


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nOMIIOMTAl OBTaCLt 


C'BOSCOPE 
UStMIl - GHOlff 


■IVLICfKh CKCniOMlCI 





405 



the right stick. The information shown on 
the ICAD can be seen from the labels on the 
general component layout. 

Of the seven control systems described, 
combinations thereof may be found in sister 
submersibles. It has been emphasized re- 
peatedly that a number of options are availa- 
ble to the operator to gain more motions 
than the control system alone provides. 
While the ICAD system is a wonder of tech- 
nology, it is unnecessary for the kind of 
maneuverability required of most submers- 
ibles. Indeed, an ICAD system wouldn't fit in 
the majority of vehicles, and its cost alone 
exceeds many times that of all but one or two 
government-owned submersibles. 

With operational experience many of the 
propulsion and control devices listed in this 
chapter were found unnecessary on some 
vehicles and inadequate on others. STAR III, 
for example, eventually discontinued using 
its rudder because it was awkward and slow 
to react and adequate control could be ob- 
tained by the thrusters alone. Because the 
majority of submersibles were one-of-a-kind 
prototype models, they reflected the design- 
ers' best initial thoughts on propulsion and 
control and the then state-of-the-art in avail- 
able hardware. Because few vehicles are sim- 
ilar in design and mission, there are only 
broad precedents on which to draw, and, in 
many instances, the operating life of the 
vehicle was too short to evolve the "best" 
approach to maneuvering and control. 

The benefits a submersible may gain under 
an extended operational life is related by 
Goudge (21). In this example the submersible 
PISCES II had worked for some time in the 
areas off Victoria, B.C., where strong cur- 
rents were not a severe operational consider- 
ation, but with its transfer to the North Sea, 
that harsh environment brought to light de- 
ficiencies theretofore unappreciated. 

"A speed of some four knots was 
expected for PISCES II, but the craft 
ivas so unstreamlined and the appen- 
dages caused so much drag, that 1 V4 
knots only was achieved. This and the 
fact that three steps of speed control 
only was provided, which meant that 
steering by differential use of the 
screws was very imprecise, caused 



great difficulties in maneuvering in 
strong currents tvhich are common 
round Britain and even in the middle 
of the North Sea. The first stage was to 
measure the bollard pull and, by 
spring balance, the towing pull needed 
to produce i V4 knots. From this, the 
overall efficiency w€is found to be 14 
percent. By fitting cowling extensions 
and flow straighteners this was raised 
to 28 percent. A false buoyant nose 
was fitted forward, Thyristor controls 
were provided to give stepless speed 
control and the motor windings al- 
tered from compound to series, with 
higher ratio gear box between motors 
and propellers. 

The net result of till these has been 
to push the top speed up to 4.1 knots 
on the log with an overall efficiency of 
some 60 percent. Water tunnel tests at 
Newcastle University have also showed 
the way to still further improvements 
should these become economic. The 
costs of the greater streamlining that 
would be needed are quite heavy. 

During the above improvements, op- 
portunity was taken to try improved 
brushes, gear and operating fluid (the 
motors run at ambient sea pressure in 
a special oil). Taken all together, the 
above measures have reduced a heavy 
maintenance load to almost nil, mean 
time between failures having changed 
from a few hours to a still unknown 
but very large number. (The only fail- 
ure since, in several hundred hours of 
running, has been a cable fault. ^ 

Such modifications and improvements are 
commonplace in submersibles, and more can 
be expected as they find wider ranging and 
longer undersea employment. 

REFERENCES 

1. Strasburg, D. W. 1965 A submarine for 
research in fisheries and oceanography. 

Trans. Mar. Tech. Soc. and Amer. Soc. 
Limnology and Oceanog., 14-17 June 
1965, Wash., D.C., v. 1, p. 568-571. 

2. Taggert, R. 1969 Marine Propulsion. 
Gulf Pub. Co., Houston, Tex., 368 pp. 



406 



3. Abkowitz, M. A. 1969 Stability and Mo- 
tion Control of Ocean Vehicles. M.I.T. 
Press, Cambridge, Mass., 190 pp., 6 ap- 
pendices. 

4. Mandel, P. 1969 Water, Air and Inter- 
face Vehicles. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, 

Mass. 

5. Principles of Naval Architecture 1967 
edited by J. P. Comstock. Pub. by The 
Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers, N. Y., 827 pp. 

6. Taggert, R. 1968 Dynamic positioning 
for small submersibles. Ocean Ind., v. 3, 
n. 8, p. 44-49. 

7. Miller, R. T. 1969 Vessels and floating 
platforms, in, Handbook of Ocean and 
Underwater Engineering. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., N. Y., p. 920-963. 

8. Mavor, J. W., Froehlich, H. E., Marquet, 
W. M. & Rainnie, W. O. 1966 ALVIN, 
6000-ft. submergence research vehicle. 
Paper presented at the Ann. Meeting, 
N. Y., Nov. 10-11, 1966 of The Soc. of 
Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 
n. 3, 32 pp. 

9. Johnson, V. E. & Barr, R. A. 1965 Propul- 
sion of deep diving submarines. Tech. 
Paper presented at the 5-7 May 1965 
ASME Underwater Tech. Conf., New 
London, Conn., 29 pp. 

10. Talkington, H. R. & Murphy, D. W. 1972 
Transparent Submersibles and the 
MAKAKAI. U.S. Naval Undersea Center, 
Rept. NUC TP 283, 24 pp. 

11. Greenert, W. Ocean Engineering Support 
Division, Naval Materials Command. 
(Personal communication). 

12. Pritzlaff, J. A. 1970 DEEPSTAR 20.000. 
Preprints 6th Ann. Conf. & Exhibition, 
Mar. Tech. Soc, 29 June-July 1, 1970, 



Wash., D.C., V. 2, p. 817-836. 

13. Wozniak, J., Taft, C. K. & Alperi, R. W. 
1972 'Wake Steering'' A new approach 
to propulsion and control. Preprints 8th 
Ann. Conf. & Expo., Mar. Tech. Soc, 11- 
13 Sept. 1972, Wash., D.C., p. 681-696. 

14. Sasdelli, K. R. & Spargo, J. D. 1971 Ro- 
tary Shaft Seal Selection Handbook for 
Pressure-Equalized, Deep Ocean Equip- 
ment. U.S. Naval Ship Research and De- 
velopment Center, Wash., D.C., 71 pp. 

15. Thomas, L. A. 1968 Designing propulsion 
motors for undersea craft. Undersea 
Tech., Feb. 1968, p. 24-47; 52. 

16. King, D. A. 1969 Basic hydrodynamics. 
in, Handbook of Ocean and Underwater 
Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
N. Y., p. 2-1 through 2-32. 

17. Torda, T. P. & Hermann, W. 1964 Stability 
and Drag Experiments With a Quarter- 
Scale Model of the ALVIN Oceano- 
graphic Submarine. Illinois Institute of 
Tech. Rept. (in ref. (5) above). 

18. Daubin, S. C. 1967 The Deep Ocean Work 
Boat (DOWB) An Advanced Deep Sub- 
mergence Vehicle. TR67-33; AC Elec- 
tronics-Defense Research Laboratories, 
Santa Barbara, Calif., 14 pp. 

19. Rechnitzer, A. B. & Gorman, F. T. 1969 
Submersibles. in. Handbook of Ocean 
and Underwater Engineering. McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., N. Y., p. 9-63 through 9-80. 

20. Bodey, C. E. & Friedland, N. 1966 Naval 
Architecture of Submarine Work Boats 
for Offshore Work. Proc of Offshore Ex- 
ploration Conf., p. 105-121. 

21. Goudge, K. A. 1972 Operational Experts 
ence ivith PISCES-Submersibles. Conf. 
Papers Oceanology International 72, 
Brighton, England, p. 270-273. 



407 




LIFE SUPPORT AND HABITABILITY 



In order to survive and function efficiently 
within their sealed chamber, the submers- 
ible's occupants require a supply of food and 
oxygen and removal or storage of toxic 
gasses which they and their equipment gen- 
erate. Survival, however, is only the first 
requirement; the second is the ability to 
work efficiently and comfortably. The first 
requirement is termed life support and the 
second may be referred to as habitability. 

While there is overlapping between life 
support and habitability, a distinction is 
made between the requirements and proce- 
dures to support life versus the quality of 
life. In engineering circles, the latter subject 
is termed "Human Factors" and it not only 



embodies comfort, but safety and efficiency 
as well. 

LIFE SUPPORT 

In designing a submersible life support 
system a "Standard Man" may be used ; the 
characteristics of this hypothetical human 
are presented in Table 9.1. According to the 
Marine Technology Society's Undersea Vehi- 
cle Committee (1), the values are conserva- 
tive and their use in designing a life support 
system will usually result in a system with 
satisfactory performance. The standard 
man's values are predicated on the assump- 
tion that he will be engaged in very light 



409 



TABLE 9.1 THE "STANDARD MAN" FOR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM DESIGN COMPUTATIONS 

[FROM REF. (1)] 



Item 



Quantity 



Units 



Oxygen Consumption 

Respired Air 

Drinl(ing Water 

Food, Dry 

Respiration Quotient 

CO2 Produced 

Water Vapor Produced 

Urine 

Feces 

Flatus 

Heat Output 

Sensible 

Latent 



M 



0.9 
18. 

6 

1.4 
.85 
.77 

4 

4 

0.4 

0.1 



250 
220 



FtVhrat 7G0mm Hg 

Ft^/hr at 760 mm Hg 

Pounds/day 

Pounds/day 

Volume of COt produced to Oo consumed 

Ft^/hr at 760 mm Hg 

Lb/day 

Lbs/day 

Lb/day 

Ft'/day 

Btu/hr 
Btu/hr 



Total 



470 



Btu/hr 



work; this does not take into account the 
likelihood of increased oxygen consumption 
and carbon dioxide production under stress 
conditions. 

While a healthy individual's survival re- 
quirements and metabolism may vary quan- 
titatively from those of the standard man, 
they do not vary qualitatively, and because 
of the biological commonality from person-to- 
person, all submersible life support systems 
supply the following: Oxygen replenishment 
and carbon dioxide removal. Some vehicles 
have the means to remove atmospheric con- 
taminants other than carbon dioxide, such as 
carbon monoxide and other gasses which fall 
under the category of trace contaminants. 
Only a few have the means to control tem- 
perature and humidity within the pressure 
hull. On the other hand, all can accommodate 
a lunch bag and thermos to supply food and 
water, and all have some means of storing 



human wastes. If these requirements are 
tabulated, the following is necessary to 
maintain a viable environment in a submers- 
ible: 

Replenishment: Oxygen 

Food/Water 
Emergency Air 

Removal: Carbon Dioxide 

Trace Contaminants 
Human Wastes 

Control; Temperature* 

Humidity* 
Monitoring Devices 

The emergency air supply in submersibles 
is dealt with in Chapter 14 and is not dis- 
cussed further here. Preliminary, however, 
to a discussion of the above factors is the 
length of submergence, and Table 9.2 shows 
that the build-up of atmospheric contami- 
nants which can be tolerated is directly re- 



410 



TABLE 9.2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATION OF SOME 
SUBSTANCES IN SUBMERSIBLES [FROM: REF (3)] 



Compound 


Chemical 
Formula 


Suspected 
Source 


IHr Limit 


24-Hr Limit 


90Dav Limit 








Acetylene 


C2H2 




6000 PPM 


6000 PPM 


6000 PPM 




Acrolein 


CH2CHCHO 


Cookmg 


♦ 


0.1 PPM 


* 




Arsine 


AsHj 


Battery Gassing 
Scrubbers 


* 


0.1 PPM 


0.01 PPM 




Ammonia 


NH3 


(Metabolic) 


400 PPM 


50 PPM 


25 PPM 




Benzene 


CaHe 


Solvents 


• 


100 PPM 


1.0 PPM 




Carbon Dioxide 


CO2 


Metabolic 
Smoking 


19 mm Hg 


7.6 mm Hg 


3.8 mm Hg 




Carbon Monoxide 


CO 


(Metabolic) 


200 PPM 


200 PPM 


25 PPM 




Chlorine 


CI2 


(Chlorate Candles) 
Polyethylene 




1.0 PPM 


0.1 PPM 




Ethylene 


CjH, 


Decomposition 
Cooking 


« 


« 


» 




Formaldehyde 


HCHO 


Combustion 


5 PPM 


5 PPM 


5 PPM 




Freon 12 


CCI2F, 


Air 
Conditioning 


2000 PPM 


1000 PPM 


200 PPM 




Freon 11 


CCI3F 


Air 
Conditioning 


50 PPM 


20 PPM 


5 PPM 




Freon 114 


CCIF2CCIF2 


Air 
Conditioning 


2000 PPM 


1000 PPM 


200 PPM 




Hydrocarbons 


Total Aromatic 
(Less Benzene) 


Paints & 
Solvents 


* 


« 


10mg/m' 






Total Aliphatic 


Paints S 


* 


» 


60 mg/m' 






(Less Mcthanel 


Solvents 










Hydrogen 


H2 


Battery Gassing 


1000 PPM 


1000 PPM 


1000 PPM 




Hydrogen Chloride 


HCI 


Freon 
Decomposition 


10 PPM 


4 PPM 


1.0 PPM 




Hydrogen Fluoride 


HF 


Freon 
Decomposition 


8 PPM 


1.0 PPM 


0.1 PPM 




Mercury 


Hg 


Instruments 


* 


2.0 mg/m' 


0.01 mg/m^ 




Methane 


CH4 


Sanitary Tanks 


13,000 PPM 


13,000 PPM 


13,000 PPM 




Methyalcohol 


CH30H 


Cigarette Smoke 


* 


200 PPM 


10 PPM 




Methyl Chloroform 


CH3CI3 


Adhesives& 
Solvents 


25 PPM 


10 PPM 


2.5 PPM 




Monethanolamine 


HOCH2CH2NH2 


CO, 
Scrubbers 


50 PPM 


3.0 PPM 


0.5 PPM 




Nitrogen 


N2 


Air 


As Required 


As Required 


As Required 




Nitrogen Dioxide 


N02 


Contaminant or 
Hot Surfaces 


10 PPM 


1.0 PPM 


0.5 PPM 




Nitrlcoxide 


NO 


Contaminant or 
Hot Surfaces 


10 PPM 


1.0 PPM 


0.5 PPM 




Oxygen 


O2 




ISOmmHgMin. 


130 mm HgMin. 


130mm HgMin. 




Ozone 


O3 


Precipitators 
Commutators Etc. 


1,0 PPM 


0.1 PPM 


0.02 PPM 




Phosgene 


COCI2 


Freon 
Decomposition 


1.0 PPM 


0.1 PPM 


0.05 PPM 




Stibine 


SbH3 


Battery Gassing 


■» 


0.05 PPM 


0.01 PPM 




Sulfur Dioxide 


SO, 


Oxidation Sanitary 
Tank Gases 


10 PPM 


5.0 PPM 


1.0 PPM 




Triary Phosphate 




Compressors 


* 


50 mg/m' 


1.0mg/m' 





*No value lias been assigned 



411 



lated to time of exposure. For this reason 
there are widely varying approaches con- 
cerning what should be replenished, removed 
or measured during a dive. On one end of the 
spectrum is the K-250 series in which the 
builder relies upon hourly surfacing to re- 
fresh cabin air. On the other end is BEN 
FRANKLIN which supplies virtually every 
means to monitor and control cabin air and 
store waste products. Both of these ap- 
proaches are discussed more fully in a later 
section; however, the majority of vehicles 
fall somewhere between these two extremes. 

Replenishment 

Within this category are consumables 
which the occupants require during submer- 
gence to survive and perform their tasks. 
The first of these, oxygen, is required during 
any submergence longer than an hour or two 
(depending on pressure hull volume); the sec- 
ond, food and water, may or may not be 
required on a routine dive of one or more 
hours duration, but they are generally car- 
ried. 

Oxygen: 

At atmospheric pressure, the recom- 
mended oxygen concentration within a pres- 
sure hull varies according to the following 
sources: 

Marine Technology Society (1): 18-24% 

U.S. Navy Material Command (2): 17-23% 

American Bureau of 



Shipping (3): 



18.4-23.6% 



While there seems to be no clear dividing line 
between a normal oxygen content and one 
which represents an excessive fire hazard, 
MTS and ABS both point out that 25 percent 
concentration produces noticeable differ- 
ences in combustible materials. The Navy, on 
the other hand, clearly states that the sub- 
mersible should immediately surface and 
ventilate the hull whenever oxygen exceeds 
25 percent. Conversely, as oxygen concentra- 
tion (partial pressure) decreases, the effects 
on occupants of the pressure hull are shown 
in Table 9.3. 

According to the Standard Man's require- 
ments, 0.9 cubic foot of oxygen per hour is 
consumed. The MTS and ABS suggest speci- 
fying oxygen storage duration on the basis of 
1.0 cubic foot/hour of submergence. Because 
of the small internal volume of present sub- 
mersibles, a supply of oxygen is virtually a 
universal requirement. All but two vehicles 
carry compressed, gaseous oxygen in flasks 
either inside or outside the pressure hull; K- 
250 and BEN FRANKLIN are the two excep- 
tions. The former carries no additional oxy- 
gen other than what is in the cabin air, and 
the latter carries liquid oxygen. 

The location of the oxygen storage flask 
inside or outside the pressure hull is a trade- 
off decision on shallow-diving vehicles. Ex- 
ternal storage saves internal pressure hull 
volume, reduces total vehicle submerged 
weight and is somewhat easier to replenish. 
Additionally, ABS requires that if the filled 
oxygen storage system contains a volume of 



TABLE 9.3 EFFECTS OF VARIOUS OXYGEN CONCENTRATiONS [FROM REF. (2)] 



Oj Concentration 
Partial Pressure Atmospheres 



Effect 



.21-0.18 
0.16-.12 
0.14-.10 



Normal sea-level conditions 

Increased breathing rate, lack of coordination 

Easily tired; easily upset emotionally; passible loss of pain or injury; abnormal fatigue from 
exertion 



0.10-.06 



Lethargic; apathetic; confused thinking; physical collapse; possible unconsciousness, nausea and 
vomiting 



0,06 or less 



Convulsive movements, gasping, cessation of breathing 



412 



oxygen which exceeds 100 percent (±10%) of 
the floodable volume of the pressure hull, 
then it must be stored in an independent 
subsystem. Locating the oxygen flask out- 
board of the pressure hull apparently satis- 
fies this ABS requirement. Approximately 
one-third of all submersibles (for which such 
information is available) stores oxygen ex- 
ternally; correspondingly, all of these vehi- 
cles have operating depths of 2,000 feet or 
less. A number of Perry-built vehicles in- 
clude this feature (Fig. 9.1). 

Arguments against internal storage de- 
crease with operating depth, for at some 



point the oxygen flask must be made resist- 
ant to external pressure (as its internal pres- 
sure decreases with oxygen consumption), 
and the necessary strengthening adds 
weight. Other advantages of internal storage 
include the reduction of thru-hull penetra- 
tions and the security of having the entire 
system inside where it runs no risk of dam- 
age from external agents. In the final analy- 
sis, however, there appears to be no recom- 
mended location (inside vs. outside), for not 
MTS, ABS or the Navy addresses the subject 
as such. There is, however, a requirement in 
the 1974 ABS manual that the flask be lo- 




Fig 9 1 Perry Submarines DEEP DIVER carries tour oxygen flasks topside between the diver lock-out chamber and helium sphere (NAVOCEANO) 



413 



cated at a distance from the hull or other 
critical pressure-resistant components such 
that the flask's implosion will not damage 
other items. (See Chap. 13 for "stand-off dis- 
tance.") 

There are ABS regulations on the storage 
flasks themselves: Storage pressure of 5,000 
psi cannot be exceeded; the containers must 
comply with Department of Transportation 
(DOT) specifications (Part 78, Sub-part C; 
Sects. 78.36 to 78.68 inclusive) or any recog- 
nized standards; and on small cubmersibles 
(less than 60 meters LOA) the containers 
must be proof-tested and marked in accord- 
ance with DOT procedures approximately 
once every year, but not exceeding 18 
months. 



It is not the intent of this discussion to 
recommend what life support systems should 
be, but merely to relate what they are. The 
reader should be aware, however, that both 
the Navy and ABS quite explicitly state cer- 
tain material requirements for: Piping, fit- 
tings and valves; operating pressures for 
control and monitoring devices; cleaning and 
storing; and testing and maintenance of the 
entire system. 

Control of the flow of oxygen into the pres- 
sure hull is approached in three ways: The 
simplest is by periodically opening the flow 
valves; the most common is by continually 
bleeding the oxygen through a flow control 
valve and flow indicator; and the least com- 
mon is by automatically admitting oxygen by 



FLOW CONTROL 
VALVE 



CYLINDER VALVES 



SHUT-OFF 
VALVE 



PRESSURE 
RELIEF 
VALVE 



FILLING 

SHUT-OFF 

VALVE 




STORAGE 

PRESSURE 

GAGE 



SHUT-OFF 
VALVE 



FILLING CONNECTION 



BLOWER 



AIR MIXING 
DUCT 

DIFFUSER 

FOR 

DEFOGGING 



VIEWPORT 



FLOW 
NDICATOR 



PRESSURE 
REGULATOR 



Fig. 9.2 Oxygen supply system schematic. [From Ref. (10)1 
414 



virtue of a mechanism which senses varia- 
tions in cabin atmospheric pressure. 

In a few vehicles the first approach is 
taken and, although not recommended by 
ABS or MTS, has worked satisfactorily with 
no reported accidents. The procedure is quite 
simple: A timer (quite frequently a kitchen 
alarm clock) is set to ring every half hour or 
so; when it does, the operator resets it, takes 
a reading of oxygen or cabin pressure and 
then, if necessary, opens the tank to admit a 
certain amount of oxygen. 

In the second approach, the supply of oxy- 
gen is fed through a flow control valve, 
thence through a flow indicator and finally 
into the cabin. In this procedure the oxygen 
is continually bled into the cabin at a rate 
somewhere near 0.85 SCFH for each person. 



The system still requires periodic monitoring 
to assure steady flow as internal tank pres- 
sure decreases or as cabin temperature var- 
ies. The system shown in Figure 9.2 is DS- 
4000''s, and it includes a pressure regulator 
which maintains a downstream pressure of 
80 psi (±10 psi) from a 3,000 psi tank as long 
as the storage pressure exceeds 80 psi. A 
further feature of this system is the air 
mixing duct, which mixes oxygen with cabin 
air and then blows the mixed air downward 
and across the viewport (Fig. 9.3). Whereas 
the steel pressure hull cools in accordance 
with ambient water temperature, fogging 
and drippage of condensed water on the 
viewport is common. With the modification 
shown, the forced air keeps the viewport dry. 
Eliot (4) cautions that the air flow should be 




Fig. 9.3 Ducts above DEEPSTAR 2000 s viewports blov» cabin air mixed v»ith oxygen across the viewports to remove condensed moisture and prevent togging The small viewport 

between the larger two is tor photography. 



415 



directed downward, because when this de- 
vice was initially used in DS-4000 the flow 
was upward and the occupants emerged from 
a 6- or 8-hour dive with bloodshot eyes and 
dry nasal passages caused by the air blowing 
into their faces when at the viewport. 

Automatic systems are not common on 
submersibles but can be found on the more 
sophisticated vehicles, such as DEEP 
QUEST and DSRV. Because life support con- 
trol is so critical, the operator is still re- 
quired periodically to monitor cabin oxygen. 
It only takes a little more time to check and 
regulate a flowmeter while performing the 
monitoring functions. If such checks are not 
routine, then a warning system is impera- 
tive, and, while this does add to the complex- 
ity and cost of the vehicle, it frees the opera- 
tor for other tasks. 

The quantity of oxygen carried varies from 
vehicle-to-vehicle. A comparison is shown in 
Table 9.4. The MTS recommends that the 
oxygen capacity of a system should be stated 
in cubic feet of oxygen at 70°F and 760 mm 
Hg, but this procedure is frequently not fol- 
lowed, hence, many of the values shown are 
approximate and were calculated from the 
barest of details. 

From an efficiency point of view, Beving 
and Duddleston (5) point out that a typical 
cylindrical steel tank holds approximately 15 
pounds of usable oxygen at 2,200 psi. The 
cylinder plus oxygen weighs about 150 
pounds. With a usable weight ratio of 1-to-lO, 
a considerable weight penalty is encountered 
if many tanks have to be carried. A more 
efficient solution, according to these authors, 
is to carry oxygen in liquid form. In a typical 
double-walled liquid oxygen tank, a pound of 
oxygen can be carried for each pound of tank 
with corresponding savings in volume. While 
Beving and Duddleston's efficiency figures 
for liquid vs. gaseous oxygen are impressive, 
the cost, complexity and logistic problems 
are unacceptable to most of today's commer- 
cial vehicle owners. Furthermore, it is not 
life support endurance which restricts pres- 
ent vehicles to short dives; rather, it is elec- 
trical endurance. 

Food and Water: 

There is no submersible now operating 



that routinely remains submerged for more 
than 8 or 10 hours; consequently, food and 
water are generally provided in the form of 
sandwiches, fruit, candy and thermos jars of 
coffee, tea or whatever. Exceptions to this 
are BEN FRANKLIN (now inactive) and NR- 
1. The latter, in view of its size, mission 
endurance and nuclear electrical generating 
plant, presumably uses freeze-dried foods or 
prepackaged "TV" trays which are prepared 
and heated in a kitchen. 

While such a casual approach to suste- 
nance, at first glance, may seem alarming, it 
has produced no ill effects. Indeed, in most 
vehicles the support ship cook errs, if at all, 
in favor of quantity, for more often than not 
a portion of the lunch is returned uneaten. 
This procedure works well as long as the dive 
is routine. All have not been routine (see 
Chap. 15), however, and then emergency ra- 
tions became a consideration; in this respect 
most are deficient. 

In case retrieval is impossible or the sub- 
mersible is lost from its support ship, 
emergency food and water could be a critical 
factor in survival. A wide variety of nutriti- 
ous foods which can serve as emergency ra- 
tions are available at sporting goods stores 
and have a shelf like of many months. Such 
fare is not necessarily a gourmet's delight, 
but survival, not comfort, is the order of busi- 
ness. The amount of emergency food and 
water required is difficult to ascertain, but 
little space is required for storage of these 
foods and a minimum of 72 hours of 
emergency supply does not appear unreason- 
able. Freeze-dried foods would be ideal, but in 
the small confines of a submersible their pre- 
paration is awkward and, without hot water, 
they are difficult to mix. 

The recent JOHNSON SEA LINK and 
PISCES III incidents have increased the 
submersible community's awareness of life 
support, and a number of vehicles have in- 
creased their supply of oxygen and carbon 
dioxide removal compounds to extend support 
to 72 hours/occupant and longer. The Na- 
tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion (NOAA) requires at least 72 
hours/occupant before it will allow its emp- 
loyees to dive in the vehicle. Oddly, no one has 
addressed the possibility of decreased human 



416 



TABLE 9.4 MANNED SUBMERSIBLE 
LIFE SUPPORT CHARACTERISTICS AND INSTRUMENTATION 







Endurance 


Oxygen 


CO, 


Monitor 


ng De- 


Trace 










(Man-Hrs) 


Supply 


Scrubbing 


vices Aboard 


Contaminant 


Temp. 


Humidity 


Submersible 


Crew' 


Total^ 


(SCF) 


Compound 


O2 CO2 


Pressure^ 


Control 


Control 


Control 


All Ocean Ind. 


2 


12 


40 


KO2 


NP" NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


ALUMINAUT 


6 


432 


127 


LiOH 


• • 


• 


NP 


Heaters, Hull 
Insulation 


NP 


ALVIN 


3 


216 


NA 


LiOH 




• 


Activated Carbon 


NP 


NP 


AQUARIUS 1 


3 


108 


140 


LiOH 




• 


Activated Charcoal 


NP 


NP 


ARCHIMEDE 


3 


108 


NA^ 


Soda Lime 




• 


NP 


NP 


Silica Gel 


ARGYRONETE 


10 


1920 


163" 


NA 




• 


NP 


Heaters/AC' 


AC 


ARIES 1 


4 


108 


140 


LiOH 




• 


Activated Charcoal 


NP 


NP 


ASHERAH 


2 


48 


NA 


Soda Sorb 




NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


AUGUSTEPICCARD 


44 


2112 


NA 


Soda Lime 


NP NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


BEAVER 


4 


360 


250* 


Baralyme 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


BEN FRANKLIN 


6 


6048 


9221b 


LiOH 




• 


Activated Charcoal 


NP 


Silica Gel 


DEEP DIVER 


4 


32 


356" 


Baralyme 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


DEEP JEEP 


2 


104 


NA 


Soda Lime 


NA NA 


NA 


NP 


NP 


NP 


DEEP QUEST 


4 


204 


200 


LiOH 




• 


Activated Charcoal 


Heaters 


AC 


DS-2000 


3 


144 


169 


LiOH 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


DS-4000 


3 


144 


169 


LiOH 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


DS-20000 


3 


144 


169 


LiOH 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


DSRV-1 &2 


27 


204 


NA 


LiOH 




• 


NA 


AC 


AC 


DEEP VIEW 


2 


38 


36 


LiOH 




• 


NP 


Ice Tray 


Silica Gel 


DOSTAL&HAIR 


2 


80 


80 


Molecular Sieve 


NA NA 


NA 


NA 


NP 


NP 


DOWB 


3 


195 


160 


LiOH 




• 


NP 


NP 


Deslccant 


FNRS-2 


2 


100 


NA 


Soda Lime 


NA NA 


• 


NP 


NP 


Silica-Gel 


GRIFFON 


3 


100 


NA 


Soda Lime 




NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


GUPPY 


2 


72 


NA 


Baralyme 




• 


NP 


NA 


NA 


HAKUYO 


4 


144 


NA 


Baralyme 




NA 


Activated Charcoal 


NP 


Silica Gel 


HIKING 


2 


48 


36 


LiOH 




• 


NP 


NP 


Silica Gel 


JOHNSON SEA LINK 


4 


72 


660" 


Baralyme 




• 


NA 


AC 


AC 


JIM 


1 


16 


NA 


Soda Lime 


. NP 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


K-250 


1 


6 


NP 


NP 


NP NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


KUMUKAHI 


2 


32 


NA 


Soda Lime 




• 


NP 


NP 


Silica Gel 


MAKAKAI 


2 


72 


NA 


Baralyme 




NA 


NP 


Ice Tray 


Silica Gel 


MERMAID 1 


2 


120 


167 


NA 




NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NEKTON A, B, C 


2 


48 


75 


Baralyme 


• NA 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NEMO 


2 


64 


100 


Baralyme 




• 


NP 


Ice Tray 


Silica Gel 


NEREID 330 


3 


96 


NA 


NA 




« 


NP 


NP 


NP 


OPSUB 


2 


50 


NA 


Baralyme 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


PC-3A1 & 2 


2 


20 


70 


Baralyme 


NP NP 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 



'Maximum Normal Complement 

^Normal and Emergency Combined 

^Cabin Pressure 

''NP: No Provisions Aboard 

^NA; Information Not Available 

"Hydrogen and Compressed Air Also Available 

^AC: Air Contitioner 



417 



TABLE 9.4 MANNED SUBMERSIBLE 
LIFE SUPPORT CHARACTERISTICS AND INSTRUMENTATION (Cont.) 







Endurance 


Oxygen 


CO, 


M 


onitoring De- 


Trace 










(Man-Hrs) 


Supply 


Scrubbing 




vices Aboard 


Contaminent 


Temp. 


Humidity 


Submersible 


Crew' 


TotaP 


(SCF) 


Compound 


0. 


CO; 


Pressure^ 


Control 


Control 


Control 


PC-3B 


2 


20 


70 


Baralyme 


NP 


NP 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


PC5C 


3 


180 


100 


Baralyme 


NP 


NP 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


PC-8 


2 


48 


288 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


PC-14 


2 


48 


66 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


PISCES 1 


2 


200 


50 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


Desiccant 


PISCES lis 111 


3 


200 


50 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NA 


PISCES IV &V 


3 


216 


NA 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


Desiccant 


PS-2 


2 


48 


288 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SDL-1 


6 


204 


870 


Soda Sorb 




• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SEA CLIFF/TURTLE 


3 


105 


123 


LiOH 




• 


• 


Activated Charcoal 


NP 


NP 


SEA OTTER 


3 


200 


192 


LiOH 




• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SEA-RAY 


2 


24 


NA 


Soda Lime 


NA 


• 


NA 


NA 


NA 


Silica Gel 


SHELF DIVER 


4 


172 


338 


LiOH 


NP 


IMP 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SNOOPER 


2 


24 


NA 


Baralyme 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


SP-350 


2 


96 


40 


Baralyme 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SP-500 


1 


12 


NA 


Baralyme 


NP 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SP-3000 


3 


144 


NA 


IR8 


NP 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


COCI; 


SPORTSMAN 300/600 


2 


16 


15 


Baralyme 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


STARI 


1 


18 


18 


Soda Sorb 


• 


NA 


NA 


NP 


NP 


NP 


STAR II 


2 


48 


NA 


Soda Sorb 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


STAR III 


2 


120 


110 


Soda Sorb 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SUBMANAUT (HELLE) 


2 


24 


60 


NA 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


Desiccant 


SUBMANAUT 


6 


300 


20 


Soda Lime 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SUBMARAY 


2 


32 


50 


Baralyme 


NP 


NP 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SURV 


2 


100 


80 


Soda Lime 


• 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


SURVEY SUB 1 


4 


240 


240 


LiOH 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


TOURS 64/66 


2 


60 


NA 


Soda Lime 


• 


• 


• 


NP 


NP 


NP 


TRIESTE II 


3 


72 


NA 


LiOH 


• 


• 


• 


Activated Charcoal 


NP 


NP 


V0L-L1 


4 


192 


288 


LiOH 


• 


• 


• 


NA 


NP 


NP 


YOMIURI 


6 


492 


NA 


LiOH 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 


NA 



'Maximum Normal Complement 

^Normal and Emergency Combined 

'Cabin Pressure 

''NP: No Provisions Aboard 

^NA: Information Not Available 

^Hydrogen and Compressed Air Also Available 

^AC: Air Conditioner 



capabilities or even death because of the lack 
of food or water. Humans' existence without 
food or water varies considerably, and there 
are incredible tales of individuals existing 
under extremely trying conditions for long 



periods of time. But in a submersible more 
than mere existence may be required of the 
occupants; they may have to perform some 
function to bring rescuers to their aid. In a 
situation where the hull temperature is high, 



418 



water will become the most critical factor; 
where the temperature is low, food will be- 
come critical. As mentioned, storage of food is 
easy and requires little space; water, on the 
other hand, requires much more volume and 
can become nonpotable. Whereas both food 
and water are required, a compromise solu- 
tion might be found in one of the diet supple- 
ments (Metrecal, Nutriment, etc.) which pro- 
vide both food and water. Such liquid supple- 
ments require little space, they are nutritious 
and have a long shelf life. Regardless of the 
liquid and solid sustenance supplied, it ap- 
pears rather paradoxical to supply a 3- or 
5-day supply of oxygen and carbon dioxide 
remover when the occupants might well 
perish from lack of food and water before 
these critical components run out. 

Removal 

Certain products of human and non-human 
origin must be removed from or stored 
within the cabin environment. These are: 
Carbon dioxide, trace contaminants and solid 
and liquid human waste products. The re- 
moval of the first two products is necessary 
for survival. Other metabolic wastes are held 
in sealed or chemical storage. Although gas- 
eous by-products may become noxious, if not 
properly stored, they are not necessarily 
toxic. 

Carbon Dioxide: 

The major source of carbon dioxide in a 
submersible is human respiration. According 
to reference (2), an average consumption of 
1.0 SCFH of oxygen per person will generate 
an average of 0.80 to 0.85 SCFH of carbon 
dioxide (depending on dietary considera- 
tions), an equivalent of 0.1 pound/man-hour. 
To derive the rate of carbon dioxide buildup, 
the Respiratory Quotient (RQ) is required, 
and it is equal to the volume of carbon diox- 
ide produced for each volume of oxygen con- 
sumed, or: 



RQ = 



Volume of CO, Produced 0.85 



Volume of O5 Consumed 



1 



0.85 



In a closed submersible, carbon dioxide will 
increase in accordance with: 



where: T = Time in hours 

V/N = Floodable Volume per per- 
son 
RQ = Respiratory Quotient 
0.03 = % of CO2 in "Clean" Air 

Using this formula and the "standard 
man" in the 3-man submersible DOWB (140 
ft^ floodable volume) the following buildup 
could be expected on an 8-hour dive where 
there is no carbon dioxide removal system: 



%C0, = 0.03 + 



(RQ) X O2 (Consumption rate) x T 

V^N 



(0.85) (1.0) (8) 

140 
%C02 = 0.03 + 

%C02 = 0.18 

The U.S. Navy recommends that 0.014 at- 
mosphere of partial pressure (1.5%) be the 
exposure limit of carbon dioxide, while 0.02 
atmosphere (2%) indicates a dire emergency. 
ABS recommends a maximum of one percent 
for long term exposure and MTS agrees with 
this maximum, but notes that a maximum 
carbon dioxide level of 0.5 percent should be 
the design goal for 60- to 90-day missions. 

The effects of various carbon dioxide levels 
on humans as a function of time is shown in 
Figure 9.4. The bar graph to the right of this 
figure is for exposure of 40 days and shows 
that concentrations of carbon dioxide in air 
of less than 0.5 ATA (atmospheres) (Zone A) 
cause no biochemical or other effects, con- 
centrations between 0.5 and 3.0 percent 
(Zone B) cause adaptive biochemical 
changes, which may be considered a mild 
physiological strain, and concentrations 
above 3.0 percent (Zone C) cause pathological 
changes in basic physiological functions. For 
normal operations, the Navy recommends 
that carbon dioxide removal rates should be 
provided that result in carbon dioxide partial 
pressures corresponding to Zones I and II for 
short-term exposures, and to Zones A and B 
for long-term exposures. 

It is obvious, therefore, that a means 
should be available to reduce excess carbon 
dioxide or control it at a level where it will 
not affect the occupant's judgement or physi- 
cal abilities on a routine dive — and especially 
if the vehicle may be unable to surface or 
open the hatch. 

In order of decreasing usage, four chemical 
substances are used to remove carbon diox- 



419 



IT 

3 
U) 
CO 

LU 
OC 



I- 

< 

a. 

o 
o 



0.12 



0.10 



0.08 - 



0.06 



0.04 



0.02 - 



0.00 1- 




10 



30 40 50 

TIME, MINUTES 



40 DAYS 



Fig. 9.4 Relation of physiological effects to carbon dioxide concentration and exposure period. [From Ref. (2)] 



ide within submersibles: Lithium hydroxide 
(LiOH), a strong alkali; Baralyme (a weak 
alkali); Soda Sorb (similar to Baralyme, but 
contains small amounts of sodium hydroxide 
and potassium hydroxide as an "activator"); 
Soda lime (a low moisture Soda Sorb) and 
potassium superoxide (KOj). The last of these 
compounds, KOj, performs the dual role of 
supplying oxygen as well as removing carbon 
dioxide. 

The carbon dioxide "scrubber" system is 
quite simple: A blower assembly forces cabin 
air through one of the above compounds 
which, in turn, removes carbon dioxide from 
the air as it passes through. There is no 
conformity vehicle-to-vehicle on the type of 
fan, power of the fan motor, or volume or 
configuration of the chemical bed. In the All 
Ocean Industries vehicle an automobile vac- 
uum cleaner is packed with KOj and the 
vacuum cleaner motor operates directly off 
the 12-volt battery. In DS-4000 a 1/50-hp 
electric motor works directly from a 120-volt 
supply to turn a drum type impeller which 
forces air through a cannister containing 
LiOH. In BE1\ FRANKLIN, 13 thin rectangu- 



lar panels containing LiOH were hung 
throughout the vehicle and natural convec- 
tion currents in the cabin served to pass air 
through the panels. 

As far as certification or classification is 
concerned, the system used to force cabin air 
through the absorbent chemicals is left more 
or less up to the individual. The ABS states 
that the system should be designed with a 20 
percent safety factor (i.e., 0.10 lb CO2 per 
man-hr x 120% = 0.12 lb per man-hr mini- 
mum). The MTS states that it is preferable to 
use an AC induction motor rather than a 
brush type DC motor to eliminate arcing 
from the brush type motors. 

Probably the best and undoubtedly the 
most recent summation of carbon dioxide 
removal chemicals and their characteristics 
is presented in the report of the JOHNSON 
SEA LINK incident (6) in which two occu- 
pants of the lock-out cylinder perished of 
respiratory acidosis as a consequence of car- 
bon dioxide poisoning. The following summa- 
tion was written by one of the investigating 
panel members, W. M. Nicholson, and is 



420 



taken from Appendix 16 of reference (6); it is 
only changed insofar as references and table 
numbers are concerned to make them com- 
patible with the numbering herein: 

^^Review of life support systems indi- 
cates wide variance in certification 
standards with reference to the time 
requirements. 

An extensive survey (G. E., NRL, 
Westinghouse, I\avy Sup-Dive, etc.) 
also indicates that basic performance 
data are not available for all condi- 
tions — particularly conditions of low 
temperature and high pressure. Test 
programs have been proposed by NRL 
to accomplish this ivork but the pro- 
grams have never been funded. Basic 
characteristics of the commonly used 
materials are shown in Table 9.5 
(taken from ref. 6). It can be inferred 
from ref. (8) that LiOH performance 
would have been operating in a near 
optimum condition at the loiv temper- 
atures encountered, and that it has a 
relatively flat performance curiae in 
terms of temperature variation. It 
should be noted, however, that the 



actual tests (8) did not use gas input 
temperatures below 77°F. 

It is significant that the most de- 
tailed investigations have been per- 
formed in connection with develop- 
ment of closed circuit breathing rigs. 
These investigations have universally 
noted sensitivity of the removal proc- 
ess to temperature, to moisture, to the 
precision of packing the cannisters 
and to the configuration of the cannis- 
ters. Effectiveness of removal is en- 
hanced in the closed circuit design by 
the diver breathing warm air directly 
into the cannister, a process which is 
not used in submersibles. They have 
also noted marked deterioration, ptir- 
ticularly in low temperature perfor- 
mance, which appears to be the result 
of water condensing in the cannister, 
as well as possible temperature varh- 
ance in the rate of reaction. 

Serious deterioration in perfor- 
mance was noted for baralyme stored 
in standard waxed containers. These 
conditioners are intended for use in 
hospitals where storage conditions are 
controlled and 2-year life is expected. 



TABLE 9.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORBENTS [FROM REF. (6)] 



Characteristic 



Baralyme 



Absorbent 



Lithium hydroxide 



Soda Sorb 



Absorbent density, Ib/ff' 65.4 

Theoretical CO2 absorption, lb C02/lb 0.39 

Theor. water generated, lb/lb CO^ 0.41 

Theor. heat of absorption, Btu/lb CO2 67o'' 

Useful CO2 absorption, lb C02/lb (based on 50 percent efficiency) 0.195 

Absorbent weight, lb per diver hr (0.71 lb CO2) 3.65 

Absorbent volume, ft per diver hour 0.0558 

Relative cost, S/diver hr (1968) $1.75 



Based on generating gaseous H^O 

Based on calcium hydroxide reaction only 



28.0 


0.92 


0.41 


875'' 


0.46 


1.55 


0.0552 


$6.20 



55.4 

0.49 

0.41 
670^ 

0.245 

2.90 

0.0533 
$0.75 



421 



This packaging, ivhile convenient in 
size, is not suited to the severe han- 
dling and storage in the marine envi^ 
ronment. Five-gallon (40 lbs) plastic 
sealed containers are available and 
can be expected to give better quality 
assurance, 

A check of the l^ational Oceano- 
graphic Data Center records on the 1- 
degree square in which this incident 
took place produced the curve pro- 
vided on Figure 9.5. It will be noted 
that the lowest temperature to be ex- 
pected in this area is about 59°F. At 
this temperature, using Navy Diving 
Operations Manual performance fig- 
ures, the load (24 lbs) carried in the 
diving chamber should have lasted for 
21 hours. The forward chamber (16 
lbs) should have lasted 20 hours, as- 
suming 70°F in that sphere and good 
baralyme. The variation in actual per- 
formance from that predicted here is 
not readily explainable but could 
have been the result of defective bara- 
lyme packaging, improper packing of 
the cannister, or spreading by the 
crew when the cannisters were emp- 
tied, — probably a combination of 
these. 

I feel we (the expert panel) should 
consider the following recommenda- 
tions for inclusion in the final report 
relating to CO2 removal systems: 

a. Submersibles should carry at least 
a 48-hour supply of absorbent (this is 
consistent with ref. 1). 

b. Lithium hydroxide is to be pre- 
ferred wherever low temperatures are 
encountered. 

c. Only absorbents which are her- 
metically sealed should be carried. 

d. Such seals must be periodically 
checked. 

e. Uniform chemical packing is vital 
and steps should be taken to insure 
this for both pre-packaged cannisters 
and those re-loaded on scene. 

f. A program to develop accurate 
performance parameters for absorb- 
ents under the full range of antici- 
pated pressures and temperatures 
should be undertaken and the results 



made available to the entire diving 
community.'''' 

Enclosure 2 to Nicholson's summation and 
recommendations discussed the effects of 
temperature, humidity and absorbent bed- 
configuration on carbon dioxide removal. 
The following is extracted from that enclo- 
sure: 

"The rate at which carbon dioxide is 
absorbed in absorbents is influenced 
by temperature, and is considerably 
lower at 40°F than at 70°F. In some 
scrubbers sized for adequate perfor- 
mance at 70°F, absorbing capacity at 
40°F may be as little as '/s that at 
70°F. This effect is strongly dependent 
upon the cannister design and the rate 
of carbon dioxide absorption, being 
most evident in absorbers working at 
peak flow rates, and least evident in 
oversized scrubbers and those used in- 
termittently. 

It appears highly desirable to pro- 
vide external insulation and heating 
of scrubbers for use in cold water as a 
means of minimizing size and assuring 
that the design absorbent capacity can 
be obtained. This is also advisable as 
a means of avoiding moisture conden- 
sation. A possible alternative is to 
design for about three times the ab- 
sorbent capacity needed at 70°F. 

The efficiency of absorbents is influ- 
enced by relative humidity. The ab- 
sorbing capacity quoted for Baralyme 
and Soda Lime absorbents is obtained 
only when relative humidity is above 
70 percent. Lower humidity levels re- 
sult in less absorbent capacity. 
Breathing-gas humidity would usually 
be well above 70 percent unless the 
scrubber is preceded by a dehumidi- 
fier. 

Under conditions of high gas humid- 
ity and low scrubber surface tempera- 
ture it is possible to condense water on 
the cannister walls or in the absorb- 
ent. This is undesirable because wet 
absorbent is inactive and impervious 
to air flow, reducing absorptive capac- 
ity and increasing pressure drop 
through the cannister. Scrubbers for 



422 



Depth 
FT M 

20 



40 



197 60 



80 



328 100 



394 1 20 



140 



50° 



10 



TEMPERATURE 
68° 36° 

20 30 °C 



MAX. 



59° 




SOURCE: NO. DC. 7/6/63 

MAX/MIN TEMPERATURES OBSERVED 

IN MONTH OF JUNE 

IN 1° SQUARE 

LAT. 24-25 N 

LONG. 81-82 W 

X (20-25 CASTS 
ALL YEARS-MONTH OF JUNE) 

O POINTS FROM ONE CAST 
IN JUNE 
LAT. 24-26.5 N 
LONG. 81- W 



JS-L 

dive 



O X 



Fig. 9.5 June temperatures - Key West area. [From Ref. (6)] 



423 



use in cold water can be designed to 
minimize moisture condensation by in- 
corporating thermal insulation or by 
heating of the cannister. 

A variety of absorbent-bed configu- 
rations are in use, and none seem to 
have advantages that make them uni- 
versally applicable. The principal de- 
sign requirements are to provide an 
adequate amount of absorbent, very 
uniform distribution of gas flow 
through the absorbent bed, and suffi- 
cient time for the absorption reactions 
to occur. 

The total weight of the absorbent 
can be selected on the basis of the 
total weight of carbon dioxide to be 
absorbed. The volume of a tightly 
packed absorbent bed will then de- 
pend upon the absorbent density, and 
the residence time will be the same for 
any configuration of this volume. 

The pressure drop through an ab- 
sorbent bed will depend upon the relor 
tion of flow cross section and bed 
depth for a fixed bed volume. A large 
cross section and small depth will 
result in low pressure drop. However, 
flow distribution over the cross section 
depends upon uniformity of pressure 
drop, and may be difficult to control 
if the bed is too thin. This difficulty 
can be minimized by using a perfo- 
rated plate at the inlet of the bed to 
provide controlled pressure drop and 
flow distribution. 

If bed volume is selected on the 
basis of absorbent weight, then the 
residence time of gas in the bed will be 
proportional to the rate of ventilation 
through the absorber. As a general 
rule the volume flow rate through the 
scrubber should be the same at all 
depths, matching respiratory volume 
characteristics." 

Reference (6) did not discuss potassium 
superoxide as a carbon dioxide absorbent, 
but Presti et al. (9) provided the results of a 
design, development and testing program of 
commercially available KOj for submersible 
life support. The All Ocean Industries vehi- 
cle is the only one known to use KO2 al- 



though its application vi^as tested and found 
successful by the General Dynamics investi- 
gators for STAR III. Mentioned earlier was 
the ability of KOj to both supply oxygen and 
absorb carbon dioxide. In brief, when cabin 
air passes through the KOj bed the moisture 
in the air reacts with the KOj to produce 
oxygen and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The 
KOH, a strong alkali, then absorbs carbon 
dioxide. 

According to the authors, a KOj system 
offers the following advantages: 

— It weighs less and occupies a smaller 
volume 

— It costs less to operate 

— Stored properly, it has an indefinite shelf 
life 

— It removes water from the atmosphere 

— Its color change (canary-to-white) can be 
used as a depletion indicator 

— It will remove odors and trace contami- 
nants and kill micro-organisms. 

On the other hand, Presti and his co-inves- 
tigators admit to several disadvantages of 
KO^: 

— An initial over production of oxygen can 
occur 

— Caking or "mushing" and subsequent 
plugging of the KOj bed can take place 

— KOj emits an irritating dust 

— It is a strong oxidizer and therefore 
must be handled and used with care 

— It reacts very readily with water to pro- 
duce oxygen and heat; with sufficient 
heat, combustible materials can ignite. 

The authors, however, describe design and 
handling methods to overcome the disadvan- 
tages and offer test results to show KOj's 
practical application in small submersibles. 

Another system, using a molecular sieve 
solid absorbent which can be regenerated, is 
planned for use in a submersible under con- 
struction by Messrs. P. Dostal and J. Hair of 
Alvin, Texas. In a personal communication 
Mr. Dostal sketched the system shown in 
Figure 9.6 and cautioned that it is only in the 
design stage and, because of its complexity, 
its use is speculative. The philosophy leading 
to this system and its operation is described 
by Mr. Dostal as follows: 

^'Originally, we had planned to use 

LiOH in the scrubber, which was caus- 



424 



o. 



L 



12V DC 

BLOWER 

(120SCFM1 



DIST. DUCT. 




MECHANICAL H,0 SILICA GEL 

SEPARATOR 
(COLD TRAP) 



2 



DRY AIR LESS CO, & O, 



PURGE LINES 



Fig. 9.6 Schematic of the molecular sieve carbon dioxide scrubbing system for a manned 
submersible. (Mr. P. Dostal, Alvin, Texas) 



tic, hard to store, cost $5.00 a pound 
and had to be thrown away when 
expired. We then decided to try a 
product of Linde Division of Union 
Carbide called molecular sieves. This 
substance was originally manufac- 
tured for use in water vapor removal 
for industrial gas processes, but using 
the right size (5 angstrom pores) it can 
remove CO from an airstream. It does 
this by absorption, which is not a 
chemical process; therefore, you can 
purge the system with a dry gas at 
about 800 F and use it over find over 
again. To use it €is a CO^ scrubber, the 
entering airstream must be free of any 
water vapor. This is because the water 
molecule is a much more polar mole- 
cule than COo, and the sieve has a 
preference for polar molecules. We 
are therefore designing a water sepa- 
rator (cold trap) to be used upstream 
of the scrubber; this mechanism will 
condense out the water vapor which 
tvill be collected ami redistributed 
downstream of the scrubber. Since the 
air coming out of the scrubber tvill be 
100 percent dry, by adjusting the 
amount of water redistributed we can 
control our humidity. We will also 



have a smetll container of Silica Gel 
upstream to assure that the air ivill be 
dry before entering the scrubber. The 
ivhole system should be a fairly small 
and light-weight package. We will 
leave the system in the submarine, and 
have our purge lines running to fit- 
tings in the hull. Our purge system, of 
course, will be external, and the cost 
of the purge gas fiV,) will be the only 
expense of our system.'^ 



The final selection of a carbon dioxide 
scrubbing system and compounds should be 
made only after very careful deliberation. 
Not only should the approach take into con- 
sideration the more obvious factors of cost, 
scrubbing efficiency, packaging, handling, 
etc., which can be gained from the foregoing 
discussion, but, to the extent possible, the 
less obvious factors which may be external to 
the vehicle. According to reference (6), it was 
known that the effectiveness of Baralyme 
(the scrubbing compound used in JOHNSON 
SEA LINK) decreased markedly as tempera- 
ture decreased. However, the operators an- 
ticipated that all dives would be in warm 
waters (65'F or higher), but the data pre- 
sented in Figure 9.5 show that the seawater 



425 



temperature at the dive location varies 
widely about the 65"F value. The last am- 
bient temperature measurement taken by 
the vehicle's occupants (38 minutes prior to 
entanglement) showed 51.8 °F, and the com- 
munications log showed 45°F temperature 
within the aluminum lock-out cylinder some 
8 hours later. At this unexpected tempera- 
ture the Baralyme's effectiveness was se- 
verely curtailed. Indeed, no indication of 
such low water temperatures was indicated 
even from historical data. Another consider- 
ation became evident in the characteristics 
of the different pressure hull materials used 
for the aluminum lock-out chamber and the 
forward acrylic sphere. Unlike aluminum, 
acrylic plastic has a low heat transfer coeffi- 
cient and the operation of equipment therein 
maintained a temperature of 70 °F at which 
the Baralyme functioned adequately. At the 
very least, the JOHNSON SEA LINK tragedy 
demonstrated how paltry our knowledge of 
the ocean is. While there is much we can 
predict about it generally, there are few 
areas that we can predict specifically, and it 
is within this broad host of unknowns that 
the submersible dives. 



Trace Conlaniinants: 

The broad spectrum of trace contaminants 
generally includes all atmospheric contami- 
nants, other than carbon dioxide, produced 
by the human occupants, the electronic or 
mechanical machinery, paints and solvents 
and, in some vehicles, batteries within the 
pressure hull. Referring back to Table 9.2, it 
is obvious that a wide variety of such con- 
taminants can evolve. The critical factor in 
this category is time of exposure, and most 
vehicles do not have a submerged endurance 
which allows these contaminants to reach 
toxic levels. This is not to imply that the 
evolution of trace contaminants may be ig- 
nored, but their detection and removal have 
been a secondary consideration by most de- 
signers because of the short diving time. 
But, as the JOHNSON SEA LINK and the 
PISCES III incidents demonstrated, life sup- 
port for routine diving is not a difficult prop- 
osition; it is the non-routine dive that intro- 
duces the moment of truth. 



The ABS has divided trace contaminants 
into "unavoidable" and "avoidable" — the for- 
mer being those produced by the human 
body in its normal functions (e.g., Hj, COj, 
NH3, HjS, SO2, CH4 and forms of aldehydes 
and alcohols) and the latter being those pro- 
duced by equipment for cooking. Under 
avoidable contaminants they caution that all 
instruments should be carefully selected to 
avoid contaminant production. Mercury 
thermometers should be avoided and non- 
reactive protecting and insulating electronic 
materials should be used. 

Both the ABS and the U.S. Navy require 
that a sample of cabin air, obtained under 
simulated closed hatch operations, be ana- 
lyzed by chromatography. Such analyses 
must be performed for initial certification/ 
classification, and thereafter when major 
overhauls are conducted. The Navy further 
requires these analyses whenever the inte- 
rior is repainted or cleaned with solvents 
that contain hydrocarbons or other toxi- 
cants. 

Removal of trace contaminants can be per- 
formed by absorption, adsorption or oxida- 
tion, and the following compounds may be 
used either actively (by incorporating them 
in the scrubber system) or passively (by plac- 
ing them in panels or devices into which 
cabin air can circulate under natural convec- 
tion currents or circulating fans): Activated 
charcoals, LiOH, soda lime or other alkaline 
earths and Purafil (activated alumina im- 
pregnated with potassium permanganate). 
In the few submersibles that take specific 
measures to remove trace contaminants, ac- 
tivated charcoal or carbon is preferred. la- 
nuzzi (10), in discussing the role of activated 
charcoal in odor removal, relates that the 
occupants of DS-4000 reported no discom- 
forting effects from the cabin aroma whether 
charcoal was used or not used; consequently, 
its addition to the LiOH cannister was dis- 
continued. 

In those submersibles where the batteries 
are stored in the pressure hull, the role of 
Hydrocaps in recombining the hydrogen gen- 
erated with oxygen into water was discussed 
in Chapter 7. It will suffice to mention that a 
number of submersibles with in-hull battery 
arrangements also include hydrogen detec- 
tors to monitor cabin air. 



426 



Human Wastes: 

For long duration missions the nature and 
source of human wastes which must be con- 
sidered are shown in Table 9.6. The Bioas- 
tronautics Data Book (11) provides quanti- 
tative information on all of these products. 
Because of the short dive duration, today's 
submersibles generally only consider urine, 
feces and vomitus for their waste storage/ 
control system. No known submersible de- 
sign incorporates a means of ejecting such 
wastes into the sea; consequently, all ap- 
proaches eventually lead to storing them 
until the dive is terminated. The exception, 
as noted previously, is the BEN FRANKLIlS's 
system of waste tanks for long duration stor- 
age. 

The solution to storage of human wastes is 
inordinately simple: A plastic, scalable bag 
takes care of vomitus, and a jar or chemical 
toilet takes care of urine and feces. Figure 
9.7 shows DS-2000's approach to urine stor- 
age and it typifizs the approach in most 
vehicles — it is a polyethylene container made 
for the light aircraft industry and has a 
liquid capacity of one quart. 

A temporary solution to urine and feces 
storage is to fast for some period before the 
dive commences and to use the support ship 
facilities just prior to embarking on the sub- 
mersible. While the topic does have its hu- 
morous aspects, there is nothing humorous 




Fig. 9 7 DEEPSTAR 2000s human element range exlender (HERE). 



as far as one's fellow occupants are con- 
cerned. In view of the normal discomfort 
within small submersibles, consideration in 
this vein is not only courteous, but in the 
final analysis, the by-product gasses might 



TABLE 9.6 HUMAN WASTE PRODUCTS [FROM REF. (1)] 



Waste 



Source 



Examples 



Solid 



Metabolic 

Debris 

Other 



Feces 

Hair, Nail Clippings, Toilet Paper, Metal Cans, Bottles, Paper, Plastic Packages 

Waste Food, Vomitus 



Liquid 



Metabolic 
Other 



Urine, Respiration, Perspiration 

Wash Water, Waste Foods (Coffee, Tea, Milk, etc.). Chemicals 



Gaseous 



Metabolic 
Other 



Flatus, Ammonia, CO2, CO 

Material Outgassing, Bacterial Metabolism 



427 



very well nauseate the occupants and be 
quite detrimental to the mission. Dr. R. C. 
Bornmann, Captain, USN, (personal commu- 
nication) states that for a short duration 
exposure and with human occupants in good 
health, there is no danger to their health 
from the gasses evolved, other than their 
noxious effects. 

Temperature-Humidity Control 

Aspects of the cabin environment that 
have a direct effect on both occupants and 
electronic equipment are temperature and 
humidity. Only a handful of submersibles 
provide control of these variables and the 
results, as we saw from the JOHNSON SEA 
LINK, can be fatal in the extreme. For the 
most part, however, high and low tempera- 
tures and high humidity are inconveniences 
that are tolerated until the dive is finished. 
But in some instances, the lack of control can 
seriously alter the mission. For example, it 
was planned to conduct periodic 24-hour bot- 
tom excursions during BEN FRANKLIN's 30- 
day Gulf Stream Drift, but none of these 
excursions lasted more than 9 hours because 
the temperature in the cabin dropped into 
the low 50's (°F). While this temperature was 
tolerable, the correspondingly high humidity 
(82%) produced a bone-chilling cold that left 
little more on the occupant's mind than to 
get warm (Fig. 9.8). Concentration on any- 
thing else was all but impossible. The situa- 
tion was corrected by ascending into shal- 
lower, warmer waters. 

On the opposite end are the effects of high 
temperature and high humidity. During 
tropical operations with DS-4000 , Merrifield 
(12) reports cabin temperatures of 100°F and 
100 percent humidity when operating at less 
than 600 feet — v.'ith the result that the occu- 
pants' effectiveness was seriously impaired. 

The enervating effects of high tempera- 
ture and humidity can begin long before the 
vehicle submerges. In the tropics and sub- 
tropics between-dive maintenance aboard 
ship requires the support personnel to work 
in the vehicle where conditions can become 
almost unbearable unless some form of air- 
conditioning is provided. Many support ships 
are equipped to blow cool air into the cabin 
to maintain a habitable environment. 

Large vehicles of the ALU MINAUT variety 
produced some unusually trying cabin condi- 



"^npnrfif* 





Fig 98 Just prior to an aborted bottom excursion dunng BEN FRANKLIN'S Gulf 
Stream Drrtt trie auttior. wrapped in a blanket and weanng a foam-rubber pad to 
cushion contact between his head and the steel-rimmed viewport, stares balef ully at a 
fellow passenger An IjOH panel and several 5-lb bags of silica gel can be seen in 
the bacltground. (Grumman Aerospace Corp ) 

tions when operating in the tropics. ALUMI- 
NAUT''s general operating procedure was to 
cast off the towline and transfer the observ- 
ers by rubber raft from support ship to sub- 
mersible. The observers were instructed to 
wear long pants and sweaters, because the 
cabin temperature would get quite chilly 
after a few hours in the 40° to 50°F bottom 
waters. When the passengers embarked, the 
interior of the vehicle had almost unbearably 
high temperature and humidity. Perspira- 
tion before the vehicle dived produced 
soaked clothing. When the vehicle reached 
operating depth and temperatures dropped, 
the wet clothing only served to aggravate 
the situation. The final solution was to em- 
bark in shorts, towel off at depth when the 
vehicle cooled and then change to heavier 
clothing which was kept dry within a plastic 
refuse bag. 



428 



Although submersible occupants have 
learned to cope with such conditions, there is 
still much to be desired in the way of perma- 
nent solutions that do not consume an inor- 
dinate share of the limited electrical power 
supply. 

Temperature Control: 

Ambient seawater is the major influence 
on temperature within the pressure hull. 
The length of time it takes to transfer heat 
either into or out of the pressure hull de- 
pends upon the hull material. Figure 9.9 
shows the temperature variations within the 
steel-hulled BEN FRANKLIN during its 30- 
day drift. Comparing this with ambient 
water temperature reveals a very close cor- 
relation. An examination of this plot shows 
another major temperature influence: Dur- 
ing day 11 the propulsion motors were 



turned on in an attempt to regain the Gulf 
Stream's central core, the four propulsion 
motors were activated and the effects of heat 
generated by their operation is shown by the 
wide variance between cabin and ambient 
temperature on that day. Electronic equip- 
ment is a positive heat source which can be 
an advantage during a deep dive in cold 
waters but a disadvantage on shallow dives 
in warm waters. Other sources of heat are 
the metabolic activities of the occupants 
themselves and the chemical reaction in the 
carbon dioxide scrubber compounds, which is 
exothermic. These contributions are also ap- 
parent in Figure 9.9 midday between days 12 
and 13 when the vehicle was being towed 
back into the central core and all electronic 
equipment, except for the underwater tele- 
phone and a few scientific instruments, was 
turned off. 




°^ au 

> 

h- 

80 

3 

1 70 






1 


OS 


K yf 


^DS 










REl 

S-80% 


.ATIVE 


HUMIC 


ITY 










/V 


^h 


K. 


4^ 


.^^ 


^ 


M 


w-^ 


< 


\^^ 


-^v^ 


H 




^ 




LU 
> 

1- 60 




/ 










\J 


1 








DS- 


-DEPL 


OYED< 


;ILICA 


3EL 




< 

LU 

QC 50 


/ 


3 ,4 


5, 6 


7 8 


9 ,10 


11 ,12 


13,14 


15, 16 


17 


18 


19,20 


21,22 


23,24 


25,26 


27,28 


29,30 








15'16 


17'18 


19 '20 


21 '22 


23 '24 


25 '26 


27 '28 

II 1 1 


29 '30 

V 1 QCQ 


31 


1 


2 ' 3 

Al \C 1 


4I 5 


6^7 


8 ' 9 


10' 11 


12'l3 













MISSION DURATION, DAYS 



Fig. 9.9 Log of temperature and relative humidity for 30 days aboard BEN FRANKLIN. [From Ref. (16)] 



429 



Several approaches are taken to control 
cabin temperature: Hull insulation to retain 
heat; electric heaters to produce heat; air 
conditioners to remove heat; and circulation 
of cabin air along the colder pressure hull to 
cool it or across a block of ice to achieve the 
same result. 

Insulating the hull is a practice in a few 
vehicles and is adequate as long as sufficient 
heat is being produced. Electric heaters are 
effective if the power they require can be 
spared. 

Air conditioning serves both a cooling and 
humidity control function. Its use, however, 
is governed by available electric power. On 
JOHNSON SEA LINK the air conditioner's 
motor and compressor are housed externally 
in a pressure-resistant container and the 
condensers consist of tubular frames behind 
the acrylic sphere. Liquid freon enters the 
sphere through a penetration with a ball 
valve acting as a hullstop. Passing through 
the evaporator the gasses pass out of the 
sphere to the condenser via a return line 
with a check valve hullstop. 

Because acrylic plastic has a low heat 
transfer coefficient, the air inside traps solar 
radiation and can produce extremely high 
temperatures. Operators within NEMO expe- 
rienced temperatures of 120 °F and 85 per- 
cent relative humidity (13); consequently, a 
system was designed for both NEMO and its 
successor, MAKAKAI, to reduce such temper- 
ature extremes and maintain a low relative 
humidity as well. 

MAKAKAI's systems (14) consist of 25 
pounds of ice stored in cannisters (under the 
operators' seats) over which air is circulated 
by fans. If the hull is covered until just prior 
to the dive the cabin temperature can be 
held at 82°F for 6 hours. The cooling system 
also removes water vapor from the atmos- 
phere by causing it to condense on the cool 
ice containers. Various components of this 
system are shown aboard NEMO in Figure 
9.10. 

Humidity Control: 

The major sources of water vapor in a 
submersible are the cabin air when the 
hatch is closed and respiration and perspira- 
tion of the occupants. Except for those vehi- 
cles with air conditioning, the control or low- 



ering of humidity is accomplished by adding 
a desiccant to the carbon dioxide scrubbing 
compound, or by distributing small parcels of 
desiccant throughout the vehicle. From all 
available information, the only desiccant 
used is silica gel, and its effectiveness can be 
seen in Figure 9.9 which shows an immediate 
decrease in relative humidity following de- 
ployment of additional 5-pound, cloth-bound 
packages. Many of the random fluctuations 
in this figure correlate with temperature 
variations. Other variations (decreases) may 
be attributed to non-periodic but occasional 
massaging and shaking of the packets. By 
deployment of some 3,600 pounds of silica gel 
throughout the 30-day mission the humidity 
level was maintained at a comfortable level. 
The effects of high humidity are more criti- 
cal on equipment than on humans, especially 
when the internal temperature drops to a 
level where condensation occurs with subse- 
quent drippage or collection of water on and 
within electrical components. 

Atmospheric Monitoring Devices 

The one area where the submersible com- 
munity does not lack off-the-shelf instrumen- 
tation is in the means available to monitor 
the cabin atmosphere. A wide variety of com- 
pact, portable and inexpensive monitoring 
devices is available from the mining and 
aircraft industries, among others, which is 
more than adequate for submersible opera- 
tions. There is no doubt that improvements 
can be made, but, for the present, progress in 
deep submergence is not thwarted by lack of 
atmospheric monitors. The variety of instru- 
ments from which to choose is reflected on 
the individual vehicles where few use the 
same devices. Consequently, only one or two 
instruments from each category are de- 
scribed. 



Oxygen: 

Two factors need be known with regards to 
oxygen: How much is in the flasks, and how 
much is in the atmosphere? 

The simplest answer to the first question is 
the pressure gage arrangement shown in 
Figure 9.11. This system attaches directly to 
the oxygen flasks and is manufactured by 
National Cylinder Gas Corporation. The 
main components are a gage to show pres- 



430 




Fig. 9.10 Vanous components of NEMO's life support system. (U.S. Navy) 



431 




LASK CONNECTION 






Fig, 9-11 Oxygen flasks and control/monitoring devices aboard PC- /4, 



sure in the flask (0-4,000 psig), a valve to 
reduce the pressure as it comes out of the 
flask (0-100 psi) and a flow meter (0-15 1pm) 
to indicate and control the rate of oxygen 
released to the cabin. 

A second arrangement is shown in Figure 
9.12. In this Scott device the oxygen is intro- 
duced at one of the fittings at the top and 
circulates through the system, during which 
time flask pressure is measured (0-2,000 psi). 
Flow rate is controlled and monitored (SCFH 
at 10 psig and 70°F), and oxygen is fed into 
the cabin via the companion top fitting or 



routed through piping elsewhere if desired. 
Quite frequently the readout portion of such 
systems is incorporated into the monitoring 
panel which is in easy view of the operator 
and does not require his moving about to 
check the gages. 

Several portable devices are available to 
monitor the oxygen content in the atmos- 
phere. Invariably these are polarographic 
sensors which indicate by means of a voltme- 
ter. 

Both the JOHNSON SEA LINK and SDL-J 
use the Biomarine oxygen monitoring sys- 



432 



I INPUT/OUTPUT FITTINGS! 



( 




FLASK PRESSURE INDICATOR! 



© 



o 



FLOW METER 




^<..;«»t^,.~i.»-.»«.fv...»«».^.-^<-M».a.^. ■■..■......-».»..«- II aij^^^ lull -|iitiifftri 



Fig 9 12 A flow meter and flask pressure indicator once used aboard ALVIN. but now replaced. (WHOI) 



tern shown in Figure 9.13. This unit (model 
202) reads from 0-100 percent oxygen or 0-1.0 
absolute atmosphere of partial pressure. The 
oxygen is sensed directly by a galvanic cell 
containing a gold cathode and a lead anode 
in a basic electrolyte. Oxygen diffusing 
through the cell face initiates redox reac- 
tions which generate a minute current pro- 
portional to the oxygen's partial pressure. A 
remote sensor in the diver chamber allows 
the pilot to monitor either sphere or diver 
chamber oxygen concentrations. 

The oxygen sensor in DS-4000 was de- 
signed by Mr. Alan Krasberg in 1962 and 



operates on the principle of a fuel cell. When 
molecules of oxygen impinge on the sensing 
element, a voltage is generated which is pro- 
portional to the partial pressure of the local 
oxygen concentration. This device indicates 
continuously on a 0-50 percent dial where a 
green ring spans the desired 17 to 25 percent 
range. The unit operates routinely off the 
main power supply (28 VDC drawing 0.1 
amp), but in a power failure it has its own 
batteries which are kept charged by the 
main supply. The device is shown in Figure 
9.14. Its accuracy is within the order of its 
readability, ±0.2 percent. 



433 




Fig, 9 13 Bio Marine Industries automatic oxygen flow control and sensor unit (Bio 
Manne. Ind ) 




Fig, 9,14 Westinghouse-Krasberg oxygen monitor (Mr A P lanuzzi, Naval Facili- 
ties Eng Comm,} 



Other oxygen analyzing devices are com- 
mercially available from Beckman, Teledyne 
Analytical Instruments, Johnson-Williams 
and others. In some vehicles a second device 
is sometimes carried as a backup in the 
event of a malfunction in the primary device. 

Carbon Dioxide: 

Monitors for detecting carbon dioxide 
range from the complex to the very simple. 
The U.S. Navy's SEA CUFF and TURTLE 
carry both a fixed and a portable carbon 
dioxide monitoring device. The fixed moni- 
toring device is manufactured by Interna- 
tional Gas Detector Ltd. and reads from 0-5 
percent with an accuracy of ±0.25 percent. 
The analyzer contains two sealed chambers, 
each connected to one end of a nonspillable 
liquid manometer tube. One of the chambers 
contains a cartridge of soda lime, the other 
contains a dummy, or inert, cartridge. At- 
mosphere diffuses into the chambers 
through porous rings. The soda lime absorbs 
carbon dioxide creating a lower pressure in 
its side of the manometer and drawing the 
liquid up in that leg of the tube. The percent 
of carbon dioxide in the sample is read di- 
rectly on a O-to-5 percent scale behind the 
tube. A knob on the top of the unit is used to 
move the scale up and down behind the tube 
to zero the unit before use. Each chamber 
contains a small cartridge of cotton wool 
soaked with water to maintain equal vapor 
pressures in each side of the unit, thereby 
making it impervious to changes in humid- 
ity. 

The portable analyzer is shown in Figure 
9.15. It uses a liquid absorbent to remove 
carbon dioxide and indicates concentration 
by volume change. The unit is manufactured 
by F. W. Dwyer Company and is found in a 
number of submersibles. In operation, an 
aspirator bulb is used to force the air sample 
into the water saturation chamber through 
the sample line. The plunger valve is de- 
pressed while the aspirator pumps the sam- 
ple in, thereby allowing the sample to pass 
down through the sample intake tube, out 
through the cross bores at the bottom of the 
intake tube, up through the distilled water in 
the water saturation chamber and over into 
the sample chamber. The sample is vented 
off to the atmosphere through a float on one 



434 




Rg. 9.15 The Dwyer portable carbon dioxide monilor (Mr A P lanuzzr. Naval 
Facilities Eng Comm ) 



side of the plunger valve. After the sample is 
pumped through the unit, the plunger valve 
is released, closing off both the atmospheric 
vent and the connection to the water satura- 
tion chamber. The CO2 is absorbed by slowly 
raising and lowering the absorption basket 
four times. The indicating tube is then 
vented to the atmosphere by depressing the 
vent valve until the fluid level comes to rest, 
then releasing it. The percent COj is read 
directly from the position of the fluid level on 
the calibrated scale. The instrument is reset 
for a new measurement by depressing both 
the plunger valve and the vent valve until 
the fluid is balanced. The unit is zeroed by 
sliding the scale vertically by means of the 
zero adjusting nut. 

Several other portable and hand-held de- 
vices can be used, not only for carbon dioxide 
monitoring, but for other atmospheric con- 
taminants as well. DS-2000 carries both a 
Kitagawa and a Mine Safety Appliances car- 
bon dioxide testing kit as backup for its 
primary Dwyer monitoring system. 

Using the pump shown in Figure 9.16, a 
sample of atmosphere is drawn into a glass 
phial within which a granular reagent shows 
concentration of carbon dioxide by color 
change. Similar in design is a Drager Multi- 
Gas Detector which, by inserting the proper 
phials, can measure a wide variety of atmos- 
pheric trace contaminants. 




Fig 9 16 A Kitagawa CO2 detection kit used as a backup system aboard DS-2000 



Temperature and Humidity: 

In order to avoid the possibility of contami- 
nation from spilled mercury, only bimetallic 
temperature sensors are acceptable. A num- 
ber of vehicles use a relative humidity indi- 
cator manufactured by the Bacharach In- 
strument Co. of Pittsburgh, Pa. Both temper- 
ature and humidity measurements have 
been combined by Bacharach into one instru- 
ment with a readout for both variables. In 
the model used aboard SEA CLIFF and TUR- 
TLE (Bach. Code 22-4529) temperature is 
indicated from 0° to 130°F (±1°F accuracy 
from 32°-130°F) and relative humidity from 
to 100 percent (±3% accuracy from 15 to 90% 
RH 32° to 130°F). The design of the tempera- 
ture sensing element is based on a conven- 
tional spiral-wound, bimetallic spring con- 
nected to a pointer. The humidity sensing 
element consists of a hygroscopic animal 



435 




employed is a sensitive aircraft altimeter 
(Fig. 9.17). A regular barometer is limited in 
range. Altitude (pressure) changes are 
caused by variations in oxygen or carbon 
dioxide within the cabin; in DOWB (140 ft=» 
internal volume) a one percent increase in 
either will cause a decrease in altitude of 277 
feet (15). Unfortunately, temperature and 
relative humidity changes are also reflected 
on the altimeter and a means for correcting 
the altimeter for these changes must be pro- 
vided if concentration of gasses is desired. 

Inadvertent or accidental pressure buildup 
to the point where decompression would 
have been required has never been reported; 
in most cases the buildup is slight, but suffi- 
cient to be noticed on the ear drums when 
the hatch is opened following a 6- or 8-hour 
dive. The possibility that such a buildup 
might occur can bear on the methods used to 



Fig, 9 17 Cabin pressure indicator (Altimeter) (Mr A P lanuzzi. Naval Faalittes 
Eng. Comm.) 



membrane clamped between a pair of alumi- 
num retaining rings. A spring-loaded linkage 
assembly is connected with the center of the 
diaphragm, pulling it into a conical shape. 
The other end of the linkage is connected to 
the indicating pointer. Since the diaphragm 
is sensitive to moisture in the surrounding 
air, changes in humidity cause proportional 
changes in its dimensions. Movement of the 
apex of the diaphragm is transmitted to the 
pointer through mechanical linkage. The 
unit does not require maintenance or adjust- 
ments. 

Cabin Pressure: 

Ascertaining the atmospheric pressure 
within the cabin is important for crew com- 
fort (a sudden decrease in pressure when the 
hatch is opened may be quite painful) and 
safety (undetected buildup of pressure might 
reach proportions requiring decompression). 
Additionally, the oxygen flow rate in many 
vehicles is usually adjusted by noting 
changes in cabin pressure. There are a num- 
ber of devices which can be used to measure 
pressure changes, but the one most widely 




Fig 



9 18 Two dillerent methods ol secunng a halcti cover a) DS'2UUU. D) 
AQUARIUS I (a Westinghouse Corp ) 



436 




secure the hatch cover. On a number of 
vehicles the hatch cover is secured to the 
hull by metal clips which extend from the 
hatch cover into and tangential to the pres- 
sure hull. An example of this type of ar- 
rangement is shown in Figure 9.18a. With 
this method pressure could build to a point 
where, when the vehicle is surfaced and free 
of hydrostatic pressure, the hatch cover 
could be forced upward sufficiently to inhibit 
retraction of the securing clips. An alternate 
solution might be to undog the hatch when 
submerged, but this may lead to explosive 
depressurization when nearing the surface. 
To overcome the problem where the hatch 
could not be undogged due to high cabin 
pressure. International Hydrodynamics has 
derived an alternative securing method 
which is shown in Figure 9.18b and is used 
on AQUARIUS I. This method consists of a 
thick rubber strap affixed into a clip inside 
the pressure hull. The philosophy here is 
that the only time the hatch cover needs to 
be held secure is when the vehicle is on the 
surface (the strap provides this function) and 
that ambient pressure will keep it closed 
when the vehicle is submerged. 

To solve the pressure problem a number of 
vehicles provide a thru-hull pressure relief 
valve which allows the operator to relieve 
the pressure when surfaced without opening 
the hatch and at a desired rate. BEN 



FRANKLIN, for one, had such an arrange- 
ment which could be used to "burp" the 
pressure hull if so desired. 

While submersible diving history shows no 
evidence of internal pressure buildup to dan- 
gerous proportions, there is always the possi- 
bility that it can occur and the seemingly 
simple task of securing a hatch cover may 
have important repercussions. 

Philosophical Approach; Two 
Examples 

The duration, control and monitoring of 
life support systems is finalized, not only on 
the basis of the number of occupants, volume 
of the cabin and length of dives, but also on 
the operator's philosophy concerning safe 
diving practices. Most operators agree on the 
following: A supply of oxygen, a carbon diox- 
ide removal system and monitors for atmos- 
pheric pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide. 
But there are extremes on both sides — e.g., 
the K-250 and BEN FRANKLIN. The former 
relies on nothing but air within the cabin; 
the latter supplies virtually every need for 
life support. Before examining these two ex- 
amples, attention is directed to a paper by 
Mr. A. P. lanuzzi (10) who describes the 
philosophical and technical considerations 
that went into the design of DS-4000's life 
support system. lanuzzi's report is an excel- 
lent example of the considerations and trade- 
offs a submersible designer must confront in 
life support design and is recommended as a 
practical primer for the neophyte. 

Most submersibles provide a life support 
system paralleling that of the DS-4000, but 
on both sides of this system are extremes 
which are derived by virtue of the dive time. 
K-250 has a lV2-hour dive duration; BEN 
FRANKLIN has a 30-day duration. BEN 
FRANKLIN remained under longer than any 
other submersible and its life support system 
is described because it was highly successful 
and required virtually no electrical power. 
Additionally, the results of the system's ef- 
fect on the crew members were exhaustively 
examined and documented; hence, there may 
be one or more features of this proven sys- 
tem which may be of value to future design- 
ers and present operators. K-250 is dis- 
cussed primarily because it represents a rad- 
ical variation from every other design and 
the designer states why in detail. 



437 



The designer and builder of these 1-man, 
250-foot vehicles is Captain George Kit- 
tredge, USN (Ret.) of Kittredge Industries, 
Warren, Maine. Several K-250's have been 
built and sold, and Captain Kittredge offers a 
15-page brochure (for a nominal fee) which 
relates the vehicle's design, his history as a 
builder and his personal philosophy as re- 
gards design of various submarine systems. 
Kittredge's naval experiences included a 
tour of duty as commanding officer of a Navy 
submarine, so he comes into the submersible 
field with credentials as appropriate as any. 
For this reason it is interesting to examine 
an approach to life support which is radically 
different from those of all of his associates in 
deep submergence; the following quote is 
from his brochure entitled K-250. 

"From time to time, people ask us 
what we do about air for breathing in 
our submarines. The answer is that we 
use the same method that was used in 
U.S. Navy submarines during World 
War II: namely, we breath the atmos- 
phere inside the submarine. Theoreti- 
cally, there is sufficient oxygen in the 
atmosphere inside the submarine to 
last six hours; however, in actual 
practice we recommend surfacing and 
reventilating every hour. This takes 
less than five minutes and is the easi- 
est, simplest, and safest thing to do. 

We do not recommend carrying contr 
pressed oxygen in the submarine for 
two reasons. A leak in the oxygen 
system would build up an internal 
pressure in the submarine and could 
prove toxic to the operator. Secondly, 
an oxygen enriched atmosphere could 
result in a fire hazard. While oxygen 
itself will not burn, it supports com- 
bustion. The space capsule fire that 
took the lives of three astronauts is a 
good example of what can happen 
when you have an oxygen enriched 
atmosphere in a confined space. Nor 
do we recommend the use of CO2 ab- 
sorbent in our submarines. CO2 ab- 
sorbent can defeat the only means a 
human body has of detecting "bad 
air." Almost everyone has, at one time 
or another, been in a crowded room 



and heard someone say, "It's getting 
stuffy in here. Let's open a window." 
What actually happened in such a 
case, was that the level of CO2 in the 
room had built up and increased the 
acidity of the blood. That part of the 
brain known as the '^obligata med- 
ulla" detects an increase in the acid- 
ity of the blood. Thus, the human body 
can detect a high concentration ofCO^ 
but it cannot detect a deficiency of 
oxygen. The most dangerous thing that 
could be done in the above example of 
the crowded room, would be to use CO2 
absorbent. 

So this is the system we recommend. 
Surface and ventilate the submarine 
every hour or more often if you 
"think" the air in the submarine is 
getting foul. This is the safest, sim- 
plest, and least expensive procedure to 
follow." 

From a technical point of view Kittredge's 
philosophy is unassailable. The medulla ob- 
longata will indeed warn of excess carbon 
dioxide, but if one reviews the incidents re- 
lated in Chapter 15, there are times when 
the window in the submersible's "stuffy 
room" cannot be opened. Captain Kittredge's 
approach to life support stands alone in the 
field of deep submergence. 

BEN FRANKLIN: 

Relative to military submarines, which can 
stay routinely submerged for 60 days, BEN 
franklin's 30-day submergence was no re- 
cord-breaker. However, a nuclear submarine, 
in regards to life support, differs from BEN 
FRANKLIN in the following: It extracts oxy- 
gen from seawater; it removes carbon diox- 
ide through a process not requiring vast 
stores of scrubbing compound; trace contam- 
inants are automatically monitored and con- 
trolled; heaters and air conditioning control 
the atmosphere; food is stored and prepared 
as it is on surface ships; water is manufac- 
tured onboard; metabolic wastes are stored 
and then dumped overboard; and space, 
though not overexcessive, is in greater abun- 
dance. The reason for these differences re- 
sides in a nuclear submarine's abundant 
electrical power and great size relative to 
the 750-kwh, id-foot-long BEN FRANKLIN. 



438 



The operation and success oiBEN FRANK- 
LIN's life support and a variety of other 
human aspects in deep submergence are 
analyzed in detail in a five-volume report 
prepared by Grumman Aerospace for NASA; 



the following information and figures were 
extracted from these (ref. 16 and ref. 17) and 
from personal experiences of the author. A 
collection of photographs showing various 
features and activities during the drift is 





.» 






» 
/% 




Fig. 9.19 Assorted activities aboard BEN FRANKUN dunng and prior to its 30-day drift m July-August 1969. 
a) Interior view looking forward from the aft hemi-head (Gnjmman Aerospace Corp.) 



439 





b) Co-pilol Erwin Abersold at work in the forward nemi-bead (wardroom). 
Also shown IS the LiOH panel and bags of silica gel. (NAVOCEANO) 



c) Tfie 'continental" stiower and wastiroom laalities (NAVOCEANO) 




d) NASA crewman Chester May with a Drager tube (NAVOCEANO) 

440 




e) Venting off liquid oxygen at West Palm Beach. Fla. (NAVOCEANO) 




f) Crewman at the forward viewports dunng a bottom excursion, (NAVOCEANO) 



441 




g) Hot water tanks and galley area {Grumman Aerospace Corp ) 



442 




h) Oceanographer Kenneth Haigh in scientific area Silica gel bags hang overhead (NAVOCEANO) 



443 






() Jacques Piccard and Abersold with a hollow glass sphere filled with biological samples and locl<ed out of the vehicle for retrieval by the support ship. (NAVOCEANO) 



presented in Figure 9.19. A list of the atmos- 
pheric monitoring and instruments and their 
application is shown in Table 9.7, and the 
interior layout of the vehicle is in Figure 
9.20. 



Carbon Dioxide Removal 

Carbon dioxide removal was performed 
without electric power by absorption on 
LiOH panels strategically located through- 
out the vehicle. Diffusive and natural con- 
vection currents circulated the atmosphere 
through the panels. Three portable blowers 
were included as part of the system to be 
used to aid in circulation during those pe- 
riods in which natural convection was not 
adequate. 

Once the vessel was sealed, carbon dioxide 
readings were taken every 4 hours with a 



Dwyer Analyzer. This instrument failed and 
a Fyrite Analyzer and a CO2 Drager tube 
were used instead. 

Oxygen Supply and Regulation 

Oxygen was stored as a cryogenic liquid in 
two standard Linde LC-3GL cylinders, each 
holding up to 250 pounds. Operation of the 
system required that oxygen consumption be 
greater than normal oxygen boiloff to pre- 
vent a hazardous buildup in oxygen partial 
pressure. Normal boiloff is approximately 
3.75 pounds/tank/day. 

Temperature Control 

Because of moderate Gulfstream tempera- 
tures (average water temperature 59°F), 
temperature control for the mission was pas- 
sive. Using the sea as a heat sink, bare 
sections of the hull's interior surface con- 
ducted heat out of the vessel. Internal tem- 



444 



TABLE 9.7 ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS [FROM REF.(16)] 



Item 



Reading 



Freq 



Instrument 



Operation 



Power 
Watts 



Oxygen 

Carbon Dioxide 
Pressure 
Temperature 

Internal 

External 
Relative Humidity 
Trace Contaminants 

"Metabolic 

"Other 
Oxygen 
Nitrogen 
Carbon Dioxide 
Carbon Monoxide 
Methane 

Hydrogen Sulfide 
Hydrogen 



Percent 
Percent 
Atmosphere 

"Fahrenheit 
"Centigrade 
Percent 

*PPM 
*PPM 



»PPM 



2 hrs Teledyne Oi Sensor 

4 hrs Fyrite CO2 Analyzer 

4 hrs Pressure Gage 

4 hrs AbeonGage 

4 hrs Trub, Tauber, Cie Gage 

4 hrs AbeonGage 

24 hrs Drager Gas Detector Tubes 

1 wk Drager Gas Detector Tubes 



72 hrs 



UNICOPGCSeries/O Gas Chromatograph 



Continuous 





Manual 





Continuous 






Continuous 





Continuous 





Continuous 






Manual 
Manual 



Manual 



200(1 hr) 



•Parts per million 



peratures during the mission were shown in 
Figure 9.9, and the effectiveness of the tem- 
perature control method has been discussed. 

Humidity Control 

Humidity control was accomplished pas- 
sively by allowing moisture to condense on 
the bare sections of the hull's interior. As the 
moisture was condensed on the hull it ran 
into a catch trough which carried it into the 
waste water storage tank. A small dehumidi- 
fier was available but was not used. A 3,600- 
pound supply of silica gel in 5-pound bags 



served to absorb moisture. The results of this 
method were also discussed and graphed on 
Figure 9.9. 

Atmospheric Pressure 

Under normal operating conditions, the in- 
ternal pressure of BEN FRANKLIN varied 
from a low of 13.5 psia to a high of 16 psia. 
These changes can be expected when the sea 
level temperature varies greatly from vehi- 
cle interior temperature. Slight pressure 
changes of 10 to 25 mmHg can be incurred by 
normal variations in Oj CO2, and HjO partial 



445 



AFT HATCH 




COCKPIT 




SHOWER 



OBSERVATION AREA 
AND MESS 



Fig. 9.20 Interior layout of BEN FRANKLIN. [From Ref. (16)1 



pressure. Pressure was indicated by a heli- 
coid compound pressure gage. 

Contaminant Removal 

Contaminant removal was accomplished in 
the following manner: 

— Continuous passive removal of contami- 
nants by LiOH and activated charcoal, 
both of which are provided in the CO2 
removal panels. 

— Intermittent active removal of contami- 
nants by the odor removal (Purafil) car- 
tridge in the toilet. 



— Periodic active removal by the portable 

contaminant removal system (operated 

as needed) containing Kalite, Hopcalite 

and Acamite cannisters. 

Contaminants removed by each of the above 

are the following: 

— LiOH — In addition to its primary func- 
tion of removing CO2, LiOH also removed 
acid fumes such as hydrochloric acid and 
hydrogen sulfide. 

— Activated charcoal — A small quantity of 
activated charcoal was provided along 
with the LiOH in the CO2 scrubbing 



446 



panel and in each of the portable con- 
taminant removal system cannisters. It 
absorbed organic vapors, odors and am- 
monia. 

— Purafil — This material is pelletized acti- 
vated alumina impregnated with potas- 
sium permanganate. Purafil removed 
odors, organic vapors, organic acids, 
phenols, sulfides, and nitrogen oxides. 

— Hopcalite — A catalyst with the primary 
function of oxidizing carbon monoxide to 
carbon dioxide (also handled aldehydes, 
alcohols, etc.). 

— Acamite — Absorbed alkaline fumes (NHg) 
and also acted as a drier. 

— Kalite — Absorbed acid fumes (HCl, HjS, 
etc.). 

Waste Management System 

The waste management system chemically 
treated and stored metabolic wastes onboard 
the vessel. As the toilet flushed, germicide 
was automatically metered into the exit 
stream. The wastes then entered a macera- 
tor where they were simultaneously pulver- 
ized and thoroughly mixed with the germi- 
cide. The treated wastes were held in the 
macerator between toilet uses. It was during 
this period that biological organisms were 
inactivated. Wastes were then pumped from 
the macerator into the waste storage tank 
where they remained. 

Toilet odors were handled by a blower 
which drew air through a cannister filled 
with Purafil. Storage tank odors were han- 
dled by a vent line that fed into the odor 
removal cannister. Two waste tanks were 
installed — a "mini waste" tank and a "waste 
storage" tank. The mini waste tank collected 
water from the three sinks and shower. This 
tank stowed the water for use in flushing the 
toilet. 



Contaminant Detection 

Trace contaminant detection was accom- 
plished with Drager type gas detector tubes, 
a method requiring no power. Forty different 
tubes, many of which detect more than one 
contaminant, were available. Measurements 
were made by breaking the tops off of the 
tubes and inserting the tubes into a hand 
operated bellows pump. 



Atmosphere Exchange System 

The function of the atmosphere exchange 
system was to purge the vehicle's atmos- 
phere and replenish it with fresh air. The 
system consisted of a portable blower at- 
tached to approximately 30 feet of flexible 
ducting. The system was to be used when: 
— Smoke due to a fire or insulation break- 
down filled the vehicle. 
— The carbon dioxide level reached 3.0 per- 
cent. 
— The oxygen partial pressure reached a 

hazardous level. 
— A trace contaminant level built up and 
could not be removed by the contami- 
nant removal system. 

Potable Water System 

The potable water supply consisted of both 
hot and cold water (Fig. 9.21). The cold water 
was stored in four saddle tanks each of which 
held approximately 95 gallons and the hot 
water was stored in four super insulated 
tanks each of which held 50 gallons. The 
tanks were initially filled with cold fresh 
water from dockside. Two inline filters re- 
moved gross particles and bacteria. A second 
bacterial filtering was performed as water 
was drawn from the cold water tanks by 
another filter on the cold water discharge 
line. Hot water was prepared by using the 
electric immersion heaters in the insulated 
tanks. 

Food 

The food supply on BEN FRANKLIN con- 
sisted of commercially obtained freeze-dried 
meals, the preparation of which entailed 
mixing with water. Five different menus for 




I^ a 



COLO WATER RESERVE 



HOT WATER 



w 



W 



o- 



-a 



X 



6 




3 C 



0< 



# BACTERIAL FILTER 




5 



GALLE 



SHOWER 

Fig. 9.21 Water management system on BEN FRANKLIN. |From Ref. (16)] 



447 



breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks were 
provided. A sample for each is shown below. 



The results of BEN FRANKLIN's life sup- 
port system, as mentioned, are thoroughly 
and exhaustively discussed in reference (16), 
and the reader is referred to these analyses 
for detailed information. Therefore, only 
highlights of the various life support fea- 
tures follow. 

A plot of oxygen level, carbon dioxide and 
cabin pressure throughout the mission (Fig. 
9.22) shows that the oxygen level remained 
between 19.5 and 22 percent. All adjustments 
were made manually with the flowmeter. 
The automatic control, originally part of the 
system, was disconnected to eliminate the 
need for an inverter and thus conserve elec- 
trical energy. 

The carbon dioxide level was maintained 
between 0.4 and 1.5 percent. The anticipated 
buildup rate scheduled that the LiOH panels 
be changed every 2.5 days; but, the actual 



need was closer to every 3 days. Subsequent 
analysis yielded a carbon dioxide generation 
rate of approximately 1.7 pounds per man 
day. 

Atmospheric pressure ranged between a 
low of 1.01 atmospheres at the start of the 
mission to a high of 1.12 atmospheres. The 
highs occurred twice, once when the boat 
surfaced and was under tow, and again at 
the end of the mission. After the first day, a 
slight air leak in the pressure regulator from 
the variable ballast tanks was detected and 
corrected. Cabin pressure then increased to 
1.025 atmospheres. Subsequent variations 
were due to temperature changes which cor- 
relate with ambient temperature at various 
depths. 

Temperature and humidity variations 
have been discussed. It is significant that 
the data evaluators recommended insulation 
and heaters for cold water work. 

Throughout the mission, contaminants 
were checked on a daily and a weekly basis. 
After some 5 days, carbon monoxide started 



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MISSION DURATION, DAYS 



Fig. 9.22 Log of air pressure, COj and O2 inside BEN FRANKLIN. [From Ref. (16)] 

448 



to show up (8 ppm). The carbon monoxide 
level continued to rise and when it reached 
20 ppm the active contaminant removal sys- 
tem was operated, but with no effect. The 
level continued to build up and by mission 
end it was 40 ppm. The carbon monoxide 
level projected for the 6-man, 30-day mission 
was approximately 34 ppm. In the first full 
contaminant check (Day 8) a trace (0.2 ppm) 
of ammonia and 200 ppm of acetone were 
detected. Periodic rechecking of these two 
items throughout the mission showed little 
change. 

Cold water was used primarily for personal 
hygiene and for washing dishes (1 gal/day). 
Very little cold water was consumed in drink 
or food preparation primarily due to the cool 
temperature of the vessel and the repugnant 
taste of the iodine-treated water. In fact, 
cold water consumption was so low that it 
was necessary to run it periodically just to 
keep the mini waste tank from going dry. 

The mission was started with two of the 
four hot water tanks not working properly, 
in that the vacuum had been lost, and the 
tanks cooled rapidly. Water was drawn from 
one of the defective tanks on the first day, 
after which it was necessary to switch to the 
two good tanks. Approximately 20 to 22 days 
later the hot water was depleted and it was 
necessary to reheat water for food prepara- 
tion. 

Acceptance of the food by the crew was 
varied. Many items were not enjoyed be- 
cause the water was not hot enough to pre- 
pare the food properly. A few of the items 
were totally rejected on the basis of flavor or 
consistency (biscuits, milk shakes, chocolate 
bars). The overall consumption by the crew 
was less than planned (about 2,300 calories 
per day) and four of the six crew members 
lost an average of 11 pounds each, while two 
showed no change. Of the four who lost 
weight, one used the mission as an opportu- 
nity to diet and two others drew heavily from 
their personal cache of dried fruit and nuts, 
using the freeze-dried foods for dinner only. 

The 30-day drift of BEN FRANKLIN pro- 
vides the only data available for long-term 
life support in a contemporary submersible. 
While this submersible's life support system 
may not be the ultimate, it did provide all 
requirements for the crew who emerged in 



good health and good spirits. For this reason 
one might consider utilizing various life 
support features of BEN FRANKLIN in pres- 
ent or future vehicles. 

HABIiABILITY 

Mr. Wesley Blair of Lockheed Corporation 
presented a comparison of the space availa- 
ble (free volume) per occupant in several 
submersibles versus the space available in a 
variety of other familiar human habitations 
(18). Blair's comparison is reprinted in Fig- 
ure 9.23 and shows, for example, that a com- 
mercial coffin offers more free volume than 
the bathyscaph TRIESTE; the other sub- 
mersibles in this figure barely exceed the 
coffin's volume. 

Of the small contemporary vehicles, Texas 
A&M's PC-14 is more or less representative 
of volume available, and a glance at the 
observer's position in Figure 9.24 reveals 
that space is at a premium. Shifting our 
attention to the interior of PCS (Fig. 9.25), 
which is similar in diameter to PC-1 4 , a wide 
variety of hard, sharp projections are seen 
from which the occupants will undoubtedly 
receive several whacks, bumps, pricks and 
jolts before the dive is over. The Perry vehi- 
cles are not unique, however, in their poten- 
tial for discomfort, for all small submersibles 
offer similar jarring possibilities. 

Rather surprising is the fact that even the 
large vehicles offer little in the way of hu- 
man comfort. BEN FRANKLIN , for example, 
had a metal escape trunk in the stern that 
projected some 2 to 3 feet down into the 
pressure hull when in a stored condition. The 
hard, unforgiving nature of the trunk's rim 
was sorely researched and evaluated on the 
head and shoulders of the occupants until 
relief, in part, arrived in the form of foam 
rubber padding. 

In the very small vehicles, such as TECH- 
DIVER (PC-3B), head-bumping, knee-crack- 
ing and shoulder-whacking are much re- 
duced, because the internal volume is so 
small that the occupants are forced to sit 
still until the need to stretch becomes almost 
unbearable. 

The point being made, unfortunately, is 
that manned submersibles are not designed 
for comfort, and the smaller the vehicle, the 



449 



1000 



100 



o 
> 

lU 
UJ 

cc 



10 



STAR III 
• • 

ALVIN • 

DSRV 



TRIESTE 

I 



NAVY RECOMMENDATION FOR SHIPS •- 
FEDERAL PRISON CELL^_ 



VOSTOK 



MERCURY 
• GEMINI IV 

• • 

DEEP GEMINI V 

OUEST 



I I I I I I I 



NUCLEAR SUBMARINE 



APOLLO 



• GEMINI VII 



COMMERCIAL COFFIN*- 



J I I I I 



1 10 

DURATION - DAYS 



100 



Fig. 9.23 Comparison of operator free volume in various manned systems. [From Ref. (18)] 



more this fact becomes apparent. While most 
designers take great pains to sustain life, 
they have made few attempts, beyond pro- 
viding foam rubber cushions, to make life 
comfortable. 

Such considerations may seem trivial in 
view of the fact that the dive may last only 
for several hours. But, several hours may 
seem interminable when one is required to 
spend them in a position such as the ob- 
server is required to maintain in ASHERAH 
(Fig. 9.26). It is not difficult to imagine that 
the human's ability to endure this position 
will expire far more rapidly than will the 
electrical or life support endurance. The ad- 
vent of the acrylic plastic hull and bow dome 
has gone far to alleviate the problem, but 
there is still much room for improvement. 



The most reasonable approach to human 
factors design is through the use of mockups 
of the pressure hull and its equipment. With 
mockups the operator and observer can 
physically test the vehicle to determine its 
comfort and the accessibility of instruments 
and controls. One approach is in Figure 9.27, 
wherein the endostructure of STAR III is 
shown with seats and a portion of the moni- 
toring panel. This endostructure was de- 
signed to be dismantled and later reassem- 
bled within the pres